FAQ in the category of Knowing the Creator and understanding Creation through Questions

1 Question 1: How long is it since the creation of the first man?

ABSTRACT

One of the most difficult issues of scientific studies is to express opinions about the past of life because it is not possible to experience or relive the past in the laboratory. Another reason for the difficulty of the issue is the fact that the current laws of physics and chemistry did not function when beings were first created. For, time, space and beings, that is, everything was created out of nothing.

Both radioactive method and other methods used to determine the age of geological and archaeological materials are not as sensitive as they are desired since they are based on a number of assumptions and predictions.

The values ​​put forward by science and philosophy and the values ​​reported by the holy resources about the date of the creation of the first man are discussed separately in this study.

According to the fossil record, the first appearance of life on earth is regarded as about 2 billion years before today. It is stated that today's human beings appeared on the earth during the Holocene period about 25 thousand years ago.

All heavenly religions state that man was created by Allah. Although there are some differences in various denominations and interpretations of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, there is consensus on creation. Heavenly religions agree that matter is not pre-eternal, that the universe has a beginning and an end, that the world was created by Allah, that it will be destroyed by Allah too and that a new realm will start after that.

It is necessary to know the meanings of the terms day and year informed by Allah in order to understand the past of beings and humanity. 

The age of humanity should be calculated based on the movement of the earth around its axis. On the other hand, the period from the first moment of life on earth to the apocalypse should be calculated based on the movement of the sun around its axis. In addition, the age of the universe should be calculated by the day occurring as a result of the movement of Vega star around its own axis.

In other words, the age of humanity is seven thousand years, and the age of the living beings is seven thousand years; similarly, the age of the universe is seven thousand years too. However, the age of humanityshould be evaluated based on earth day, the age of plant and animal life based on solar day and the life of the universe based on Vega Star day.

If the age of humanity is seven thousand years based on earth day, the period between the beginning of life, that is, the formation of plants and animals, to Doomsday will be approximately two hundred thousand years based on solar day, which is about two and a half billion earth days. Considering that one Vega day is fifty thousand years based on earth day as the Quran indicates it, the age of the universe, the period of seven thousand years, will be equal to 126 billion years based on the calculation of one year as 360 days.

Keywords: Age of humanity, Age determination, Earth day and sun day.

DIFFICULTY OF UNDERSTANDING THE PAST

One of the most difficult issues of scientific studies is to express opinions about the past of life because it is not possible to experience or relive the past in the laboratory. Another reason for the difficulty of the issue is the fact that the current laws of physics and chemistry did not function when beings were first created. For, time, space and beings, that is, everything was created out of nothing.

It is seen that people, especially young people, perceive the figures based on age determinations related to the past as definite values. However, no being that dies is buried with its birth certificate. Therefore, the age of a being is tried to be found out through some methods and comparisons. Thus, the values that are obtained are often estimated and approximate figures.

In order to understand what this means, we will briefly mention the methods commonly used in determining the ages of both living beings and non-living beings. They are as follows:

1-Age Determination Methods According to Philosophical Views and the Age of Humanity

2-The Age of Humanity According to Demographic Calculations

3-The Age of Humanity According to Heavenly Religions

1.1-AGE DETERMINATION METHODS ACCORDING TO PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWS AND THE AGE OF HUMANITY

The past of man is shaped according to Darwinism in science today. According to this view, human beings emerged from other living beings in the form of a chain through evolution and the ape, the ancestor of man, emerged about 500,000 years ago.

Various methods are used to determine the age of the universe, the age of living beings and the age of human beings.

The age of the universe, that is, the time that passed from the creation of the universe to the present day, is calculated by the formulas developed by taking into account the speed of the galaxies moving away, which came into being out of nothing and which were formed as matter.

The most reliable source about the past of living things is fossils. The earth is divided into five time periods based on the existing fossils. They are as follows:

Early Era (Cryptozoic), PrimaryEra (Paleozoic), SecondaryEra (Mesozoic), TertiaryEra (Cenozoic) and QuaternaryEra (Tropozoic). They include subdivisions like Periods and Epochs.

Fossils of Algae were found in the rocks of the Antecambrian Period of the Early Era. Therefore, it is estimated that the first life started in this era, approximately 2 billion years ago, with algae. The algae, whichalso exist today, live in seas and lakes.

The earth was separated from the sun, was placed in its current orbit and formed a crust by cooling over time. It is suitable in terms of wisdom and practice that the algae, which are suitable for the living conditions in these seas and which can feed on little food, were created with the formation of the seas.

In parallel with the development of the conditions on earth about 550 million years ago, in the Cambrian Era, Trilobites, Mollusks and Brachiopods like mussels having two cells were seen.

As it can be seen, biologically different plant and animal species coexist in the same geological periods. For example, the diversity in the carboniferous period is not a continuation of species in terms of structure and shape as evolutionists claim.

Similarly, there is no chainin which living beings resemble one another in successive periods. It is understood that each of the higher plants and animals was created separately in accordance with the developed environmental conditions (Table 1).

The living groups sent to the earth have remained unchanged since the era when they emerged.

Some big living groups such as Dinosaurs lived and disappeared for some reason in the past. Dinosaurs were created with characteristics peculiar to them and were eliminated by the creator afterwards.

Radioactive age determination methods are used based on geological and paleontological methods in determining the age of living and non-living beings.1

1.1.1-Geological Dating

Comparison is essential in this method. For instance, if the carboniferous land in a region resembles the land in another region in terms of rocks, fossils and morphological structure, it is decided that the land in the second region has the same carboniferous age.

1.1.2-Paleontological Dating

In this method, the age of the rock is determined based on the types of fossils the rock includes.In geological eras, there were fossils that existed for short spans of time and vanished. They are called “Characteristic or Key Fossils” or “Layer-Determining Fossils”(Table 1).

Table 1.Characteristic organisms used in determining the age of geological eras.

Layer-determining fossils are like calendars in a sense and they are of significant importance in determining the geological age of the sediment they are located in. For instance, Trilobites, which emerged suddenly at the beginning of the Paleozoic Era, spread to a large area in a very short time and suddenly disappeared at the end of the Paleozoic Era. Therefore, the age of sediment in which Trilobites exit is Paleozoic. Similarly, Ammonites indicate the Mesozoic, Nummulites the Tertiary and mammals the Quaternary age.

Judging by characteristic fossils that lived in different ages and eras, “Geological Columns”, which display the age of each era and layer-determining fossils they include, have been formed. With the help of a characteristic fossil which might be found in an area, the age of that area is determined from that geological column.

We have mentioned above that the ages of rocks are determined based on the index fossils they contain. However, how do we know which index fossils show which age? The answer is "Evolution". In other words, since it is claimed that evolution takes place in the same way all over the world, the evolution stages of organisms living in a certain age are regarded as an unerring criterion to recognize the sediments stored in that age.

The only way to arrange the rocks in chronological order is through fossils. The criterion required to put fossils in a specific place in this chronology is the idea that "life evolves from simple to complex".

The evolution of living beings is built on fossil record. The evidence of evolution is fossils. Fossils are arranged in chronological order according to the idea of evolution. Thus, the issue turned into a strong system of reasoning in the form of a vicious circle.2

It is stated as follows that the only evidence showing that life evolved from simple forms is fossils:

“Fossils provide the only evidence based on historical data that life evolves from the simple to the complex.3

1.1.3- Age Determination through RadioactiveMethod

The most important radioactive elements are uranium thorium and carbon 14 (C14).

a-Uranium Method

Uranium has two isotopes. The first one is U238, whose half-life is 4.5 billion years. The other one is U235, whose half-life of is 0.7 billion years. They generate lead isotopes as follows by giving off definite proportions of Helium atom:

b-Thorium Method

The half-life of Thorium (Th232) is 14,1 billion of years. By giving off definite proportions of Helium atom, they generate lead isotopes

Three isotopes of lead exist in galenite (PbS), which is a normal lead mineral. It is possible to find Pb204, which is another isotope of lead, in any layer that contains these elements. That is why, it is called "common lead". Although the amount of the other isotopes always increased throughout geologic eras, the amount of Pb204 always remained the same. Therefore, the importance of Pb204 in finding radiometric age is great. In a mineral that contains lead, when the amount of Pb204 is subtracted from the general amount of lead, the Pb isotopes that are the outcome of radioactive degradation remain. When their amounts are determined, the age of the mineral they are located in is found.

Objectionable Aspects of UraniumAge Determination Methods

It is possible to summarize theobjectionable aspects of the methods of age determination depending on radioactive decay of uranium as follows:

1. Uranium minerals are always found in open systems.

Since the rock consisting uranium is not in a closed system, it is exposed to external effects. For instance, uranium can easily resolve in ground water. Radon gas, an intermediate element, may easily pass inside or outside the uranium system.

Henry Fauld, an expert on radioactive age determination, points out to the following regarding the issue:

“In geological time, both uranium and lead translocated in shale. Detailed analysis showed appropriate ages have not been determined with these elements. Similar drawbacks are encountered in attempts of age determination of mineral ores which consist uranium and radium. It is known that different ages are found on samples taken from the same points and plenty of chemical activities took place”.4

2. The disintegration rate of uranium might be changeable.

Since radioactive degradation is controlled by atomic structure, it is not easily affected by other events. Nevertheless, factors that are able to affect atomic structures might also affect radioactive disintegration rate. The most outstanding example to this is cosmic radiation and neutrinos.

Another example is free neutrinos that come out of reactors or that are generated out of various reasons. If anything that might increase the amount of these particles on the earth is to occur, it is sure to accelerate radioactive disintegration rates.

3. Daughter elements might have been present therein where the layer began to form. It is possible that radiogenic daughter elements generated by the disintegration of uranium and thorium might have been already present when these minerals began to form. It has been found today that rocks produced by lava flowing through the internal layers of the earth consist of both radiogenic and combined lead.

4. All of the daughter elements might not be peculiar to that layer. All of the daughter elements produced by radioactive disintegration might not remain in the same layer; other daughter elements produced in a different layer might have moved there.

5-It is not possible to determine for a rock containing a radioactive element how much time passed before thatradioactive element existed in it.

c-RadiocarbonFourteen (C14) Method

Radiocarbon is the name given to the unstable isotope Carbon fourteen (C14). Carbon twelve (C12) is called “natural carbon” and it is not radioactive.  Radiocarbon is produced from the reactions among nitrogen-fourteen (N14) in the atmosphere, as a result of cosmic radiation in the superior layer of atmosphere. Itshalf-life is 5730 years.

Carbon-14, which is generated in the atmosphere, is immediately oxidized as CO2 and spreads to the air, water and to living organisms. Normally, the ratio of radioactive carbon dioxide and non-radioactive carbon dioxide (C14/C12) in the air is fixed and it is accepted that 100 years should pass so that this fixed rate can be reached.

The ratio of C14/C12 in living organisms should be fixed as well. The equality of this ratio does not change as long as the organism is alive. However, when the organism dies, the ratio of C14 to C12 decreases gradually since the organism cannot take CO2 in from the air any longer. When this decreasing ratio reaches 1/2, the length of time from the death of that organism must be 5730 years because the half-life of C14 is 5730 years.

Radiocarbon-fourteen method can only be used to determine the ages around 80 thousand years at most. For older materials, uranium method is applied. 

Objectionable Aspects of Radiocarbon-FourteenAge  

Determination Method

Radiocarbon-fourteen method is criticized because it is based on some assumptions. Here are the opposed points:

1. A number of living systems do not have the standard ratio of C14/C12. Carbon-14 method is based on an assumption claiming that when all living organisms die, they include a standard ratio of C14/C12. Nevertheless, many samples did not display this ratio. For example, with this method, the age of living mollusks was determined to be 2300 years old. Such ratio shows that the environment the organism is in includes higher amount of C14 than expected and therefore, there is an exchange of carbon between the organism and the environment.5

2. Radiocarbon might not decrease at a stable rate in each organism. Radiocarbon disintegration is influenced by environmental radioactivity, especially free neutrons and cosmic radiation, and their disintegration rates change as a result.

3.The rate of natural carbon might have been different in the past.

In the past, the vegetation was either more or less than it is now on the earth. The ratio of C14/C12, therefore, is to be higher or lower. For this reason, the radiocarbon age of the materials of these periods is to be measured older or younger than the true age. The same thing applies to the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. If volcanoes had emitted carbon dioxide in the past, the amount of carbon dioxide at that time should be different than it is now.

 4. The rate of radiocarbon might not have reached a stable condition. It is assumed that the ratio of C14/C12 reaches a stable condition at a certain length of time. In other words, the amount of C14 in the atmosphere is equal to the amount of C14 disintegrated on the earth. For this reason, the incoming and outgoing amount of C14 needs to be equal. However, there are some things which prove that this is not always like that. As a matter of fact, it is stated that the measurable amount of radiocarbon generated in a year on the earth is 25% more than the amount of disintegrated radiocarbon,,6,7,8

Conclusion

Both radioactive method and other methods used to determine the age of geological and archaeological materials are not as sensitive as they are desired since they are based on a number of assumptions and predictions. For this reason, some doubts arise on the correctness of ages determined. However, as there are similar errors in age-determination of every material, findings are important in terms of being approximate ages rather than exact ages. For example, material A, which is found to be 150 million years old, is three times older than material B, which is found to be 50 million years old. That is to say, if material B is 15 thousand years old indeed, the material A should be 45 thousand years old.

There are no other alternatives that can give better results for the methods mentioned above.

According to the fossil record, the first appearance of life on earth is regarded as about 2 billion years before today. It is stated that today's human beings appeared on the earth during the Holocene period about 25 thousand years ago. (Table 1 and 2).

It is seen that the coexistence of different species in a certain period does not confirm the evolutionist claim that a species came into being in a chain from simple to perfect with the living beings existing in the periods before and after them, and that species were created completely independently from one another.

1.1.4-Fossils put forward as man’s ancestor

According to the evolutionist view, the ape and the man hada common ancestor in the past. It is claimed that the first ancestor was Parapithecus. The information about Parapithecus is based on two molar teeth on a jawbone found in Egypt. It is estimated tobe 38 million years old.

However, this being does not have the dental specialization seen in the apescoming after it. It is claimed that one arm of this beingbrought about the old-world monkeys today andthat the other arm brought about humanoid monkeys and the ancestor of man. However, there are different opinions in this regard. For, the fossils that were found in the Oligocene period and that belong to the Parapithecus are very insufficient and it is not clear which group they belong to.9

Ramapitheus, Australopithecus and Homo erectus are put forward as a continuation of this series However, no systematic link has been established between above-mentioned forms so far.(Table 2).

Table2- The imaginary table put forward by evolutionists as the evolutionary scheme of man.

It has been proved that all of the fossils put forward as the ancestor of man were fake and that they belonged to different living beings.

Despite this, the view that man and ape have a common ancestor, which is a positivist ideology based on atheism, has been insistently and systematically presented as scientific information to the societies in the world. We will mention them briefly:

a- Ramapithecus (Long-armed ape),

b-Australopithecus (Southern ape)

c- Java Man(Pithecanthropus erectus) (Homo erectus)

a-Ramapithecus (Long-armed ape)

This primate, which is known from its jawbone and which is assumed to have lived in Pliocene, that is, about 14 million years ago, is regarded as “ape man”. It is claimed that the chin and tooth structures of it resemble those of man.

It is stated in the latest research on the teeth of Ramapithecusthat the chin and tooth structures of it resemble those of chimpanzees, not man.10

It is accepted in the research on the fossil of Ramapithecusthat they resemble monkeys with high structure like chimpanzees and gorillas morphologically, ecologically and in terms of behavior. There is no evidence showing that it walked upright.11

b-Australopithecus (Southern ape)

This name was given to various fossils found by Louis Leakey and many others in East Africa. The fossils found by Dart were named as “Australopithecus africanus” (African man). Then, the following were included in the same group: Zinjanthropus, Paranthropus, Pleisanthropus, Telanthropus and Homo habilis. Australopithecus is proposed as a hominid being that lived two to three million years ago, walked upright and used coarse tools. The brain volume is about 500 cc, the same as in some monkeys with high structure. Its teeth are claimed to be similar to those of Ramapithecus.

Australopithecuswas grouped under two types. One of them is Australopithecus africanus and the other is Australopithecus robustus.

1-Australopithecus africanus (African Man)

It was found in Africa by Dart in 1924. It has small teeth, small jaws and a thin structure. The volume of the skull is estimated to be about 1/3 of today’s human being, i.e. 500 cc; its age is estimated to be 1.8-2.6 million years (Figure 1).

Figure 1. African Man (Australopithecus africanus) (Lucy Man). It is stated that each of the fossils in this skeleton belongs to different living beings. The lower left image was drawn based on this skeleton.

2-Australopithecus boisei (robustus, zinjanthropus)

This form is regarded as a variant of Australopithecus robustus. It was discovered in 1959 by Leakey in Tanzania. It has very thick teeth and thick jaws; its upper temple bones protrude as in gorillas and orangutans. The teeth arch and the jaw curve are very parabolic. It is similar to orangutans and chimpanzees of higher apes. The skull volume is stated to be 500 cc and the age is 2 million years.

 It is claimed based on some pieces of the pelvis, arm and foot bones of both Australo­pit­he­cusafricanus and Australo­pit­he­cusrobustus that Australopithecus was an upright walking being.12

Oxnard and Zuckerman, who investigated the Australopithecus fossil for years, state that Australopithecus is not an upright walking being. Oxnard and Zuckerman’s multi-faceted statistical research on Australopithecus africanus’ hand, wrist, foot, shoulder and pelvic bones shows that they do not resemble man, but orangutan and chimpanzee.13

Zuckerman, who worked with a team on Australopithecus africanusfor 15 years states the following:

It is impossible for Australopithecus africanusto be the ancestor of man”.14

  Montagu states that all Australopithecus resemble monkeys with high structure (apes) in their head structure.15

c- Java Man (Pithecanthropus erectus) (Homo erectus)

It is accepted that Java man lived about 500 thousand years ago. It is stated that it walked upright and that its brain volume was 1000 cc.

In 1887, the Dutch anatomist Eugene Dubois set out with his wife and children to Java, a Dutch colony in East India, as “a health care worker for the Dutch army”.

Some prisoners were sent to the excavation by the Solo River near the village of Trinil, and soldiers were assigned the duty of controlling of the excavation. It is stated that Dubois did not participate in the field work in these excavations and that he examined the findings of the workers brought to him periodically at home.16

In 1891, Dubois put aside a tooth and a skull found one month after the other in the same fossil bed among the bones that were brought to him. However, their exact location could not be determined because they were not recorded during the excavation.

A few months later, however, the prisoners found a femur at the same site. Dubois combined these pieces to form Pithecanthropus erectus (Upright Walking Ape-Man). The brain volume of this being was about 900 cc. A small molar tooth was found in 1898. It was stated that those teeth also belonged to Pithecanthropus said. The age of this being was estimated to be 500 thousand years (Figure 2).

When Dubois introduced those fossils at the International Congress of Zoology held in Leyden in 1895, the British zoologists claimed that those fossils belonged to man, the Germans claimed that they belonged to human-like apes, and the French stated that they belonged to a transition form between a higher form of ape and man

Figure 7. The picture of Java Man (Homo erectus), which is assumed to be the “ancestor of man”, drawn based on the fossils

According to some, it is certain that Java man is “man’s ancestor”. As a matter of fact, Atıf Şengün expresses it as follows:

The being that was seen about 700 thousand years ago and that is certainly the ancestor of today’s man is Java Man (Pithecantropus erectus)”.17

Koenigswald is of the opinion that the big molar tooth of Java Man belongs to an orangutan and the small one to a human. He states that the skull is similar to that of chimpanzees and gibbons.18

The being called “Java Man” is in fact a chimpanzee or gorilla type of ape. The skull of the ape was combined with the human thigh bone and that it was given the name “Pithecanthropus erectus”.19

As a matter of fact, Dubois admitted thirty years later that the being he presented as Java Man (Pithecanthropus erectus) was actually a big gibbon monkey.20

This explanation of Dubois is included as follows in the Encyclopedia of Archeology:

     “At first, there was much opposition to the status implied by the name the ape-man, ‘who walked erect’, but it became generally accepted though Dubois himself finally changed his mind and said that the fossils he found belonged to a giant ape, but this skull gained general acceptance.21

Oddly enough, some scientists, especially the ones in the Islamic world, interpret verses of the Quran and hadiths by accepting this Java Man (Homo erectus group), which is claimed to be the ancestor of human beings, as a fact. It was like that in the past and now some people insistently claim that this fossil is the common ancestor of man and ape. If it is gullibility, it is not possible to understand such gullibility.

  Almost none of the fossil materials belonging to the past have integrity. In other words, the fossil material at hand represents a very small part of the organism to whichit is claimed to belong. The fact that parts belonging to different organisms were brought together with the assumption that they belong to one species plays a major role in it. In addition, there may be big errors in fossil age determinations.

 It has been proved that the beings such as Peking Man, Piltdown Man and Nebraska Man, which have been put forward by Darwinists as the ancestor of man up to now, were ape fossils that were deliberately or mistakenly assembled and some of which were shaped with plaster.22

d-The Confessions of Darwinists about the Ancestor of Man

Some evolutionist scientists who approach the issue through the eyes of an impartial scientist admit that the ancestor of man is not based on an ape or a lower being but that the ancestor of man was created independently. One of them, Schiller states that the human species emerged differently from other living beings with the following statement:

The fossils about the past of man could not show the transitional forms that were expected. After that, it can easily be said that we did not evolve from a being lower than man and that we come from our own lineage”.23

Robert Eckhardt, Professor of Anthropology at Pennsylvania State University, states that there is no fossil showing the existence of man’s ancestor as follows:

In the Hominoids series, there is no fossil with a morphology showing that man has a hominid ancestor”.24

The famous paleontologist David Pilbeam states that the materials that are available are insufficient to decide about the past of man:

Introductory books - or book reviews - are hardly the place to argue that perhaps generations of students of human evolution, including myself, have been flailing about in the dark: that our data base is too sparse, too slippery, for it to be able to mold our theories.”.25

David Pilbeam states that the theories they put forward in the past were ideological as follows:

I am aware of the settled presuppositions in us about the past of man. I really try hard to remove them from my mind. Our theories in the past reflected our ideology at that time rather than the real information we had.26

Geoffrey Clark, Arizona State University anthropologist, attracts attention to the fact that they moved based on a bias and preconception related to determining the past of man as follows in the book he wrote in 1997:

Scientists have been trying to arrive at a consensus about modern human origins for more than a century. Why have they not been successful? It is because paleoanthropologists proceed from such different biases, preconceptions and assumptions. Thus, explanatory models of human evolution are little more than a house of cards — remove one card... and the whole structure of inference is threatened with collapse”.27

Michael Ruse, the Canadian evolutionist and biology philosopher complains that evolution was transformed into a “religion”:

If people want to make a religion of evolution, that is their business.However, they go beyond the strict science, moving into moral and social claims, thinking of their theory as an all-embracing world picture, and there is a slide from science”.28

Henry Gee, a senior editor of the science journal Nature,attracts attention to the insufficiency of fossils as follows:

No fossil is buried with its birth certificate. That, and the scarcity of fossils, means that it is effectively impossible to link fossils into chains of cause and effect in any valid way. The intervals of time that separate fossils are so huge that we cannot say anything definite about their possible connection through ancestry and descent. It is hard enough, with written records, to trace a human lineage back a few hundred years. All evidences about a few thousand species generations and the evolution of man can fit in a small box. Therefore, the human evolution diagram we have in the form of ancestors and lineages is a human invention and is shaped based on human prejudices.To take a line of fossils and claim that they represent a lineage is not a scientific hypothesis that can be tested, but an assertion that carries the same validity as a bedtime story—amusing, perhaps even instructive, but not scientific”.29

It can easily be said based all the information above that there is no evidence to support that “man comes from an ape-like ancestor”. There is no intermediate or transitional form coming from ape and reachingman. Furthermore, fossil records show that there are no transitional forms among other animal groups. Those results support the idea that man “was created specially”.

1.2-THE AGE OF HUMANITY ACCORDING TO DEMOGRAPHIC CALCULATIONS30

When the demographic calculation is made for a country,

 F = Peni (1)

mathematic model no 1 is used.31  F in the formula shows the future value, P shows the present value, e the natural logarithm, n the period (year) and i growth rate.

According to the United Nations Population Division, the world population growth is estimated as follows:32:

Table 3- World Population Growth.

According to the table above, the world population increased with quite a high growth rate between 1950 and 2013 as 1.7%but the growth rate between 1000 and 2013 is calculated as

Since the population in the world started with Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa (Eve), since it increased at a rate of 0.3% every year and since the human population is 7.5 billion today, the time period between the creation of Hz. Adam and the present day is calculated as follows according to formula no 1:

If the average growth rate of the world weretwo per thousand (0.2%), the period between the creation of Hz. Adam and the present day would be 11,022 years; if it were one per thousand (0.1%), it would be 22,045 years. According to the historical growth rate of the world population, the rate 0.3% should be taken into account; therefore, we think about 7.348 years passed from the creation of the first man in the world. 

1.2.1-The history of humanity does not comply with the view of Darwin according to the mathematical method

Demographic calculations show thatthe view of Darwin does not comply with the facts. As it can be remembered, we calculate the population of countries by using the formula F=Peni. The United Nations Population Division accept that the average growth rate of the world population is three per thousand (0.3) up to now; even if we accept that the average growth rate of the world population is one per thousand (0.1), and only two apes became monkeys through evolution, it will be found out that for a process of  500,000 years today,

    F= 2e(0,001x500.000) = 5.1215

people should live in the world. In mathematics, the number 5.1215is a very large undescribed number.About 7.5 billion people live in the world. If a process as Darwinists claimed functioned, 6,8205 times more people instead of 7.5 billion people living in the world today would live now, which is unimaginable.  For example, if Homo sapiens had been seen 50 thousand years ago instead of 500 thousand or 250 thousand years ago, 1.01x1022 people would in the world now, which means 1.34 billion times the current world population; it is unreasonable. If the world population growth rate is three per thousand, the current world population would be 5,1645 people; as it is seen, these calculations are the biggest proof of the inconsistency of the view of evolution, and this view does not match the facts. In that case, how can it be claim that man comes from ape?

1.3-THE AGE OF HUMANITY ACCORDING TO HEAVENLY RELIGIONS

All heavenly religions state that man was created by Allah. Although there are some differences in various denominations and interpretations of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, there is consensus on creation. Heavenly religions agree that matter is not pre-eternal, that the universe has a beginning and an end, that the world was created by Allah, that it will be destroyed by Allah too and that a new realm will start after that.

It is necessary to know the meanings of the terms day and year informed by Allah in order to understand the past of beings and humanity.  

We will present some verses from the three heavenly books related to the past of humanity:

 1.3.1-The Torah (The Old Testament)

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth”.33 It is stated after this verse that God created light, seas, stars and living beings. It is stated that the time period between Adam and the present day is 10.000 years34-35.

1.3.2- The Gospel (The New Testament)

 “The God who made the world and everything in it is the Lord of heaven and earth… He himself gives everyone life and breath and everything else…From one man He made all the nations, that they should inhabit the whole earth36.

The first man Adam became a living being…The first man was of the dust of the earth …”37.

Through Him (God) all things were made; without Him nothing was made that has been made…”38.

1.3.3-The Quran

It is stated in the Quran that the first man was created out of dust, that his wife Hz. Hawwa (Eve) was created from him. The creation stages of their offspring, that is, the people living today, are mentioned in various verses. Some of them are as follows:

“We created man from sounding clay, from mud molded into shape”.39

“Man We did create from a quintessence (of clay); Then We placed him as (a drop of) sperm in a place of rest, firmly fixed; Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a (fetus) lump; then we made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then we developed out of it another creature. So blessed be Allah, the best to create!”.40

  “Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?41

As it is seen, heavenly religions state that creation took place in accordance with a law and a system, as biology and medicine have discovered and approved today.

When Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwawere sent to the world, the world had reached a structure with a maturity that human beings could live; they met on Safa Hill near Makkah. In addition, Hz. Adam also built the Kaaba in Makkah. Today, visitors to Makkah see both the Kaaba and the meeting place on Safa Hill.

It is clear that the acts of working, hunting, producing, saving, sharing and consuming, in order to meet physiological needs like eating, drinking, taking shelter and living,and economic activities occurred as man was taken out of Paradise and sent to the earth. When Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa came together in the world, formed a family and lived for a long time like 930 years or 1.000 years, a human society of 40.000 people formed.42

The human society, which started with two people, is about 7.5 billion people today.

The following is stated is stated in a hadith reported from the Prophet: “The lifespan of humanity is 7,000 years”43.This hadith represents an approach and it confirms the calculations of population mentioned above.

1.3.4-How should we understand the concepts of time and day in the divine decrees?

There are different interpretations in heavenly religions related to understanding the day and year that Allah reports about the creation times of beings.

As it is known, the day is the time of the rotation of the earth around itself and it is 24 hours. The year is a full rotation of the earth around the sun and it is about 366 days.

The time of rotation of each planet and star in space is different. The earth rotates around itself in one day but Mercury makes its rotation in 58.5 days (of earth day). While the Earth rotates around the sun in one year, Pluto rotates around the sun in 248 years (of earth day)44.

Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the concepts of day and year Allah mentions in the creation of the universe and beings accordingly.

As a matter of fact, God Almighty states the following in the Quran:

He Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between, in six days” (al-Furqan 59).

It is not possible to understand one rotation of the earth around itself from the term “day” in the verse because the deed of creation is in question for the whole universe and it is not certain the day of what planet will be considered as a criterion. Besides, planets did not exist in the first creation. In addition, the issue is clarified in another verse as follows:

“Verily a Day in the sight of thy Lord is like a thousand years of your reckoning” (al-Hajj 22/47).

1.3.5-How long is it since the creation of the first man?

There are various verses and hadiths about the past of the humanity and the time of the formation of the universe. However, they are either implied or mentioned by similes. Therefore, there are different narrations about when Hz. Adam was created and what the age of the universe is. 

It is mentioned in the Quran that the skies and the earth were created in six days, that the earth was created in two days and that plants and animals were created in four days45,46,47.

According to a hadith reported from Abu Hurayra, the Prophet said,

“Allah created the clay on Saturday and He created the mountains on Sunday and He created the trees on Monday and He created makruh on Tuesday and created light on Wednesday and He caused the animals to spread on Thursday and created Adam after Asr (the afternoon) on Friday; the last creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday, i. e. between afternoon and night”.48

God Almighty states in a verse that a day in the sight of Him is like a thousand years of our reckoning and in another verse that it is like fifty thousand years. Since there is no clarity about what to understand from the term “day” in those verses, Islamic scholars had different approaches to the issue49-50.

Since it is stated in the Quran that the skies and the earth were created in six days, some Islamic scholars indicate that humanity and the animal kingdom will live for six days and the lifespan of the universe can be parallel to them. The days equal to a thousand years and fifty thousand years are regarded as an “era” representing centuries and years.51

It is not possible to give that period exactly but an approximate number can be expressed. It is state in some resources that the history of humanity, that is the period from the creation of Adam to Doomsday can be regarded as seven thousand years. 

Badiuzzaman Said Nursiinterpretsthe hadith“La tazalu taifatun min ummati zahirina alal-haqqi hatta ya’tiyallahu bi amrihi(A group from my nation is going to come and be victorious upon true path until the order of Allah arrives),indicating the end of time with abjad calculationas follows:

Allah knows best but I understand from the hadith that the service of belief will continue victoriously until 1506 H, in defeat between 1506 and1542 and that human history will end in 1545.The original text is as follows:

There is an important hadith giving information about the end of time:

“La tazalu taifatun min ummati zahirina alal-haqqi hatta ya’tiyallahu bi amrihi”

This hadith suddenly came to my mind in the second hour of the tenth day of the month of Ramadan. Maybe I was suddenly reminded it since I was thinking about how long will the group of Risale-i Nur students will follow.

“La tazalu taifatun min ummati” - If shadda is considered and tanwin is not considered - this phrase implies according to the numerical value of jafr reckoning that it will continue until 1542 H. Nobody knows the Unknown except Allah.

“Zahirina alal-haqqi”- If shadda is considered - this phrase implies according to the numerical value of jafr reckoning that religious activities will be carried out obviously, openly and even victoriously until 1506 H, and then the guidance and illumination mission will keep going secretly and in a defeated way until 1542 H. The knowledge is with Allah. Nobody knows the Unknown except Allah.

Hatta ya’tiyallahu bi amrihi”If shadda is considered - this phrase implies according to the numerical value of jafr reckoning that Doomsday will break forth over the unbelievers in 1545. Nobody knows the Unknown except Allah.

It should be noticed, and it is surprising that although the three phrases in agreement give the date  one thousand five hundred, it refers in a completely meaningful and wise manner to the dates from 1506 to 1542 and 1545, coinciding one by one to the times of the three great changes.

However, since these implications are merely some convenience, they cannot be considered evidence and they are not strong, but I believed it to be true since I got the warning suddenly. No one can know the exact date for Doomsday, but such implications can build a sort of opinion, a strong possibility.

The abjad and jafr value of the phrase “Alladhina an’amta alayhim”in the chapter of al-Fatiha, describing those being on the straight path is 1506 or 1507 without shadda, which is equal to the value ofthe phrase“Zahirina alal-haqqi”,and corresponds with its meaning and if shadda is considered, it fully complies with and spiritually confirms the phrase “La tazalu taifatun min ummati” with three significant differences, which confirms the implication of the hadith and elevates it to the level of a sign.

The knowledge is with Allah. Nobody knows the Unknown except Allah”.52

On the other hand, that year is given as 1560 H in the interpretation of the chapter of al-Asr. The year 1547 or 1577 is indicated in the interpretation of the chapter of al-Fatiha. 

The original text is as follows:

“This is a note for the point called mountain fruit of the chapter of al-Asr:

The “ta”at the end of the word “Assalihat”can be counted as “ha” in terms of jafr calculation when there is a stop or comma at the end of the word. Illais together. At this point (1358), it shows the current year. And because it is not pronounced as “ha”, the “ta” can remain. In this respect, if the shaddas are not counted, and if “illa” is not together, it indicates that a great community, with faith and good deeds, will continue to struggle against great damages for about two hundred years.The phrase “Siratalladhinaan’amta alayhim(The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace)at the end of the chapter of al-Fatiha indicates one thousand five hundred and forty seven or one thousand five hundred and seventy seven; and “La tazalu taifatun min ummati zahirina alal-haqqi hatta ya’tiyallahu bi amrihi”the first sentencerefers to the last times of a group of mujahids of the end of time and the second sentence refers to the date of the victorious struggle and the third sentence, with very little difference, refers to the unseen portents of both the chapter of al-Fatiha and the second sentence of the chapter of al-Asr and accords with them.That means, each one of the three sentences of this hadith refers to the date of one thousand five hundred and how long the struggle will last; similarly, “Alladhina amanu wa amilussalihat(except for those who have faith and do right actions)– if the shadda is not counted– with this one thousand six hundred, both “watawasaw bilhaqqi watawasaw bissabr”(and urge each other to the truth and urge each other to steadfastness)– the shadda is counted but “bissabri” also has lam- one thousand five hundred sixty is included, indicating how long the struggle of that group who will accomplish that tremendous work will last by means of signs and jafr calculation. By examining the date indicated by the chapter of al-Fatiha and the hadith by their abjad value, they come across with a different degree and also with their meanings, fully complying, they reveal a wise section from the unseen.”.53

Thus, if the history of humanity is assumed to be 7 thousand years, it can be said that it is between 4850 years BC and about 2150 years AD. Thus, it is understood that Hz. Adam was sent to the world about 4850 years before the birth of Christ. It is stated in a hadith that Hz. Adam lived for 940 years.54

Since the invention of writing can be dated back to 4000 BC, writing must have started with Hz. Adam, that is, the first man. Only Allah knows the truth.

Allah states that He created Adam, taught him to speak and the names of things as follows:

“He has created man:He has taught him speech.55

 “And He taught Adam the names of all things; then He placed them before the angels, and said: "Tell me the names of these if ye are right." They said: "Glory to Thee, of knowledge We have none, save what Thou Hast taught us: In truth it is Thou Who art perfect in knowledge and wisdom." He said: "O Adam! Tell them their names." When he had told them, Allah said: "Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and I know what ye reveal and what ye conceal?"”.56

In conclusion,acting upon hadiths and verses, Badiuzzaman Said Nursi makes evaluations about the human species, and the life of the living beings on earth and the universe. He states that the lifespan of humanity should be calculated based on earth day, the living beings based on the day of the sun rotating around itself and the lifespan of the universe based on the day of Vega star.

The original text is as follows:

It is known that day and night occur as the earth moves on its axis and that years occur as it moves on the axis around the sun. Every planet, every star and the Vega Star including the sun rotate around their own axes, showing their special days; their movement on the axis around the sun show their years. The evidence that the Creator of the Earth and the Skies showed those days and years in His pre-eternal speech is as follows:     

 "In the end will (all affairs) go up to Him, on a Day, the space whereof will be (as) a thousand years of your reckoning." (as-Sajda, 5.),

 "The angels and the spirit ascend unto him in a Day the measure whereof is (as) fifty thousand years." (al-Maarij, verse 4.)

The verses above and similar ones prove it.

Yes, there are divine days from days of four hours between the sunrise and sunset on winter days in the north, to days of nine hours on winter days, from a day of about a month on the axis of the sun to a day of about a thousand years according to the knowledge given by cosmography of the star called “Sirius” mentioned as "Rabbush-Shi'ra" in the Quran, and to a day of fifty thousand years on the axis of Vega.    

When the Lord of the skies and the earth, the creator of Vega and Sirius addresses, He mentions those days in His blessed speech related to bodies of the skies and the earth and the realms; it is appropriate for Him to mention them. 

Since days have such terms in the religious terminology, even if the scholars of the science of geology, geography and human history say that human beings have existed for hundreds of thousands of years, not seven thousand, it will not be contrary to famous narration "The lifespan of humanity from Adam to Doomsday is seven thousand years” (al-Munawi, Faydul-Qadir, 3:547, hadith no: 4278)and six thousand six hundred and sixty- six years because days can be between four hours and fifty thousand days.

This realm has a lifespan, the earth in this realm has a shorter lifespan and the human species living on earth has yet a shorter lifespan. The lifespans of those three beings within one another are like the cog wheels that count the hours, minutes and seconds in the clock. The lifespan of human species is based on the days that occur with two movements of the earth beginning from the time of having the body of the living beings; the lifespan of the earth is based on the movement of the axis of the sun, which its center of contact. And the lifespan of the realm is based on the days produced by the movement of the axis of Vega.

In that case, if the lifespan of the human species is seven thousand years based on the known days of the earth, the time between the start of life on earth and its destruction is more than two hundred thousand years based on the days of the sun. And as the lifespan of the worlds that are dependent of Vega and that look at our globe by separating from the eternal realm is seven thousand years, they will live a hundred and twenty six billion (126,000,000,000) years – since one day of the lifespan of Vega is 50,000 (fifty thousand) years as the Quran indicates it. 

Yes, it fits the loftiness of the Quran and the perfection of its addressee and it is perfectly rhetorical for the Creator of the skies and the earth to use those days in His speech related to the earth and addressing the person that is the reason for the creation of the earth and the original seed of it and the last perfect fruit of it.

Note: This calculation was made by heart as Hafiz of Damascus, Mustafa of Kuleönü and his friend Hafiz Mustafa witnessed (It is based on the calculation of a year as three hundred and sixty days; if there are any mistakes, they should be tolerated).57

Thus, that the number of the verses of the Quran is 6666 is regarded, in a sense, as the sign of how long the Quran will be dominant.

It is stated in a hadith that the history of humanity from Hz. Adam to Doomsday is seven thousand years based on the day of the Quran.58

It is indicated that when the absolute era of interregnum is subtracted from it, the number 6666 will be obtained and that it is equal to the number of the verses of the Quran and hence the decrees of the Quran will be dominant for that period of time.  

Attention is drawn to the fact that the age of humanity, the earth and the universe can be calculated based on the movement of the earth, the solar system and the galaxies around their axes. It is stated that each of them is indicated in the Quran. It is also indicated in the Quran that one day of the star called “Sirius” mentioned as "Rabbush-Shi'ra" in the Quran is one thousand years and that one day of Vega is fifty thousand years based on the day of the Quran.

The universe has a lifespan, the earth has a shorter lifespan than it and the human species living on earth has yet a shorter lifespan. The lifespans of those three beings within one another are likened to the relationships between the cog wheels that count the hours, minutes and seconds in the clock.

Even if the human history is stated to be hundreds of thousands of years, not seven thousand years, in terms of history, geology and anthropology, it will not be contrary to the narration stating that the lifespan of humanity from Adam to Doomsday is seven thousand years and the fact the decrees of the Quran will be dominant for 6666 years because days can be between four hours and fifty thousand years according to the Quran.

In other words, the lifespan of humanity is seven thousand years, the lifespan of living beings is seven thousand years and the life span of the universe is also seven thousand years. However, the lifespan of humanity can be evaluated based on earth day, the lifespan of plants and animals based on sun day or Sirius day and the lifespan of the universe based on Vega day. As it is known, the earth completes its rotation around its own axis in 24 hours, that is, in one day. The sun moves toward the Hercules constellation with a speed of 7200 km per hour and it also rotates around its own axis with a speed of 70.000 km per hour.59

The sun completes this rotation in about 25 days based on earth day.

The Milky Way Galaxy, which contains the Solar system too, rotates around its own axis as a whole with a speed of 90 bin km per hour and completes one rotation in 200 million years based on earth day.60

If the lifespan of humanity is seven thousand years based on earth day, the time period between the start of life on earth, that is, the formation of plants and animals, and Doomsday will be two hundred thousand years based on sun day and 2.5 billion years based on earth day. If it is considered that one day of Vega star is fifty thousand years based on earth day as the Quran indicates it, the age of the universe will be 126 billion years when seventhousandyears is multiplied by fifty thousand and then by 360 (days of a year).

In conclusion, it is understood that the world was created billions of years ago, that Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa, the ancestors of man, were sent to the world 7–8 thousand years ago, that the science of history confirms it and that the view of evolution is not valid.

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1. For more detailed information, see Âdem Tatlı. Evrim ve Yaratılış. Fifth Impression, 2018. ISBN:975953790-7.
2. Morris, H. and Parker, G. E. What is Creation Science? Master Book Publishers. California. 1982. Translated by Â.Tatlı, Keha, E., Marangoz, C., Solak, K. and Ha­senekoğlu, İ.  Yaratılış Modeli. Millî E. Bakanlığı Basımevi. Ankara. 1985.
3. Dunbar, C.O. Historical Geology. New York. John Wiley Sons. Inc. 1949, p.52.
4. Fault, H. Age of Rocks, Planets and Stars. NewYork. McGraw-Hill Book. Co. Inc. 1966, p.61.
5. Keith, M.S. and Anderson, G.M. Radiocarbon Dating: Fictitious Results with Mollusk Shells. Science, August, 16. A. 634, 1963.
6. Libby,W.F. Radiocarbon Dating. University of Chicago Press.1955, p.7.
7. Lingenfelter, R. E. Production of C-14 by Cosmic & Ray Neutrons. Reviews of Geophysics. 1963, Vol. 1. p.51.
8. Suess, H.E. Secular Variations in the Cosmic Ray Pro­duced Carbon-14 in the Atmosphere and their In­terpretations. Journal of Geophysical Research. 1965, Vol.7. p.594.
9. Guyer, M.F. Animal Biology. New York. Harper; Brothers, London. 1937.
10. Pilbeam, D.R .Nature. 1968, Vo1.219 p. 1335; Eckhard, R.B. Population Genetics and Human Origins. Scientific American. 1972, Vol.226.
11. Shipman, P. Baffling Limb on the Family Tree. Discover, 1986, September; Eckhard, R.B. Population Genetics and Human Origins. Scientific American. 1972, Vol.226.
12. Broom, R and Schepers, G.W.H. Transv. Mus. Mem. 1946, Vol.2. p.1-272; Clark, G. Journal of Anatomy. London. 1947, Vol. 19.P.300-333.
13. Oxnard, C. University of Chicago Magazine, 1974, p.8-12; Oxnard, C. The Place of the Austrolopithecines in Human Evolution:  Grounds for doubt? Nature. 1975, Vo1.258. p.389-395; Zuckerman, S. Journal of the Royal College of Sur­geons of Edinburgh. 1966, Vol.l1. p.87-115.
14. Zuckerman, S. Beyond the Ivory Tower. Top­linger Publ. Co. New York. 1970, pp. 11-12,64,75-94.
15. Montagu, A. Man: His First Million Years. Word Publishers. Yonkers. 1957, p.51-52.
16. Richard, M. Shattering the Myths of Darwinism. Translated by İ. Kapaklıkaya. Son Tartışmalar Işığında Darwinizm’in Mitleri. Gelenek Yayıncılık, Istanbul, 2003.
17.Şengün, A. Evrim. Sermet Matbaası. Kırklareli. 1984, s.142.
18.Boule, M. and Valois, H.M. Fossil Man. The Dryden Press. New York. 1957,  p.118-123.
19.Gish, D.T. Evolution: The Fossils Say No! 1981. Translated by Âdem Tatlı,  Fosiller ve Evrim. Cihan Yayınları, Istanbul. 1984.
20.Howells, W.  Mankind in the Making. Doubleday and CO. Garden City N.Y.P. 1967, 155-156.
21.Cottrell, L. The Concise Encyclopedia Arc­heology. Hawthorn. New York. 1960, P. 394.
22.For more detailed information, see Âdem Tatlı. Evrim ve Yaratılış. Fifth Impression, Korkuteli, 2018.
23.Schiller, R. New Findings on the Origin of Man. Reader's Digest. 1973, August, p.89-90.
24.Eckhardt, R. Population Genetics and Human Origins. Scientific American, Issue 226,1972, s.94.
25.Pilbeam, D. American Scientist, Issue, 66,1978, p. 379.
26.Pilbeam, D. Rearranging Our Family Tree. Nature, June, 1978.
27.Clark, A.G. Through a Glass Darkly: Conceptual Issues in Modern Human Origins Research, s.60-76, 1997.
28.Ruse, M. How Evolution became a religion. National Post. May 13, 2000,
www.nationalpost.com/artslife.asp?f=000513/288424.html.
29.Gee, H. In Search of Deep Time: Beyond the Fossil Record to a New History of life. New York: The Free Press, p. 23, 32, 113, 116-117, 202, 1999.
30.Okka, Osman, Kazak, Hasan (2015). İslâmi Finansal Yönetim: Sistem ve Uygulama. Book to be published.
31.For instance, according to TUİK data, if the population of Turkey is 76,6 million and the annual growth rate is 0.137% on January 29, 2014, it is estimated to be F=76,6 e39x0,0137= 130.69 million in 2050.
32.http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/
33.Old Testament Genesis 1-1.
34.Allah.web.tr/kutsal-kitaplar-ve-yaratilis.html; Old Testament Genesis5, 18-24.
35.-http://www.ateistforum.org/index.php?showtopic=38811
36.New Testament, Acts, 17:24-26.
37.1 Corinthians, 15:24-25.
38.İncildenguzelsözler.blogcu.com. p.1/3; New Testament - John, 1–3.
39.al-Hijr, 15/26.
40.al-Mu’minun, 23/ 12-14.
41.al-Anbiya, 21/30.
42.- Ömer Nasuhi Bilmen, Büyük İslam İlmihali, Akçağ Yayınları, Ankara, 2007, p. 495
43.Ramûz El-Ehadis, Vol.1 p. 208, No:6.
44.Taşkın, T. Uzay ve Ötesi. Boğaziçi Yayınları, second impression, 1995, 1–280.
45.Hud, 7.
46.al-Furqan, 59.
47.Fussilat, 12.
48.Muslim, “Sifatul-Qiyamah, 27.
49.al-Hajj, 47.
50.Al-Maarij, 4.
51.Nursi, S.B. Sözler. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları-600. Ankara, 3.baskı, 2016, s. 195.
52.Nursi, S.B. Kastamonu Lahikası Envar Neşriyat, Istanbul. 1995, p. 27–29,
53.Nursi, S. B. Kastamonu Lahikası. Envar Neşriyat, Istanbul, 2013, p. 205-206.
54.Canan, İ. ibid. hadith no: 1699, p. 393.
55.ar-Rahman, 55/3-4.
56.al-Baqara, verses 31-33
57.Nursi, B. S. Barla Lahikası. Envar Neşriyat, Istanbul, 1996, p. 324-326.
58.Ramûz El-Ehadis, Vol.1 p. 208, No:6.
59.http://www.renklinot.com/soru-cevap-2/gunes-kendi-etrafinda-kac-saatte-doner.html
60.Taşkın, T. ibid. p. 56–59.