FAQ in the category of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

1 Is Abu Jahl the paternal uncle of the Prophet (pbuh)?

Abu Jahl is not the paternal uncle of the Prophet (pbuh). Abu Lahab is his paternal uncle.

Abu Jahl was the most ferocious enemy of the Prophet (pbuh) in the first period of Islam and one of the notables of Quraysh.

His real name was Amr b. Hisham al-Mughira; at first, he was known as Abu'l-Hakam, but the Muslims called him "Abu Jahl" (the father of ignorance). He belonged to Sons of Mahzum clan of the tribe of Quraysh in Makkah. He had a great prestige among Makkans. 

Abu Jahl, who was about the same age as the Prophet (pbuh), opposed Islam beginning from the first days, acted in a hostile manner against the Prophet and especially weak Muslims, and harassed and tortured them. Ammar b. Yasir's mother, Sumayya, who was one of the first two martyrs of Islam, was killed by Abu Jahl brutally.

Abu Jahl, who always had a leading role in the activities against Islam throughout his life, observed and followed the application of the boycott against Muslims very carefully and opposed lifting the boycott. He made an offer to kill the Prophet by a group of attackers formed by choosing one member from each clan in a negotiation made in Dar an-Nadwa a little while before the migration of the Prophet (pbuh) to Madinah.    

Abu Jahl, who showed his hostility against Islam on any occasion even after the Muslims left their houses, wealth and land for the sake of their religion and migrated to Madinah, caused the Battle of Badr to occur. Abu Jahl left Makkah with a big army in order to prevent a caravan belonging to Quraysh led by Abu Sufyan; he learned on the way that the caravan was safe and headed for Makkah but he continued marching in order to fight the Muslims just because of his enmity against Islam. When he arrived at Badr, he rejected the offer of the Prophet (pbuh) to make peace; he also opposed the view of some notables in his army who wanted to prevent fighting; he accused them of cowardice and started the war.

However, during the fights, Abu Jahl, was wounded heavily by two Muslims of Madinah and fell down; his head was cut off by Abdullah b. Mas'ud, the famous Companion. His head was taken to the Prophet and his dead body was thrown into the well where the dead bodies of the polytheists were thrown into at Badr.

Thus, Abu Jahl, who was regarded as "the Pharaoh of this ummah", paid a heavy price for his ferocious, unjust and inhuman enmity against the people who said, "My Lord is Allah", Islam and the creed of oneness.

2 How was the attitude of the Prophet toward Hz. Aisha related to the incident of Ifk?

The Prophet (pbuh) was also a human being. He also felt sorry and happy due to the incidents that happened. As a matter of fact, when his son Hz. Ibrahim died, he cried next to his grave.

The Incident of Ifk is an ugly slander against Hz. Aisha. It cannot be thought that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was not affected by it.

It is clear that the Prophet did not apply any pressure on Hz. Aisha. As a matter of fact, Hz. Aisha heard the incident from others after a while.

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) knew that his wife, Hz. Aisha, was free from such an accusation. However, the spread of such a treacherous and sly planned slander distressed him a lot. This caused him to change his attitude toward Hz. Aisha willy nilly. As a matter of fact, he expressed it clearly in the sermon he delivered in the mosque:

"O Muslims! Who will help me against a person who distressed me with the slander against my wife? In fact, I only know good things about my wife. The slanderers mentioned the name of a person about him I only know good things." (Sirah, III/312; Muslim, VIII/115i Tirmidhi, V/332)

Please click on the link given below;

Will you please give information about the incident of Ifk?

3 Why are prophets and divine books not sent anymore? Why is the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) the last prophet?

Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) brought the religion of Islam, which is the last heavenly religion, whose decree will be valid until the Day of Judgment and whose call addresses the whole humanity; there will be no religion and shari'ah after it; therefore, he is the last prophet. No messengers and prophets will come after him. As it is known, everything has a beginning and an end in this realm. The institution of prophethood started with Hz. Adam and ended with Hz. Muhammad (pbuh), the Seal of the Prophets.  

God Almighty gave Hz. Muhammad, who is the perfect prophet, the perfect heavenly book and perfected the institution of prophethood with the Seal of the Prophets. No prophets will come until the Day of Judgment.   

It is stated in the chapter of al-Ahzab that Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) is the Seal of the Prophets as follows: 

“Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things.“

With the prophethood of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh), humanity reached the utmost point in terms of religion. Humanity must not wait for any other prophets and must follow the light of Muhammad. Allah knows everything very well. He knows and hears everything. Therefore, he orders these decrees. (Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır, Hak Dini Kur'an Dili Tefsiri)

4 Some people object to putting the name Muhammad next to the name Allah. Is it objectionable?

In this mischievous end of time, when people are destroyed spiritually due to disobedience to Allah, some strange people who do not know what or whom they serve criticize putting the blessed name of the Messenger of Allah next to the name of Allah as if they have settled all kind of problems. They even go beyond the limits and say it is shirk (associating partners with Allah).

Since oneness (tawhid) is mentioned, let us put the phrase “la ilaha illa” before Allah and “Rasulullah” after Muhammad, we will see kalima at-tawhid. It is not at all reasonable for those who mention tawhid to oppose something that remind kalima at-tawhid.

Another issue is as follows: When we look at the skies and the earth, we say “Rabbus samawati wal ard (the Lord of the skies and the earth)”. If you put a picture of the sky and the earth on the wall of your house facing the qiblah in order to remember this lofty meaning, will you be regarded to have worshipped the sky and the earth when you perform prayers? Since this is not true, should we not think similarly about the signs on which the name of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), the four caliphs, and some distinguished Companions are written and which are hung on the walls of mosques?

Instead of keeping your mind busy with insignificant dreams, will it not be more beneficial for you to utter salawat when you see the name of the Prophet? Will it not be better if you remember the Companions and the distinguished ones among them, who formed the first ranks of Islam and who have a great share in our belief and pray for them and if you feel enthusiasm to follow them? When you start to perform a prayer, the places to look at are certain. What is written on the walls should not attract your attention.

Author

Alaaddin Başar (Prof.Dr.)

5 Are there any signs for the PROPHET MUHAMMAD (PBUH) in old books?

Although the holy books except the Quran were sometimes distorted by men, there is a big similarity between the names and characteristics of our Prophet (pbuh) in various versions of those books.  

The Quran informs us that Allah Almighty sent apostles and prophets from time to time and sent down laws, commands or books to them. Based on that statement, the Quran mentions the pages of Hazrat Ibrahim (Abraham), the Torah sent to Hazrat Musa (Moses), the Psalms sent to Hazrat Dawud (David) and the Gospel sent to Hazrat Eesa (Jesus).  The term “zuhurul-awwalin” (the books of the previous people) may have referred to some books of Zoroastrians or Brahmans.

The signs in the ancient holy texts of Iran:

The religion of Iran is the oldest religion of the world after the religion of Hindu. Their holy texts were available in two sources called dasatir and zend-avesta. In Dasatir No 14, some principles belonging to the religion of Islam were mentioned and the following sentences heralding the advent of our Prophet (pbuh) exist:

“When the level of ethics of the Iranians lower, a light will emerge in Arabia.His followers will exalt his throne, religion and everything. There was a building (it indicates the Kaaba) that had been constructed and there were a lot of idols to be eliminated in it. People will turn towards it and worship. His followers will conquer the cities of Iran, Taus and Balh and many wise people of Iran will join his followers.”

As it is clearly understood from the sentences above, the sun of Islam that will rise after centuries and its Prophet are described very clearly. It is written that the Prophet (pbuh) having the titles of “praised a lot”, “Ahmad (praised)” and “mercy to the worlds” will eliminate the idols.

In Part 129 of Yasht 3, one of the parts of that book which still exists today, the same truths are expressed again and the person to eliminate the idols is mentioned as mercy for everybody and the worlds. As it is known, one of the names of our Prophet is mercy to the worlds”.

The signs in the holy Hindu texts:

In Hindu holy texts like Paru 8, Khand 8, Adhya 8 ve Shalok 5-8, our Prophet (pbuh) is mentioned as follows:

A spiritual educator who is a mellacha (someone who speaks a foreign language or a member of a foreign country) will come with his friends; his name will be Muhammad. After his advent, the rajah will bathe in the rivers of Punjab and Ganges. He tells him: O you! The source of pride of human beings, the inhabitant of the Arab land. You brought together a great force to kill the devil.(Prof. Dr. Muhammed Hamidullah, Kuran-ı Kerim Tefsiri)

It is very remarkable that the name of our Prophet (pbuh) is mentioned exactly in the statement above. The phrase “the source of pride of human beings” means the same as the name of our Prophet, “the source of pride of the world”.

Buddha (Gautama Buddha) mentions a person who will honor the world after his death. That affectionate and kind-hearted person whose name is “matteya” in the Pali language, “maitreya” in Sanskrit and “armidia” in Burmese will call people to the right path.  In that news that Buddha gave a long time ago, those names mean “mercy”. As it is known, in the 107th verse of al-Anbiya, the following is stated:

And We have not sent you but as a mercy to the worlds.

In one of those texts, the following is stated:

“Buddha said, “I am not the first Buddha (guide) that came to the world and I will not be the last. Another person will come to the world some time later. He is a holy and enlightened person with an extraordinary administrative ability. He will teach you the same eternal truths that I have taught you.” Ananda asked: “How will he be known?” Buddha answered: “He will be known as maitreya (mercy).”

In Pali and Sanskrit texts, the name of the exalted person that will come in the future is given as Maho, Maha and Metta. The first two names mean “exalted enlightener” and the last one means “kind, helpful”. Both of them are the attributes of our Prophet. Besides, it will be seen clearly that the names of Mohamet and Mahamet that are mentioned in some other holy texts are formed from the words maha and metta.

We will go on with the Torah, the Gospel and the Psalms now. The most detailed research regarding the issue belongs to Husayn Jisri. The  Syrian scholar, whose parents are Shiite, found 114 signs about our Prophet (pbuh) from those holy books and published them in his book called, Risala al-Hamidiyya, which was also translated into Turkish.

Even in the Torah, which is the most distorted text among the previous holy texts, the following signs regarding our Prophet (pbuh) exist:

He saw two riders, one on a donkey, and the other on a camel. He listened carefully.(Ishaya xxı, 7)

Here, the first one of the two riders that the Prophet Ishaya was informed about was Hazrat Eesa (Jesus) because he went to Jerusalem on a donkey. It is clear that what is meant by the person on the camel is our Prophet (pbuh).Our Prophet was on a camel when he entered Madinah.  

By the way, we should state that the words faraklit or paraklit (paracletus) have been maintained in the translations of the Gospel but in the latest translation they have been changed to “muazzi” (comforter) in Arabic translations.  

In the pages of Hazrat Shuayb (Jethro) the name of our Prophet is mentioned as mushaffah, which exactly means “Muhammad”.The equivalent of the word munhamannain the Torah is Muhammad too (as it is known, Muhammad meansa person who has been praised repeatedly). In addition, the name of our Prophet is mostly used as “Ahyad”in the Torah and Ahmadin the Gospel.

We end the issue with a hadith:

My name is Muhammad in the Quran, Ahmad in the Gospel and Ahyad in the Torah.

(see Muhammad in World Scriptures, A. H. Vidyarthi; Translated into Turkish by Kemal Karataş, İnsan Publications; İstanbul, 1997)

6 Is it a bid’ah (something which is entered into religion afterwards) to celebrate the birthday of our Prophet, Mawlid Qandil (the Eid Milad an-Nabi)? If it is not, how should we evaluate it? Is there a kind of prayer exclusive to Eid Milad an-Nabi?

Imam Suyuti said the following on the issue in summary:

“It is a nice bid’ah (innovation) for people to get together for the birthday of the Prophet (pbuh) and to read the Quran, to cite epic poems about his birth and to organize feasts for this reason; because there is a great revering, respect and happiness for his honored birth in this kind of gatherings. And it makes one earn one lots of thawabs.” (see: Suyuti, al-Hawi li’l fatawi, 1/272-shamila).

The word "Mawlid" includes the meaning “birth”. Qandil means "light which is lit in specific days." When these two words are juxtaposed to form “Mawlid Qandil”, what comes to mind is "lampions that are lit on the minarets of mosques at the night of the Prophet’s birthday." Muslims celebrate the night which corresponds to the twelfth night of the month of Rabiu’l-awwal with religious ceremonies and pay attention to do it in a different peace and joy. With this aim, people fill the mosques which are ornamented with lampions…

Muslims contemplate this night both for themselves and for their children. When they contemplate it for themselves, they remember prayers, helping the people in the neighborhood and other sorts of charities, and a different feeling of help evokes in them. And on behalf of their children, they become very careful. They resort to options which will enable them to remember this night as a good memory in their minds. For this reason, they buy things that their children will like and make nice conversations/speeches which they will enjoy, so they assure that this night will remain as a sweet memory in their minds.

The first Mawlid ceremony in the Islamic world was organized by Fatimids who ruled Egypt between the years of 910-1171. Those ceremonies were organized in the palace and only statesmen could attend them. Fatimids used to organize mawlid ceremonies also for the birthdays of Hazrat Ali and Fatima.

The first mawlid ceremony in Sunni muslims was organized by Malik Muzafferuddin Gökbörü, who was the brother-in-law of Salahaddin Ayyubi and the chief of Arbil, in Hijri year of 604. Those ceremonies which were organized with long-term preparations were attended by all people. Muzaffaruddin invited Islamic jurisprudents, Sufis, preachers and other scholars from the neighboring regions to Arbil and the ceremonies were gorgeous.

Later, mawlid ceremonies started to be organized in Makkah with some changes. Following Makkah and Madinah, mawlid ceremonies started to be organized everywhere in the Islamic geography with differences and it has continued up to now.

Mawlid was made official for the first time by Murat III in Ottomans in the year of 1588. Ceremonies were organized in the palace in accordance with protocol rules, and previously in Ayasofya (Hagia Sophia) Mosque and later in Sultan Ahmed Mosque and both statesmen and ordinary people attended those ceremonies.

In those ceremonies, muazzins read some Quran first, and following it, preachers preached. Later, a mawlidhan (one who reads epic poems about the Prophet’s birth in ceremonies) came to the lectern and after reading a part from the poem, he came down and received his gift, and then went back to lectern and continued reading. Then the mawlid ceremony ended within the framework of precise rules. (Asim Koksal, Islam Tarihi)

What is the status of Mawlid in our religion?

Being an Islamic tradition invented about 3-4 years after the birth of the Prophet (pbuh), Mawlid is amongst the good innovations. Ibn Hajar, who is an eminent scholar of hadith and Islamic law, narrates the following hadith about the lawfulness of mawlid ceremony:

According to the narration of Ibn Abbas, when the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) migrated to Madinah, he saw that the Jews fasted on the day of Ashura. When he asked them the reason why they fasted, Jews replied:

“This is a great day. Allah saved the people of Moses on this day. He drowned Pharaoh and his people in the sea. And Moses fasted as a thanksgiving for it. For this reason, we fast today.”

Upon this, our Prophet said: “We are closer and more beloved to Moses than you”. From that day on, he fasted and also advised people to fast that day.” (Muslim, Siyam, 127).

Ibni Hajar says the following on the issue:

“As it is comprehended from that hadith, it is very appropriate to give thanks to Allah, on this day, at the night of mawlid. However, it is necessary to pay attention to introduce mawlid ceremony on the right time, that is, the birthday of the Prophet.” (al-Hawi fi’l Fatawa , 1/190).

There are mawlids (epic poems about the Prophet) in various languages that are recited in order to commemorate the birth of the Prophet and to send compliments to him, in Islamic countries today. Poems such as “Banad Suad, Burdah and Hamziyya” in Arabic language are mawlids. And in Turkish, there are mawlids more than twenty. However, the most preferred and most cited one of them is the book of mawlid named “Vasilatu’n Najat” written by late Suleyman Çelebi in 1409. Mawlid ceremonies, which were organized only on the birthday of the Prophet in earlier times, were repeated later in all holy nights, they have especially become more widespread in our country day by day and started to be read for several reasons such as death, disease and many more. Although some scholars opposed to mawlid, considering it an innovation, Badiuzzaman adjusted the matter to our day, as we have stated above, as follows:

“The recitation of the Prophet’s ‘Mawlid’ and its section about his Ascension is a most beneficial and fine custom and admirable Islamic practice. It is a pleasant, shining, and agreeable means of fellowship in Islamic social life; gratifying and pleasurable instruction in the truths of belief; and an effective and stimulating way of demonstrating and encouraging the lights of belief and love of God and love for the Prophet.” (Nursi, The Letters, p. 281-285).

- How should we spend holy nights?

There are some important means of deserving forgiveness and intercession, earning thawabs, advancing in religion, being safe from troubles and problems and gaining Allah’s content, which can be –and necessary to be- applied in holy nights. It will be useful to remember some of them in short and with the list below in general:

1. One should read the Quran and listen to the ones who read. There should be Quran-citing invitations held in appropriate places. The feelings of love, respect and loyalty for the words of Allah, i.e. the Quran should be renewed and strengthened.

2. One should send compliments (salawat) to the Prophet and renew his/her awareness of being one of his followers, and hope for his intercession.

3. One should perform qada and nafilah (supererogatory) prayers. If there are prayers exclusive to that night, they can be performed as well. Holy nights should be spent with prayers and with consciousness of kindness in prayers, in accordance with their essence.

4. One should meditate; “Who am I? Where did I come from? Where am I going to? What does Allah expect from me?” are the main issues which one should contemplate, besides other important matters.

5. One should make an account and revision of her/his past and outline the plan and program of the present and the future.

6. One should repent her/his sins sincerely and should regret and turn to the Lord, considering that night as the last chance.

7. One should perform invocations (dhikr) and supplications to Allah.

8. Believers should make amends with and forgive each other, and assure their content with others.

9. Resentful and offended people should be reconciled; people should be pleased, and sorrowful faces should be given a smile.

10. One should pray for the good of himself and for other Muslim brothers and sisters mentioning their names.

11. One should ask the news of those who have got rights over himself and the necessities of moral quality of fidelity and gratefulness should be fulfilled.

12. One should visit the poor, orphans, the sick and the elderly people and please them with love, compassion, respect, gifts and charity.

13. Verses, hadiths about that night and comments of them should be read from the books about them individually or in groups.

14. Religious meetings, panels and conversations should be organized, ;advices of preachers should be listened; poems should be recited and a different feeling should be evoked in hearts with religious songs and hymns.

15. Prayers of maghrib, isha’a and fajr should be performed in groups in mosques, at holy nights.

16. Tombs of the Companions, scholars and saints should be visited and they should be pleased, and supplications should be made to Allah in the spiritual atmosphere of their tombs.

17. One should visit their dead relatives’, friends’ and ancestors’ graves, which is a requirement of faith brotherhood.

18. One should wish their elderly people, masters, parents, friends and other acquaintances blessed holy nights, by visiting them in person or by phoning, faxing and e-mailing to them.

19. If possible, one should fast the day before the holy nights.

There is not an exclusive way of praying for holy nights. Holy nights can be spent with prayers (salat), reading the Quran, supplications and other kinds of worship… Some special prayers performed at holy nights are not present in sunnah; and they are not based on a notable narration either. Nevertheless, it does not mean that “it is makrooh to perform prayers at those nights”. There are many narrations encouraging tahajjud and nafilah prayers. Of course, it is more virtuous to perform them at holy nights.” (Canan, Kutub-u Sitte, 3/289).

Moreover, it is unobjectionable to perform prayers which are said to be exclusive to holy nights additionally; it makes one earn thawabs.

7 Will you give information about the troubles the Prophet (pbuh) put up with for his belief?

Prophets underwent the biggest troubles and misfortunes in the universe. However, they showed the greatest patience toward these troubles and misfortunes. All believers know what happened to Hz. Nuh, Hz. Lut, Hz. Musa, Hz. Isa, Hz. Yahya and Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) to a certain extent. However, these troubles and misfortunes could not prevent them from conveying their message and informing people; on the contrary, they continued to inform people about Allah and His command by acting patiently and perseveringly.    

The general aim and duty of prophets is stated as follows in the Quran:

"(It is the practice of those) who preach the Messages of Allah, and fear Him, and fear none but Allah: and enough is Allah to call (men) to account." (al-Ahzab, 33/39)

After undertaking this lofty duty, the Messenger of Allah spent his life conveying people the religion of Allah. He went from house to house looking for receptive people to whom he could convey the message.

The attitude of the polytheists was in the form of indifferenceand boycott first. After that, it continued with derision and mocking. In the last phase, they resorted to all kinds of torture. They placed thorns on the way he would walk; they put an animal tripe on his head while he was performing a prayer; they insulted him in various ways. However, the Messenger of Allah did not quail or give up. For, this was his purpose of creation. He visited everybody, including his ferocious enemies, to convey the message. He informed them about the religion of Islam. He visited the enemies of the religion and belief like Abu Jahl and Abu Lahab so many times and informed them about God and the truth. He went to fairs and visited the tents there so as to be a means of guidance for a person; he was rejected so many times but he insisted on visiting them.

When Makkah gave him no more hope, he went to Taif.Taif is a place of recreation. The people of Taif, who were spoiled by comfort and relaxation, turned out to be more ferocious. A mob of people threw stones at the Messenger of Allah, whose face even the angels avoided staring, and expelled him from Taif. Zayd b. Haritha, whom the Messenger of Allah had adopted as his son, was together with him and tried to protect the Messenger of Allah by using his body as a shield. However, some stones hit the Messenger of Allah and his body was in blood.

When, they got rid of this intolerant atmosphere and took refuge under a tree, Hz. Jibril appeared. He said he could make the mountain around Taif fall on those people if the Messenger of Allah allowed. He said "no” to this offer though he was hurt a lot. He said "no" to the misfortune that would hit them in case some of them would believe in the future.

Then, he opened his hands and prayed to his Lord as follows:

"O Allah, unto You I complain of my frailty, lack of resources and significance before those people. O Most Merciful of the merciful, You are the Lord of the oppressed and are my Lord. To whom do You abandon me? To that stranger who looks askance and grimaces at me? Or to that enemy to whom You have given mastery over me? If Your indignation is not directed at me, I have no worry. But Your grace is much greater for me to wish for. I seek refuge in the light of Your Countenance, which illumines all darkness and by which the affairs of this life and the Hereafter have been rightly ordered, lest Your wrath alight upon me, or Your indignation descend upon me. I expect Your forgiveness until You are pleased. There is no resource or power but in You."

While he was praying like that, somebody approached them silently and gave the Messenger of Allah and Zayd a bunch of grapes on a plate. He said, "Please help yourselves!" When the Messenger of Allah reached his hand to the plate, he said, "Bismillah" (in the name of Allah). This was something unexpected for Addas, the slave who gave them the grapes. He asked in surprise, "Who are you?" The Messenger of Allah answered, "I am the last Prophet and the last Messenger." Addas leaned on him and started to kiss him. He found unexpectedly the person for whom he had been looking for years; he believed immediately. (Ibn Hisham, Sirah, 2:60-63; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya, 3:166).

Western authors write as follows: "Muhammad (pbuh) was a prophet in Makkah but he became a king after he went to Madinah." However, the reality is as follows: The Prophet kept away from worldly boons and remained hungry after he dominated all Arabs; he did not act like a king though he had all kinds of opportunities; he did not have any worldly possessions. The following narration exists in the chapter of Jihad in Sahihi Bukhari:

When Hz. Prophet was about to die, his armor was mortgaged to a Jew for three units of barley. When he died, the clothes he was wearing were patched. He lived at such a time and had so many opportunities that normal states could not have them. All Arabia, from Syria to Adan, was conquered. The market of Madinah was full of gold and silver.  

One of the duties of the Prophet (pbuh) was to eliminate monasticism (abandoning all of the worldly boons and the worldly affairs, by devoting oneself to Allah only. Allah stated the following in the Quran

"…But the Monasticism which they invented for themselves..." (al-Hadid, 57/27)

and criticized the Christians. Therefore, the Prophet ate nice food and put on nice clothes from time to time. However, his real spiritual structure was to keep away from the ornaments of the world. The Messenger of Allah always stated the following:

"Man does not need anything except the following three things: A house where he can live, clothes he can wear, and bread and water he can eat and drink."

Hz. Aisha said, "The Prophet had no extra clothes." He had only one garment; he had no spare clothes to wear for a change.

Once, Abdullah b. Umar was repairing the wall of his house. The Prophet was passing by and saw him. The Prophet asked him, "What are you doing?" Abdullah b. Umar said,"I am repairing the wall." Hz. Prophet said, "How did you find so much time?"

The Prophet was usually hungry at home. He and his family often went to bed hungry. "Hz. Prophet spent several nights on end hungry. He and his family members could not find dinner to eat." (Tirmidhi, Zuhd, 38)

There were some times when no fire was lit in his house for two months. When Hz. Aisha mentioned it, Urwa b. Zubayr asked,"What did you eat?" Hz. Aisha said, "We had water and dates. Our neighbors sometimes sent us goat milk and we drank it." (Bukhari, Riqaq, 16, 17)

Hz. Prophet never had bread made of pure wheat flour. He never saw pure flour.  When Sahi b. Sa'd mentioned it, he was asked, "Were there no sifters when Hz. Prophet lived? He said, "No." He was asked, "How did they sift flour then?" He said,"They blew with their mouths and made the bran fly away. They, they kneaded the remaining flour." (see Tirmidhi, Shamail)

Hz. Aisha said,

"Hz Prophet never ate two meals fully on end from the time he migrated to Madinah until he died." (see Tirmidhi, Shamail)

Hadith scholars and siyar experts who narrate the battles of Fadak, Khaybar and the others write that the Prophet received his yearly expenses from the incomes from them. The apparent meanings of these narrations and the Prophet’s living in poverty may seem to be contradictory but both of them are correct. The Messenger of Allah took the amount that would be enough for his sustenance and distributed the remaining amount to the poor and needy. He even gave the things he kept for himself to the poor later. It is often mentioned in hadiths that the Prophet suffered hunger and that he had no wealth. We want to mention some of them as examples:

Once, somebody came to the Prophet (pbuh) and said, "I am very hungry." Hz. Prophet sent somebody to one of his wives to tell her "to send some food." When the person returned, he said there was nothing other than water at home. The Prophet sent somebody to another one of his wives. He received the same answer from her. To sum up, the news that there was nothing other than water came from eight-nine houses. (Muslim, 2/198)

Anas narrates:

"When I went into the presence of the Prophet (pbuh) once, I saw that he had wrapped a band tight around his abdomen. When I asked the reason, one of the people sitting there said, ‘Due to hunger.’" (Muslim, 2/193)

Abu Talha narrates:

"Once, I saw the Prophet lying on the ground in the mosque, turning to the right and left due to hunger."

Once, the Companions came to the Prophet (pbuh) and complained about their hunger; they opened their abdomens and showed the stones they wrapped with their bands. Thereupon, Hz. Prophet showed them that he had two stones, not one, on his abdomen.

He often got a hoarse voice due to hunger; the Companions would understand his hunger when they heard his voice. Once, Abu Talha went home and said to his wife, "Is there anything to eat at home? I saw that the Messenger of Allah had a hoarse voice just now." (Muslim, 2/191)

Once, he left home at noon when he was very hungry. He met Abu Bakr and Umar on the way. They were also very tired and hungry. The Messenger of Allah went to the house of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari with them. Abu Ayyub al-Ansari always kept some milk for the Prophet (pbuh). When the Prophet delayed, he gave the milk to his children. When his wife heard that the Prophet was coming, she came out of the house and said,

"O Messenger of Allah! Welcome!" The Messenger of Allah asked where Abu Ayyub was. His date grove was near and when he heard the Prophet’s voice, he ran toward the house. He said,

"Welcome!" Then, he said, "This is not the usual time for the visit of the Messenger of Allah." Thereupon, the Prophet (pbuh) told him about the reason why they had come. Abu Ayyub al-Ansari went to the date grove and brought them a bunch of grapes. Then, he said,

"I will prepare some meat for you."He slaughtered a goat; he boiled half of and grilled the other half. He put the food before the Prophet (pbuh). The Messenger of Allah said,

"Put some meat on a piece of bread and take it to Fatima. She has not eaten anything for days." Then, he ate the food with his Companions. When he saw a few courses of food, he shed tears and said:

These are the things mentioned in the verse: "Then shall ye be Questioned that Day about the joy (ye indulged in)"(at-Takathur, 102/ 8). (at-Targhib wat-Tarhib, 2/175)

When Hz. Prophet went to his wives in the morning, he often asked, "Is there anything to eat today" If they said, "no", he would say, "Then, I will fast today." (Musnad, 2/49; see Mevlânâ Şiblî Numânî, Son Peygamber Hz. Muhammed, İz Publications: 621-629)

8 Will you give information about the children of the Prophet (pbuh)?

The Messenger of Allah had seven children: three of them were boys and four of them were girls. Their names are as follows in the order of birth: Qasim, Zaynab, Ruqayya, Umm Kulthum, Fatima, Abdullah, Ibrahim. Six of them were born of Hz. Khadijah and the last one was born of Hz. Mariya, the Egyptian.

Ibn Ishaq says that the Prophet had two more children called Tahir and Tayyib but it is stated that they are the attributes of Abdullah.

1) Qasim:

Qasim was the first child of the Messenger of Allah. Therefore, his nickname became Abul-Qasim (Qasim's father). The Prophet liked it when they called him Abul-Qasim. The Companions also called him like that. According to Ibn Sa'd, Qasim lived for two years. He died in Makkah. The first child of the Messenger of Allah that died was Qasim.

2) Zaynab:

She was the oldest daughter of the Prophet. She was born after Qasim. When Zaynab was born, the Messenger of Allah was thirty years old. Zaynab, who was born in Makkah, died in the eight year of the Migration in Madinah. When she died, she was about thirty years old. 

Zaynab married her aunt's son Abul-As first. He did not become a Muslim at first. When he was enslaved by the Muslims during the Battle of Badr, he promised that he would send Zaynab to Madinah after he was freed. The Messenger of Allah sent Zayd bin Haritha with Abul-As to fetch Zaynab to Madinah. Zayd took Zaynab back to Madinah. Zaynab returned to Madinah but her husband, Abul-As, stayed in Makkah.   

During a sariyya, Abul-As was enslaved by the Muslims again. However, he was freed thanks to the protection of Hz. Zaynab. When Abul-As was freed from slavery for the second time. He went to Makkah. He returned the things entrusted to him to their owners and became a Muslim. Then, he migrated to Madinah. He married Hz. Zaynab again in Madinah.

Abul-As treated Hz. Zaynab very well. Therefore, the Messenger of Allah appreciated him. Zaynab did not live long after marrying her husband again. When she died, her dead body was washed by Hz. Umm Aym and Hz. Sawda. Her janazah prayer was led by the Messenger of Allah. Abul-As placed her in the grave.

3) Ruqayya:

She was the second daughter of the Messenger of Allah. When she was born, Hz. Prophet was thirty-three years old. Before her father became a prophet, Ruqayya was engaged to Utba, Abu Lahab's son. When the Messenger of Allah started to call people to Islam, Abu Lahab called his son, Utba, and said to him,

"My son! If you do not leave Muhammad's daughter, I will leave you." Utba left Ruqayya due to his father's request. After that, Ruqayya married Hz. Uthman. Hz. Usman and his wife Ruqayya took part in the first group that migrated to Abyssinia. Afterwards, Hz. Uthman returned to Makkah from Abyssinia. Before the Battle of Badr, Ruqayya became very ill; therefore, Hz. Uthman could not take part in the Battle of Badr. He was regarded as one of the excused people since his wife was ill.

Hz. Ruqayya died on the same day as Zayd bin Haritha brought the good news that the Muslims won the battle. The Messenger of Allah could not take part in her daughter's funeral due to the Battle of Badr.

4) Umm Kulthum:

She was born before the advent of Islam. Her mother was Hz. Khadijah. Umm Kulthum was engaged to Utayba, Abu Lahab's second son, before Islam. When Islam came, Abu Lahab did not become a Muslim and became a fierce enemy of Islam. When the chapter of al-Masadd was sent down about him, he told his son to leave Umm Kulthum. He obeyed his father and left Umm Kulthum. 

She married Hz. Uthman one year after the death of Hz. Ruqayya, in the third year of the Migration.

According to what Bukhari narrates, when Hafsa was widowed, Hz. Umar went to Hz.Uthman and asked him to marry Hafsa, his daughter. Hz. Uthman hesitated. Meanwhile, the Messenger of Allah said to Hz. Umar,

"I will find you a better man than Uthman and I will find Uthman a better man than you. Marry your daughter off to me and I will marry my daughter off to Uthman." 

Umm Kulthum, who married Hz. Uthman, lived with him for six years. She died in the ninth year of the Migration. Her janazah prayer was led by the Messenger of Allah. She was buried by Hz. Ali, Hz. Fadl and Hz. Usama.

Hz. Uthman was given the nickname "Zinnurayn" (the owner of two lights) since he married two daughters of the Messenger of Allah: Ruqayye and Umm Kulthum.

5) Fatima:

She was the youngest but most beloved daughter of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). She was born in Makkah when the first revelation came. She married Hz. Ali in Madinah in the second year of the Migration. When they got married, Hz. Fatima was fifteen and Hz. Ali was twenty-four years old. The Messenger of Allah prepared a bed linen, two grinders and a water-skin for his daughter Fatima. Hz. Fatima used the grinders and the water-skin throughout her life.

The Messenger of Allah wanted Hz. Ali and Hz. Fatima to get on well. Once, Ali treated Fatima harshly; thereupon, Fatima went to the Messenger of Allah and complained about Ali. After Fatima, Ali arrived and complained about her. However, the Messenger of Allah reconciled them.

Once, Hz. Ali wanted to have another wife; when the Messenger of Allah was informed about it, he said in a sermon,

"My daughter is my part, what makes her uneasy makes me uneasy."

Thereupon, Hz. Ali gave up the idea of marrying another woman. He did not marry anybody else when Hz. Fatima was alive.

Hz. Fatima died in the eleventh year of the Migration, six months after his father's death. She was twenty-five years old when the Messenger of Allah passed away. 

The Messenger of Allah loved his daughter, Fatima, very much. When he was ill, he called her. He whispered something to her ear. Hz. Fatima cried. He whispered to her again; this time Fatima smiled. Hz. Aisha asked what happened. Hz. Aisha said,

"First, the Messenger of Allah said that he would die and I cried. Then, he said that the first person to rejoin him after his death would be me and I smiled." 

Hz. Fatima continued the generation of the Messenger of Allah. Fatima had five children: Hasan, Husayn, Muhsin, Umm Kulthum, Zaynab. Muhsin died when he was very young.

6) Abdullah:

He was born eleven years before the Migration in Makkah. He lived for three months and died. "Tahir and Tayyib" were Abdullah's other names.

7) Ibrahim:

He was the youngest child and son of the Messenger of Allah. He was born in the eighth year of the Migration in Madinah. According to Ibn Ishaq, all of Hz. Muhammad's children except Ibrahim were born before his prophethood. Ibrahim was born of Mariya, the Egyptian, and according to the narration of Hz. Aisha, he died when he was seventeen or eighteen months old.

The Messenger of Allah became very pleased when Ibrahim was born; he gave a feat seven days after Ibrahim was born and doled out money to the poor. He named his child Ibrahim. For, all of his sons born of Hz. Khadija had died when they were very young. He did not have any children from his other wives.  

Salma, who was Abu Rafi's wife, fostered newborn Ibrahim as his wet-nurse. Bukhari states that Umm Sayf breastfed Ibrahim. The Messenger of Allah visited the wet-nurse frequently to see, caress and kiss Ibrahim.  

Ibrahim died in Umm Sayf's house. When Hz. Prophet heard that his son was ill, he went to see him with Abdurrahman bin Awf. When he saw that he was in agony, he could not help crying. Abdurrahman said:

"O Messenger of Allah! What are you doing?" The Messenger of Allah said,

"My feelings of compassion overwhelmed."

The Messenger of Allah led his son's janazah prayer.  Fadl bin Abbas, Usama bin Zayd and Uthman Maz'un placed him in the grave. He was buried in the cemetery of Baqi.

When Ibrahim died, the sun was eclipsed. People said that the sun had also joined the mourning. The Messenger of Allah said,

"The sun and the moon are signs of Allah. They are not eclipsed because of the death of an ephemeral person."

Thus, he drove people away from such wrong beliefs.

9 Is our prophet Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) an Arab? What nationality is he?

The following hadith is included in Imam Munawi's book called "Faydul-Qadir" from Ibn Abbas:

"Love Arabs due to three properties: I am an Arab. The Quran was sent down in Arabic. The language of the people of Paradise is Arabic."1

"With it came down the Spirit of Faith and Truth―To thy heart and mind, that thou mayest admonish―In the perspicuous Arabic tongue."2

"We sent not a messenger except (to teach) in the language of his (own) people, in order to make (things) clear to them."3

The verses above state that the Prophet (pbuh) conveyed the message to Arabs, his own nation, in their own language.

The hadith and verses show that the Prophet (pbuh) is an Arab.

Footnotes:

1. Faydul-Qadir, I/178, Hadith no: 225.
2. ash-Shuara, 26/193-195.
3. Ibrahim, 14/4.

(see Mehmed Paksu, Meseleler ve Çözümleri - 1)

10 How was the tabligh and advice method of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)?

"Invite (all) to the way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious." (an-Nahl,125)

Our Prophet guided the believers with knowledge and wisdom and based that guidance on evidence by acting upon that verse and similar verses.

He never showed anger or violence while conveying the message of Islam. He welcomed people in an atmosphere of sincerity and gave them advice with compassion and mercy. He always preferred sweet talk and soft words when he told people about the truth and reality. He eliminated the doubts and hesitations that occurred in people’s minds with great patience and understanding. He always showed respect to the people he talked to and spoke to them clearly with eloquence. Even when the questions were irrelevant, he smiled and took them seriously.

One of the most important reasons why his preaching and advice were influential was that he forgave the mistakes of the people and pardoned them. He even pardoned the people who martyred his beloved uncle and many other relatives and companions after the conquest of Makkah. As a matter of fact, he had all the power then. He could have punished them as he wished.

He influenced the spirits of the people around him with such high characteristics; he aroused and developed their talents and abilities that were in the form of core. He made each one a star in the sky of humanity. He removed the fog of ignorance that veiled that century. He changed the form of the world. He realized high characteristics like justice, love and solidarity among people. He introduced curative remedies for the diseases that threatened personal and social life and cured the world of humanity by the permission of Allah.

The way of tabligh is the way of “weakness, poverty, compassion and contemplation”. That cause is the cause of saving belief. It is the cause of protecting people from the terrifying mischiefs of the end of time and directing them towards lofty aims. It is the cause of saving humanity from the effects of the soul, devil and the unbelievably corrupt sociological atmosphere and making man attain the pleasure of being a slave. If a person can attain that high ideal as a divine grace, the first thing he should do is to confess his weakness and poverty to accomplish that difficult task and rely on the power and mercy of his Lord.

Weakness and poverty are two apparent characteristics of the slave and the most important properties of man. As a matter of fact, when we recite the chapter al-Fatiha, we take refuge in our Lord, the Lord of the Worlds, and ask help from Him for our works whether they are related to this world or the hereafter by saying,

“Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek”.

Thus, the soldiers of the service of belief and the Quran work hard in order to make the guidance flourish in the hearts of people but they know that they cannot accomplish that great outcome with their strength and power so they take refuge in Allah with weakness and poverty.

The third step is to feel sorry for disobedient sinners and rush to help them with the sensitivity of a doctor and compassion of a mother. And the fourth step is to fulfill that duty with wisdom.

The great ideal put forward by our national poet, the late, Mehmet Akif in the following couplet:

We should take inspiration directly from the Quran, we should make the century pronounce Islam.

has been realized fully in the Risale-i Nur Collection. In the market of this century, which is full of ‘why’s, only a collection that could address both the mind and the heart, that could have its cause loved and could prove it could have been accepted by a lot of people and it was.

The first one of those determinations teaches us that the biggest condition to convey the message of Islam to both our own citizens and to the whole world of humanity is to have the high ethics of the Quran. The other one determines that it is necessary to develop economically in order to convey the truths of belief and the Quran to the needy.

We should try to cure those two wounds by accepting them. If we ignore them and rely on temporary and uncertain formulas, we will go on crawling and we will be responsible for blocking and preventing Islam from reaching the needy hearts.

Every Muslim is responsible for fulfilling the duty incumbent on him.The rank of a person in a society lays some responsibilities on him. Every Muslim becomes responsible in accordance with his rank. We can see the issue under the light of the following hadith:

When you see something bad, correct it with your hand; if you cannot, correct it with your tongue; if you cannot, hate it in your heart.” (Muslim, Belief 78; Abu Dawud, Salat, 232)

Not everybody can interpret that hadith in every situation on his own. For instance, if we see something bad on the way and try to correct it and harm somebody while doing it and if that person files a lawsuit against us, we will be punished. Then, how should we understand the meaning of the hadith?

To correct with the hand, is the duty of the authorities, that is, the state and the security forces; to correct with the tongue is the duty of the scholars; to hate it in the heart is the duty of the others.

Therefore, at first, a Muslim should practice Islam properly. Then, if there is no danger of harming Islam, he should tell people about Islam with sweet talk. He should leave the rest to Allah.

A person who wants to grow trees gives importance to the following: The seeds should be improved; the field should be appropriate for sowing; the season should be appropriate for sowing and the person to sow should be an expert. Therefore, if inappropriate seeds are sown into a hard and inadequate field in an inadequate season by a person who is not good at sowing will cause everything to come to nothing. After fulfilling his duty, a gardener who has those properties will not try to go into the field in order to make the flowers and roses to blossom and to turn it into a tree. He does his duty and leaves the result to Allah.

Similarly, it is necessary to practice the true Islam properly and to convey the message of Islam. To tell people the thoughts and ideas that are not in compliance with Islam as Islam will harm both Islam and the people who propagate it as Islam.

The needy hearts into which the seeds of Islam and belief to be thrown should be ready for it. Sometimes, it may become harmful to tell people who are not ready yet about Islam.

In addition, the season of the tabligh is also important. The states like the environment, the psychological mood and the expectations of the person are important. Every seed that is not sown in its season may be lost.

On the other hand, the person who conveys the message of Islam should have the skills and properties to know how to convey it and how to transmit it to the minds and hearts with an appropriate style. He should be qualified like a specialist doctor.

After fulfilling his duty, a Muslim who has those properties leaves the guidance to Allah. He does not interfere with the duty of Allah.

11 Is it necessary to utter salawat whenever the name of the Prophet is mentioned in a religious talk? Is it enough to utter salawat once at the beginning?

When the name of the Prophet (pbuh) is mentioned a lot, it is not necessary to utter salawat every time he is mentioned; it is enough to utter once at the beginning.

When the name of the Prophet (pbuh) is mentioned in a dua, salawat is usually uttered after it. Therefore, it is not necessary to utter salawat while listening to a dua or saying a dua.

for more information, please click on the link given below;

Will you give information about the importance of saying salawat for the Prophet? Why are hands wiped over the face after saying salawat when the name of the Prophet is mentioned?

12 Will you please give information about the incident of Ifk?

THE INCIDENT OF IFK

Ifk means to tell lies, to slander, to cast aspersions on the honor of an honorable person.

The incident of Ifk is the name of the incident of slander made up by munafiqs about Hz. Aisha, the wife of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) and the mother of believers (al-Ahzab, 33/6) in the history of Islam. The incident is narrated with its details in main resources like Bukhari and Muslim. Hz. Aisha herself narrates the incident in detail with its occurrence and causes.

The real lowdown of the incident is the movement of adverse propaganda and defamation by the munafiqs in order to break down the Islamic community that attained a safe land in Madinah and that developed day by day by targeting the privacy of the Prophet of Islam. They thought they could attain their desire to eliminate Islam very quickly if they could drive a wedge between the Messenger of Allah and his close friends. In the expedition of jihad against Sons of Mustaliq, the munafiqs tried to set Hz. Abu Bakr against the Messenger of Allah and to defame the Messenger of Allah by making use of a normal incident that happened to Hz. Aisha.

The munafiqs took part with a lot of people in the expedition of jihad against Sons of Mustaliq, who had stopped near Muraysi Well in Najd, in the fifth year of the Migration in the month of Shaban because they knew that it would not be a severe one.   

Before starting the expedition, the Messenger of Allah drew lots among his wives as he always did before starting an expedition and Hz. Aisha's name was drawn; thus, Hz. Aisha joined the expedition. (Bukhari, Shahadah, 15)

During this expedition, the munafiqs tried to set Makkan Muhajirs against Ansar of Madinah. Therefore, they used the bigotry of region and tribe. Once, they brought the two groups to the verge of drawing their swords but the Messenger of Allah prevented them easily. Meanwhile, Abdullah b. Ubayy said:

"If we return to Madinah, surely the more honorable (element) will expel there from the meaner." (al-Munafiqun, 63/8) Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) summoned Ansar and told them about it. Ansar became very sorry. Thus, Abdullah b. b. Ubayy gained the hatred of everybody. Besides, his son held the stirrup of his father's animal and said,

"I will not release you until you confess that you are mean and the Messenger of Allah is honorable." Thus, he made his father confess it. (Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqatul-Kubra, II, 65).

While returning from the expedition, the army stopped to spend the night somewhere. Hz. Aisha went away to answer the call of nature. When she returned, she noticed that her necklace made of Yemen beads had broken off and fallen. This necklace had been given to Hz. Aisha by Umm Ruman, her mother, as a wedding present. (Waqidi, Maghazi, II, 428). The other resources write that she borrowed the necklace from her sister, Asma.

Hz. Aisha went away in order to look for her necklace in the place where the army used in order to answer the call of nature. When she returned, she saw that the army including her guards who thought she was on chair on the camel had left. She waited there thinking that they would return and look for her.  Meanwhile she fell asleep there. 

Safwan b. Muattal, who always stayed behind the army to check if there was anything left behind, saw her and made her get on his camel without speaking. Then, he caught up with the army by leading his camel fast. (Ibn Hisham, as-Sirah, II, 298)

When the army stopped for the second time, it was understood that Hz. Aisha was not on her camel; when it was seen that she was coming on the camel of a young soldier, the munafiqs used it as an opportunity to start a rumor. Abdullah b. Ubayy supported this rumor secretly. The Muslims understood that it was a slander. For instance, Hz. Abu Ayyub al-Ansari said to his wife,

"O Umm Ayyub! Would you accept it if something like that is said about you?" She said,

"God forbid! A noble and honorable person will never do something like that." (Ibn Hisham, ibid, p. 302)

Unfortunately, along with munafiqs, three Muslims believed in this rumor. They were Hassan bin Thabit, who wanted to take revenge from Safwan, Hamna, the sister of Zaynab bint Jahsh, who was one of the wives of the Messenger of Allah and Mistah bin Uthatha, who was financially helped by Hz. Abu Bakr.  

Hz. Aisha fell ill when she returned from the expedition and went to her father's house so that her mother would take care of her. She was unaware of anything. Neither her parents nor the Messenger of Allah told her about the incident. She could not understand why the Messenger of Allah treated her coldly. Once, when Mistah's mother told her about the incident, she became very sad and wept for days. (Muslim, Tawba, 56) Meanwhile, the Messenger of Allah asked her some questions about the incident. Hz. Aisha said she referred her state to Allah.

When Safwan heard about the rumor, he got very angry, drew his sword and attacked Hassan in order to kill him. He wounded Hassan. When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was informed about it, he ordered Safwan to be arrested. In fact, Safwan was an impotent person who was not interested in women. He himself stated it clearly. (Ibn Hisham ibid, p. 306, Muslim, Tawba, 57)

The Messenger of Allah consulted some of the Companions about the issue. Hz. Uthman, Usama b. Zayd, Zaynab bint Jahsh and Umm Ayman witnessed that Hz. Aisha was chaste. Hz. Umar reminded him that Hz. Aisha's marriage was decreed by Allah and that Allah would marry an unchaste woman off to him. However, Hz. Ali spoke unfavorably and said there were a lot of women to marry the Messenger of Allah. He also offered that Hz. Aisha's maid be questioned. He even slapped her so that she would tell the truth. Barira, her maid, said she knew only good things about Hz. Aisha. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah ascended the pulpit in the mosque and informed his Companions about the situation and asked their help. Sa'd b. Muaz from Ansar said,

"O Messenger of Allah! I will help you. If the slanderer is from the tribe of Aws, I will kill him. If he is from our Khazraj brothers, you will order us and we will do what is necessary."

However, Sa'd b. Ubada of Khazraj opposed it. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) settled the argument between them.  

When the Messenger of Allah left in a sorrowful manner and went to see Hz. Aisha, who was in her father Abu Bakr's house, Allah informed him about her chastity with the following verses:

"Those who brought forward the lie are a body among yourselves: think it not to be an evil to you: on the contrary it is good for you: to every man among them (will come the punishment) of the sin that he earned and to him who took on himself the lead among them will be a Penalty grievous. Why did not Believers, men and women when ye heard of the affair― put the best construction on it in their own minds and say "This (charge) is an obvious lie"?

Why did they not bring four witnesses, to prove it? When they have not brought the witnesses such men in the sight of Allah, (stand forth) themselves as liars!  Were it not for the grace and mercy of Allah on you, in this world and the Hereafter, a grievous penalty would have seized you in that ye rushed glibly into this affair. Behold ye received it on your tongues and said out of your mouths things of which ye had no knowledge; and ye thought it to be a light matter, while it was most serious in the sight of Allah.

And why did ye not when ye heard it say? "It is not right of us to speak of this: Glory to Thee (our Lord)! This is a most serious slander!" (an-Nur, 24/11-16)

When the verses above were sent down, all of the believers, primarily the Messenger of Allah became very happy. However, those who slandered had to be punished too. Thereupon, God Almighty sent down the following two verses:

"And those who launch a charge against chaste women, and produce not four witnesses (to support their allegation)― flog them with eighty stripes: and reject their evidence ever after: for such men are wicked transgressors Unless they repent thereafter and mend (their conduct): for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (an-Nur, 24/4-5).

Three separate decrees were given for those who slandered that somebody committed fornication in the verses:

1. The slanderer will be flogged eighty stripes,
2. His witnessing will not be accepted forever,
3. He will be described as fasiq since he disobeyed Allah
.

If a person who slanders regrets and repents, the quality of fisq is removed. (M. Ali as-Sabuni, Kur'an-ı Kerîm'in Ahkâm Tefsîri, II, 107)

When these verses were sent down, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) had Hassan, Hamna and Mistah flogged eighty stripes each as a penalty for slandering that she committed fornication. This penalty was not applied to Abdullah b. Ubayy. [Muhammad Rida, Muhammad (s.a.s), Egypt 1357/1938, p. 303].

Hz. Abu Bakr stopped helping Mistah because he slandered his daughter. After the penalty for slandering was applied, God Almighty sent down the following verse:

"Let not those among you who are endued with grace and amplitude of means resolve by oath against helping their kinsmen those in want, and those who have left their homes in Allah's cause: let them forgive and overlook: do you not wish that Allah should forgive you? For Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful." (an-Nur, 24/22)

Thereupon, Hz. Abu Bakr said,

"By Allah, I definitely want Allah to forgive me. By Allah, I will never cease to help Mistah."Then, he started to help Mistah financially again. (Bukhari, Maghazi, 34; Tafsirul-Qur'an, 6; Muslim, Tawba, 56)

Slander is the method of two-faced munafiqs who act differently than what they think. It is necessary to avoid slandering, to support those who are slandered and to refute the oppressors and slanderers.

İsmail KAYA

13 Can people be saved without the intercession of the Prophet?

No matter how much we love the Prophet (pbuh), it is not enough when we love him on behalf of Allah. For, we love him because he is Allah's prophet and he is a unique person in this manner. No bounds should be set since he is loved on behalf of Allah.

Intercession is true and the whole ummah will want to attain the intercession of the Prophet (pbuh). Intercession is not only for being saved from Hell. A person also needs intercession for his rank to be elevated in Paradise.

The statement "A person can be saved without the intercession of the Prophet (pbuh)" is a harsh statement. For, all of the creatures Allah created were created for his sake, and the ummah of the Prophet (pbuh) received a lot of boons for his sake. His intercession is a great boon for us.

14 Was the Prophet illiterate when Allah's angel said "iqra'/read"? Did the Prophet say, "I do not know how to read" or "What shall I read"?

The angel of revelation, Jibril, appeared to the Prophet in the form of a good-looking man by emitting lights and in a dazzling brightness. He addressed the Prophet with a sweet but sonorous voice:

"Read!"
The Messenger of Allah was astonished and frightened. His heart shivered. He said,
"I do not know how to read."
Jibril caught him forcefully and pressed him hard; then, he released the Prophet and said,
" Read!"
The Messenger of Allah answered,
"I do not know how to read."
Jibril caught him again and pressed him hard; then, he released the Prophet and said,
" Read!"
This time, the Prophet said,
"I do not know how to read. What shall I read?"
Thereupon, the angel read the first verses of the chapter of al-Alaq, which he took from Allah to bring to the Messenger of Allah:

"Proclaim! (or Read!) In the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created― Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood: Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful― He Who taught (the use of) the Pen―." (see Bukhari, Badul-Wahy, 3; Muslim, Iman, 252)

The Messenger of Allah, who was extremely excited and scared, repeated the verses that were sent down in the language he spoke word by word. The verses that were sent down settled in the tongue and heart of the Messenger of Allah. Jibril, whose duty ended for that time, disappeared suddenly.

Read in the name of your Lord! That is, read by starting with His lofty name, "Allah". Start reading. As it is mentioned above, when this order was sent down, the angel came to Hz. Muhammad, who was in the cave Hira, squeezed him very hard and said only "read". Hz. Muhammad did not know how to read; so, he said, "I do not know how to read"; that is, I cannot read; what shall I read? Thereupon, the angel said, "read" again by squeezing him hard. He said again, "I do not know how to read."

That is, the first two orders to "read" were not verses of the Quran; they were offers to make him ready to read like spelling. The Quran started with the order "Read in the name of your Lord" after the third squeezing. Then, this first order made the Prophet read in a creative manner though he could not read when it was sent down; it started to state what is read with its didactic style and it showed that his first duty was to make Allah, who created like that and who educated, known and to start reading with His name. In the beginning, it means as follows:

"You did not read up to this time.

"And thou wast not (able) to recite a Book before this (Book came)." (al-Ankabut, 29/48)

You did not know the quality of the book and what principles of belief consisted of:

"Thou knewest not (before) what was Revelation, and what was Faith." (ash-Shura, 42/52)

However, your Lord, who is the owner of the deed called creation, who created the universe and created you and brought you up and who owns you and all of your works made you read with His power and started to send the Quran, a book to be read. Read with the name of your Lord as you are taught."

"When thou dost read the Qur'an, seek Allah's protection from Satan the Rejected one." (an-Nahl, 16/98)

As it is mentioned in this verse, the reality of reading the Quran is to utter words in a nice and proper manner by combining the words; it means to read whether by heart or by looking, whether silently or aloud.

It is not a requirement for a book to be written to be a book; writing is not a requirement for reading.

It is a figurative use to call looking with eyes (silent reading) and reciting as reading. The perfect form of reading is reciting. As it is stated in the hadith of the Prophet, the reason why reading by looking at the Quran is rewarding and virtuous is that it helps understanding and memorizing. The reading (qira’ah) of the Messenger of Allah is reading the Quran, which was sent down to him by Allah, by heart perfectly without needing the written form; it also includes reading it by himself, in prayer or proclaiming it to others and making others read and dictating.  

Thus, with this order, the illiterate Prophet who had not read a book and written anything before started to be given a book to be read as a miracle and he was given the power to read without writing and the power to dictate. He was ordered to start it with the name of Allah. He was told that the wisdom behind it was divine necessity especially with the phrase "your Lord".

"How can such a miracle of qira’ah (reading) take place without reading any books and without learning to write with a pen?" In order to eliminate a doubt like this, the quality of creation, the beginning of creation and the decree of divinity are reminded before reading and writing as follows: Read in the name of your Lord, Who created; creation is His quality or He created you and everything.

15 How did Hz. Muhammad (PBUH) earn his living after he became a prophet? Did the Prophet become rich? Is it possible for the Prophet, who was also the head of the state, to be poor?

The Prophet (pbuh) was engaged in trade before his marriage; he continued being engaged with trade with the wealth of Hz. Khadija after his marriage. (see Salih Suruç, Peygamberimizin Hayatı, Mekke devri, p, 143)

The Prophet (pbuh) worked as a shepherd when he was a child and was engaged in trade when he was young. After he became a prophet, he practiced the religion sent by Allah and informed people about it. He spent his remaining life doing this mission. 

The Prophet was in charge of a religion and an ummah. Therefore, he carried out a duty that encompassed all aspects of life. He was the commander-in-chief in wars, the administrator of the ummah of Muhammad, a judge in settling the problems and a teacher in arranging the worldly and otherworldly affairs; thus, he lived as a leader and served his people like that.

Therefore, he received a certain amount from the booty and continued his life without needing any money from others. However, he lived like a poor person even if he could have lived as a rich person due to trade and booty.

It is determined by verses that a certain amount of the income of the booty be given to the Prophet (pbuh) and his family. For, zakah could not be given to him and his family. However, he was hungry most of the time and he sometimes wrapped a stone around his abdomen due to hunger. He always distributed the presents that were sent to him to the poor. A person who reads his life will see numerous examples of it.

While trying to spread Islam to the whole world, the Prophet (pbuh) obtained many boons like conquests and victories. However, when he entered a city after the conquest, he never acted conceitedly; he proceeded humbly. He would enter the city in a plain manner without any ceremony.

When he conquered Khaybar, the biggest castle and settlement place of the Jews, he entered the city on a donkey with a halter made of thin rope although he had conquered the most fertile land of Arabia at that time and had booty that filled the Treasury.

When the Prophet (pbuh) entered Makkah after its conquest, he never acted conceitedly though he was a victorious commander. He bent his head down to Allah so much on his camel that his beard almost touched the saddle of his camel out of humbleness. He prayed as follows on his camel:

"O Allah! Life is only life in the hereafter."

While he was going to Farewell Hajj, he had a piece of velvet worth of four dirhams on his back and there was a torn mattress instead of a saddle on his camel. Even in that situation, he prayed as follows, feeling worried that he would be hypocritical:

"O Allah! Make my state away from hypocrisy and show off."

In fact, he was not poor. He defeated big armies, conquered a lot of places and obtained a lot of booties. He even sacrificed one hundred camels in this hajj. 

The Prophet (pbuh) was very humble when he was with his family and at home. Besides, he led a very plain life. He sometimes helped his wives with the housework. He mended his own clothes and shoes; he took care of his own work. He would sweep the house, tie and feed his camel and milk the sheep; he would do his own shopping and carry his things himself. He would sit and eat with his servant and knead dough with him.

Some of the examples showing the examples of humbleness of the last Messenger of Allah:

The Prophet (pbuh) showed all kinds of humbleness and its ideal form in his life. He led the most accepted way of modesty and humbleness that nobody could lead and reach. Although he is the most superior of all creatures and the one with the highest rank and degree, and he is praised by his Lord many times in the Quran, he never used the privilege of being a prophet and never tried to show himself to be superior to other people.    

He showed this high ethical attitude to both his family members and his Companions as well as the people who were not Muslims yet. Thus, he caused many people to find the right path.

When Allah Almighty left him free to be a prophet that is a king or a prophet that is a slave, he chose to be "a prophet that is a slave". Thereupon, Hz. Israfil said to the Prophet "Doubtlessly, Allah gave you that property too since you acted humbly. You are the master of the people on the Day of Judgment. You will be the first person to come out of the grave when the earth is split and the first person to intercede." After that, the Prophet (pbuh) did not eat food by lying down. He said,

"I will eat in the same way as a slave eats. I will sit in the same way as a slave sits."

Once, the Messenger of Allah went toward the Companions by leaning on his staff. When the Companions saw that he arrived, they stood up at once. The Prophet (pbuh) did not like this attitude and warned them as follows:

"Do not stand up for me to show respect like the people of other nations stand up. For, I am a slave that eats like a slave and that sits like a slave."

The Prophet (pbuh) did not usually like those who wanted to kiss his hand and who showed him too much respect.

Once, Abu Hurayra was with him while he was shopping. Abu Hurayra narrates:

“Once, the Prophet (pbuh) paid more money for the clothes than they were worth to the salesman. The man wanted to kiss the Prophet’s hand. The Prophet moved his hand away and warned him as follows:

‘The other nations do this to their kings. I am not a king. I am a person like you.’"

Abu Hurayra continued: "Then, he took the clothes. I wanted to carry them. He said to me,

‘A person should carry his own things. However, if he cannot carry, his Muslim brother will help him.’"

The Prophet (pbuh) did his own work himself. He did not want other people to serve him.

Amir bin Rabia narrates:

"I was going to the mosque with the Prophet. His shoelaces got untied on the way. I bent down and wanted to tie them. However, he moved his foot back and said to me,

"This act means to have somebody else do your work. I do not like my work to be done by others."

Abdullah bin Abbas narrates another exemplary act of the Prophet (pbuh) regarding the issue as follows:

"The Prophet did not allow anybody else to prepare water for him or to give his sadaqah to a poor person. He prepared water for wudu himself and when he wanted to give sadaqah to a poor person, he would give it with his own hands."

According to what Abdullah bin Jubayr narrates, once, the Prophet was walking with his Companions. The weather was very hot; therefore, one of the Companions wanted to make a shade over the head of the Prophet with his garment. When the Prophet saw it, he took the garment down and said, "Give it up. I am only a human being."

The Prophet (pbuh) did not find it appropriate when people hesitated and shivered when they saw him thinking that he was a king; he would soothe and comfort them.

Once, somebody started to shiver when he entered into the presence of the Prophet due to the majesty of the prophethood. When the Prophet saw him, he said, "Come to your senses. I am not a king. I am the son of a Qurayshi woman who ate dried salty bread."

In fact, a person who saw the Prophet (pbuh) for the first time would get excited. However, when he saw the compassion of the Prophet and his smile, he would feel relieved; and as he talked, the fear in him would be transformed into love.

The Prophet treated everybody equally no matter what their social status was, whether rich or poor, a widow or a maid; he never despised a person because of his lifestyle, because he was poor or a servant. He met their needs like the others and never acted conceitedly. 

Adiyy bin Hatim, who became a Muslim after seeing the ultimate humbleness of the Prophet (pbuh), narrates his first impressions about the Prophet as follows:  

"When I saw that there were his relatives, women and children with the Prophet (pbuh), I realized that he did not have the sultanate of the Persian King or the Byzantine Emperor.

While the Messenger of Allah was walking with me on the way to his home, he met a weak and old woman. There was also a small child with her. The woman waited and stopped him. He stopped. They said,

‘We want something from you.'The Messenger of Allah talked to them about their needs for a long time. He went with them, met their needs and returned.

I said to myself, 'By Allah! He is not a king.' Then, he took me to his house. He took a mattress full of date palm fibers and passed it to me. He said,

‘Sit on it.’ I said,

"No, please you sit on it.' He said,

No, you sit on it.’ Then, I sat on it and he sat on the ground."

The Prophet (pbuh) took care of everybody. He never looked down on anybody. He met the needs of the people that most people did not look at and did not pay attention to. For, his aim was to show people useful ways.  

In Madinah, there was a woman who spoke recklessly, cursed and damned people and criticized them. Once, while the Prophet (pbuh) was sitting on the pavement and eating boiled meat, that woman passed by.

The woman said, "Look at this man. He is sitting on the ground like a slave and eating like a slave."

The Prophet said, "Is there a slave more enslaved than me?"

The woman said, "He is eating but he does not give me any."

The Prophet said, "Come and eat."

The woman said, "I will not eat unless you give me with your own hands."

Thereupon, the Prophet gave her a morsel but this time the woman said,

"I will not eat unless you give me the morsel in your mouth."

The Prophet took the morsel out of his mouth and gave it to the woman. The woman put it in her mouth at once. After eating that morsel, the woman became a modest and shy woman. She did not say any bad words to anybody after that. She became one of the chaste and good women of Madinah. 

Adiyy bin Hatim is the son of Hatim at-Tai, who is famous for his generosity. He was taken to the presence of the Prophet (pbuh) when some of his army was enslaved by the army of Islam and he was defeated. The Prophet made him sit on the mattress while he himself sat on the ground. Besides, when he was with the commander of the enemy army, though he was defeated, he listened to the request of an old woman and met her needs.

He talked to the people of low ranks for Allah and he talked to his friends and enemies, in short, everybody, without needing any show off or ceremony. Thus, he actually changed the customs and habits that people had been accustomed to and replaced them with the correct and more appropriate ones.

A group that Arabs despised and looked down on was slaves. They never sat, walk or ate with them. The Prophet (pbuh) himself eliminated this bad habit.

According to what the Companions narrated, when the slaves invited him to eat even barley bread, he accepted their invitation and ate their food. For, being slaves did not mean that they had to be overlooked and despised.

When the Prophet (pbuh) was with his Companions, he never regarded himself different from them. He acted together with them; he would not choose a separate place for himself; he would join the work to be done and help them.

Once, Hz. Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet, offered him to sit at a separate place by saying that he was sitting squeezed among the Companions and that the people who passed by disturbed him:

"O Messenger of Allah! Let us build a bower under which you can sit in the shade."

The Prophet did not regard such a privilege appropriate and rejected it by saying,

"I will show patience to my Companions stepping on my shoes and pulling my cardigan until I die."

During an expedition, the Prophet (pbuh) asked his Companions to slaughter a sheep and cook it. One of the Companions said,

"O Messenger of Allah! I will slaughter it."

Another one said,

"O Messenger of Allah! I will cook it."

Another one said,

"I will skin it."Thus, they shared the tasks.

The Prophet said,

"I will collect wood."

The Companions did not want to accept it, They said,

"O Messenger of Allah! There are enough people to do it. You do not have to work."

Thereupon, the Prophet showed his unique humbleness and said,

"I know that there are enough people to do it but I do not want to be in a privileged position. For, Allah does not want His slave to be in a privileged position among his Companions."

Before the Battle of Khandaq, all of the Companions worked while the trenches were being dug; they were doing their best to finish digging as soon as possible. The Prophet (pbuh), who was the best example, took a pickaxe and worked, without heeding himself different. He had a stone wrapped around his abdomen due to hunger. 

The Prophet worked in the construction of Masjid Quba and Masjid an-Nababwi in Madinah like a worker; he carried bricks with the Companions.

Hz. Aisha, Hz. Hasan and Abu Said al-Khudri narrates the family life of the Prophet (pbuh) as follows:

"The Prophet did not remain behind locked doors or curtains; he did not want people to bring food to him in plates. He sat on the ground and ate there."

His rank elevated as he acted humbly.

He said, "Allah will elevate a person who acts humbly." He lived in accordance with this principle and set a model to people.

Hz. Husayn asked his father, Hz. Ali, about how the Messenger of Allah acted outside. Hz. Ali described him as follows:

"The Prophet did not speak if there was not something important. He always had good relations with people around him. He did not make them feel scared.

He respected and honored the respected ones of every nation. He also chose a leader for them. He warned people about Allah's punishment; he never lacked in courtesy toward others. He was concerned for them.

He asked about his Companions when they were absent and made himself aware about them. When he met people, he asked them,'How is it going?' He praised good things and supported them. He reacted against bad things and refuted them.

All of the acts of the Prophet were consistent. He had no inconsistent attitudes. He was always alert so that his Companions would not neglect their affairs or feel fed up.

For everything, he had a special arrangement and solution. The best people in the eye of the Prophet were those who did favors to others. The ones with the highest status in the eye of the Prophet were those who shared the problems of the people and helped them."

Hz. Husayn asked his father, Hz. Ali, about how the Prophet was in meetings and talks. Hz. Ali described him as follows:

"The Prophet sat down and stood up with the dhikr of Allah. When he went to a place where people sat, he would not sit in the best place; he sat wherever he found a place, and also instructed the people around him to do so.

The Prophet gave the following order regarding the issue:

'When one of you goes to a place where people are sitting, he should sit at the place that is shown to him; otherwise, he should sit at an appropriate place.'

The Prophet asked the people around him how they were and complimented them. He treated people so sincerely that everybody would think that they were the most valuable people in the eye of the Prophet.

When a person came and sat by the Prophet too long or came to him for some purpose, the Prophet would wait patiently until that person left. Whenever one asked him for something, he would kindly fulfill that request, or he would give a soft answer. He never rejected anyone.

His generosity, soft language and high ethics spread so much among people that he was like a father to them.

Everybody was equal before him like his children as far as rights were concerned.

The meetings of the Prophet were a place where ethical values like knowledge, modesty, trust and patience were taught. Voices were not raised therein, nor was anyone degraded or disgraced. If anyone committed a fault, it was not made known publicly.

All were regarded as equal in his presence. The virtue of one over the other was according to the taqwa. Everybody was humble. The old ones were respected and the young ones were loved.

The needy were given privilege in his meetings. Strangers and travelers were cared for."

16 How many wives did the Prophet (PBUH) have? What is the wisdom of his Polygamy?

The wives of the Prophet were as follows:

Hazrat Khadija; Hazrat Sawda bint Zam’a; Hazrat Aisha; Hazrat Hafsa bint Umar; Hazrat Zaynab bint Huzayma; Hazrat Zaynab bint Jahsh; Hazrat Umm Salama; Hazrat Umm Habiba (Ramla bint Abi Sufyan); Hazrat Juwayriya bint Harith; Hazrat Safiyya bint Huyayy; Hazrat Mariyatu’l-Qibtiyya (Umm Ibrahim); Maymuna bint Harith.

A definite and silencing answer given by Badiuzzaman Said Nursi to the deviant people of today who are like the hypocrites of the past and who think that the marriages of the Prophet were based on his desire and lust is as follows in brief:

Marriage has two main aims: One of them is the continuation of the generation; the second one is satisfying sexual desires legitimately. Continuation of the generation is the primary goal of marriage. Satisfying sexual desires is a small gift given by the Creator in order to ensure the continuation of the generation. It is just like the flavor added to the meal for the continuation of the personal life.  

When the marriages of the Prophet are studied both from the point of view of history and human nature, the following situation is seen:

It is unanimously agreed both by his friends and enemies that he lived as a single person until he was 25, the most enthusiastic period of the youth, that he did not have any intercourse with any woman and that he remained chaste. Besides, his tribe called him “Muhammad al-Amin” a person who is trustable in all aspects. 

As a matter of fact, the community in which he lived regarded relationships with more than one woman as normal. He could have married many virgins before he was 25 and after he got married. However, he did not do so; he married a widow, who was 40 years old and 15 years older than him. This marriage lasted 25 years until his wife died. That is, he was married to one woman only until he was fifty years old.

Another evidence that his marriages were not based on sexual desires lies in the answer he gave to polytheists when they made an offer to him.

The polytheists went to Abu Talib, the Prophet’s uncle, and said to him, “If your nephew wants to be our chief, we will appoint him as our chief; or, we will give him our most beautiful girls and women, if he gives up his cause."

When his uncle conveyed him their message, the Prophet (pbuh) said,

"O my uncle, by Allah, if they put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left in return for my giving up this cause, I would not give it up."

That answer shows what he was trying to do, and it is enough to prove that things like women, leadership that people deemed valuable were worthless in his sight.

His second marriage after the death of Khadija was with Hazrat Sawda, another old widow.

After living with Hazrat Sawda for three years, he lived with only one woman until he was 54 years old. It is interesting that he married more than one woman only in the last ten years of his life. To claim that he married several women in order to satisfy his sexual desires despite knowing these facts can only be possible by denying human nature and historical facts. And such an approach cannot be a just and logical one. It can only be defamation.

We see that in the marriages that took place in the last years of his life, the two main aims, continuation of the generation and satisfying sexual desires, are not present. His generation continued through Hazrat Khadija. He did not have children out of his other marriages; he only had one son, Ibrahim, from Mariya of Egypt but he died when he was one and a half years old. 

As it is seen from the historical facts, the continuation of the generation, which is one of the main aims of marriage, is present only in his marriage with Khadija, not in his other marriages. The secondary aim of marriage is left; that is, satisfying sexual desires. We saw that this aim was not present in the marriages of the Prophet both from the point of view of his nature and the historical facts because a person’s sexual desires are passionate and active the most between the ages of 15 and 45.

If the Prophet had married many beautiful women in that period and then had left them and married other beautiful women, the claims about satisfying his sexual desires could have been true to some extent. However, he did not do so; on the contrary, he married widows with children like Umm Salama in the last ten years of his life (53-63). For instance, Sawda was a widow at the age of 53; Zaynab bint Huzayma was a widow at the age of 50; Umm Salama was a widow at the age of 65 with four children; Umm Habiba was a widow at the age of 55 and Maymuna was a widow with 2 children.

Another historical fact is this: he did not think of divorcing any of them; only those that died left him.

It cannot be denied that it is a natural law and fact that after the period of youth there exists a decrease in sexual desires.

When we analyze the marriages of the Prophet, we see that exemplary situation.

To sum up, sexual aims can be sought in the marriages between the ages of 15 and 45. However, our Prophet never married virgins or young women in that period. On the contrary, he married Hazrat Khadija, who was a widow at the age of 40. And his marriage with Khadija lasted until she died.

Since his marriages with more than one woman took place after the age of 53, it is necessary to look for other aims in those marriages as a necessity of rational thought. It is the necessity of not only the reason and mind but also human nature and a just evaluation to do so.

The School of Pure Wives (Azwaj at-Tahirat)

The period of Madinah was a period when Islamic judgments and decrees were sent down intensively and were taught to the ummah by the Prophet. Male Companions could see the Prophet in Masjid an-Nabawi and ask him about their questions and problems. They learnt from him what, why and how to do. However, it was not so easy for women. They also had questions to ask. Therefore, the women asked the Prophet to allocate one day of the week to them in his house. The Messenger of Allah accepted their offer. Thus, the women started to go to the house of the Prophet and ask their questions about the religion and received answers.

During such a meeting, an interesting event took place. At a moment, the women started to talk among themselves loudly. They were chatting. Meanwhile, Hazrat Umar, who was passing by, was disturbed by the women talking loudly in the presence of the Messenger of Allah and knocked on the door. When he opened the door, the women saw him and stopped talking at once. Hazrat Umar was disturbed when he saw the situation. He could not help warning them and said,

"Ladies! You are scared of me, but you are not scared of talking loudly in the presence of the Messenger of Allah!”Thereupon, the women said sincerely,

“Oh Umar! You are harsh and strict, but the Prophet is not"

Hazrat Umar, who had sacrificed all of his property for the sake of the Messenger of Allah, was not pleased that he was not like the Prophet. The Messenger of Allah noticed it and said,

"Oh Umar! If you walked on a wide street and if the devil saw you coming, he would change his way” to console him. The home of the Prophet was a kind of school for women. Especially the wives of the Prophet were regular students and in a sense teachers of this school. Prof Raşit Küçük, of Marmara University, Faculty of Theology, explains the issue as follows:

"The judgments and decrees of Islam involve both men and women. However, there are some judgments and decrees that involve only men or women. Hazrat Prophet did not have any difficulty in teaching the judgments and decrees that involved both men and women or only men because men were the same gender as him. He had to address women regarding teaching and practicing the issues that involved women and answering the questions of women. The wives of the Prophet, who were at different ages and who had different abilities, acted like teachers for the believing women. That process of teaching continued and even increased after the death of the Prophet." (1993, İzmir, Ebedî Risalet Sempozyumu Tebliği)

As a matter of fact, Allah’s Messenger’s school, which was near Masjid an-Nabawi, consisted of two parts. One of them was the School of Ashab as-Suffa, which consisted of male Companions, and the other was the School of Pure Wives, which consisted of women.

In fact, the rooms of the Pure Wives was like a school and the wives of the Prophet were both like students and teachers of that school because they learned the judgments and decrees of Islam directly from the Messenger of Allah and taught them to the ummah. That duty continued after the death of the Prophet as it was mentioned above. One of the most regular and best students of the School of Ashab as-Suffa was Abu Hurayra, who devoted his life to the preservation of the hadiths of the Prophet and who received the prayer of the Prophet for the strengthening of his memory in order to carry out this duty better; on the other hand, the best student of the School of Pure Wives was Hazrat Aisha, who had superior abilities like intelligence, memory and understanding and who was the unique wife of the Prophet. As a matter of fact, the first one of the "Mukthirun" (people who narrated the most hadiths) was Abu Hurayra, who was the best student of the School of Ashab as-Suffa who narrated 5374 hadiths; Hazrat Aisha, who was the best student of the School of Pure wives was the fourth of the Mukthirun; she narrated 2210 hadiths.

Yes, Islam has brought judgments and decrees involving all levels of life with various levels of importance as the last and perfect religion. The determination, teaching and application of those judgments and decrees was the primary and most important duty of the Era of Bliss because the style and form that Allah would consent to, that is the religion itself, was being determined in every moment and level of life.

When we look at the resources to understand this truth, we see a magnificent treasure of judgments, decrees and secrets conveyed by these mothers of believers, these “Pure Wives”. And the duty of presenting this treasure to the ummah becomes manifest as the unerring purpose of those marriages.

We can say that if we excluded those women and especially Hazrat Aisha, who had a special place among them, about half of the decrees and judgments of the religion of Islam would disappear!

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Will you give information about the viwes of the prophet (PBUH) and his polygamy?

17 Who are the paternal uncles and other elderly relatives of the Prophet? How many paternal uncles did the Prophet have? What are their names?

It is stated that Hz. Prophet (pbuh) had ten paternal uncles. They were eleven brothers including the Prophet's father. Their names were, Harith, Zubayr, Abu Talib, Abu Lahab, Qusam, Dirar, Muqawwim, Hajl, Hz. Hamza and Hz. Abbas.

The Elderly Relatives of the Prophet

Qusay bin Kilab, one of the grandfathers of the Prophet (pbuh), took the entrusted objects of the Kaaba from the tribe of Khuzaa; he managed the Kaaba well and made his tribe a prestigious one and gathered them around the Kaaba. Therefore, his tribe was given the name Quraysh (gather, unite).

Hashim, the father of Hz. Prophet's grandfather, is the first person who started trade expeditions from Makkah to Yemen in winter and to Damascus in summer. He even made a contract with the Byzantine Empire and enabled the Qurayshi merchants to be exempted from trade taxes in Byzantium.

Abdulmuttalib, the grandfather of the Messenger of Allah, was tall and blond. He had a nice beard.

The name of Hz. Prophet's father's mother was Fatima; the name of his mother's mother was Barra.

The Prophet had no maternal uncles.

The writer called Ibn Habib wrote a remarkable book called “Ummuhatun-Nabi” showing the grandmothers of the Messenger of Allah up to twenty generations.

The Prophet (pbuh) had six paternal aunts. They were: Bayda, Barra, Atika, Safiyya, Arwa, Umayma. Atika, Safiyya and Arwa were believers.

Hz. Prophet (pbuh) had two maternal aunts called Farida and Fahita. They died before he became a prophet.

18 Can love of Allah be regarded the same as love of the Prophet?

It is the order of our religion to love Allah more than everything. The way to love Allah is to love the Prophet (pbuh), who lives in the way that Allah loves, and to follow his way.

As a matter of fact, the following is stated in the Quran:

"O Messenger! Say, ‘If ye do love Allah, Follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins: For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.’" (Aal-i Imran, 3/31)

To love Allah is the highest target of human nature. Thus, it is the highest purpose that Islam leads people to realize. The verse contains the following definite comparison:

“If you love Allah, follow the Beloved One of Allah. If you do not follow him, it means you do not love Allah.”

The opposite of this is as follows:

“I love Allah but I do not obey His order. I do not love the ones He loves. I do not love those who love Him and show His way and those whom He chose and sent.” This means, “I do not love anything except myself; I do not want to walk on the way of oneness.”

Allah, who created this universe in such a nice way with the manifestations of His power, perfection and beauty, and who grants so many boons to His slaves, definitely expects gratitude from them. He chooses a distinguished one among people and makes him a guide and a perfect model for them. Thus, he wants the beauties in them to be reflected on other people too.

19 What is the meaning of the name Muhammad? Did the Prophet (pbuh) use this name for the first time?

The name Muhammad means praised many times, praised repeatedly and having nice characteristics.

Muhammad is one of the names of the Prophet (pbuh). This name was given to him by his grandfather Abdulmuttalib so that Allah and His slaves would praise him. It is mentioned in four places in the Quran.

This name was not used by any ancestors of the Prophet. However, some people used that name in that period.