FAQ in the category of Human Rights

1 How should I put up with the oppression inflicted on me? I prayed against the people who oppressed me but my prayers were not accepted. My belief has been shaken. I want to abandon worshipping..

- This world is a place of testing; there are easy tests and hard tests. The traps of Satan are abundant in those kinds of hard tests of troubles and misfortunes. To fail the test – God forbid – by obeying Satan’s suggestions will not eliminate the troubles of the world; what is more, it will bring about troubles in the hereafter. Loss in this world and the hereafter will be certain.  

- In a place where there is such injustice and oppression, the test is valid not only for the oppressed but also for the oppressor. The oppressor fails the test because he oppresses. The oppressed person will pass the test if he shows patience. A person who gives one but wins one thousand is not at a loss. A person who shows patience for the tests of Allah in this ephemeral world will live happily in the eternal life. When a person views the issue with the consciousness of belief, he will see that the happiness to come in the eternal future will compensate the temporary unhappiness at the moment.

- Everybody needs to be given the equality of opportunity for the test to be righteous. The equality of opportunity  is only possible when people can use their free will freely. If Allah prevented people who wanted to commit murders, theft and oppression, there would not be any testing.

Therefore, it is cruel judgment to blame Allah for the bad deeds that man commits through his free will, which is the indispensable condition of the testing. Besides, having such a judgment through the suggestion of Satan will earn man nothing but disrespect toward Allah will cause punishment both in this world and in the hereafter.   

- We should not forget that, sometimes, good things bring about bad things and bad things bring about good things. It is the best way to wait for the manifestations of the endless mercy of Allah with such hope.
The period of waiting is also a process of testing. In this process, the person can attain peace by showing consent to the righteous qadar of Allah – even if he shows fury against those who oppress him, because the following prophetic principle promises us peace: “a person who shows consent to qadar becomes free of greef.” (Munawi, Faydu’l-Qadir 3/187) To do the opposite of it will cause more grief.

It is necessary to trust in Allah. To resent Allah and to abandon worshipping due to the oppression of a person will rejoice Satan and the enemy only. It harms the person who resents Him. With the expression of Badiuzzaman Said Nursi, “The one who criticizes qadar strikes his head against the anvil and breaks it. The one who accuses God's mercy will inevitably be deprived of it”. (see Lemalar (Flashes), 2. Lema)

- It is necessary to view the issues righteously. For instance, a person who is oppressed prays Allah against those who oppress him and wants his prayer to be accepted at once. However, if Allah had accepted the prayers of the people based on their wishes and desires at once, the world would have probably been destroyed now.   

There are some people who want the world to collapse around the people who oppress him. However, all of the deeds of Allah are based on wisdom; there is a certain period determined for everybody. Allah will not kill anyone before their time is due just because we want it.   

However, we know that oppression will not be permanent. The punishment for oppression is valid both in this world and in the hereafter.

2 If Muslims violate the rights of non-Muslims, are they held responsible?

If a Muslim obtains or eats unjustly something belonging to a non-Muslim, he will be accounted for it in the hereafter unless he pays for it in the world. The non-Muslim will take his right from him. 

For instance, if a Muslim steals something belonging to a Christian and does not pay for it, he will be accounted for it in the hereafter. If a thief is not punished in the world and does not return the thing to its owner, he will be held responsible in the hereafter. For, it is the violation of a person's rights. If he does not pay for it or if the owner does not forgive him, his responsibility will go on in the hereafter. Accordingly, a Christian whose belongings are stolen will demand his right and take it from the Muslim who stole it.  

(see Halil GÜNENÇ, Günümüz Meselelerine Fetvalar, II/299)

3 Are violation of personal rights in question between Muslims and non-Muslims living in Europe / foreign countries?

It is not permissible to violate rights of others even if they are unbelievers. Our religion does not differentiate between Muslims and unbelievers regarding personal rights.  

If the state gives you some money because you are unemployed and if you are not supposed to be paid any money under normal conditions since you work, it is not appropriate to get this money by giving a false declaration.  

Personal rights are a person's own rights; so, it is necessary for a person to be careful about personal rights of both Muslims and non-Muslims. A person who wrongs others will be accounted for it in the hereafter.

According to Abu Hanifa and Imam Muhammad, it is not permissible for a Muslim who is in a non-Muslim country to deceive both Muslims and non-Muslims and to grab the property of both Muslims and non-Muslims. For, the religion of Islam is a religion of tolerance and virtue; therefore, it forbids treason, immoral and evil deeds everywhere.

For instance, if a person goes to Europe or to a non-Muslim country and finds something belonging to the state or to a person there, he has to give it to its owner. (Hidaya, II/66)

4 Does death penalty exist in Islam? Are there examples of it?

Death penalty is given to a married person who commits adultery and a person who kills a Muslim. That is, a person who kills is killed. Besides, the people who revolt against the state and cause mischief can be killed if the judge deems it appropriate.

In hadiths, the penalty of stoning (rajm) is mentioned but this penalty has always been a controversial issue among scholars. During the Ottoman period (that is, in six hundred years), only one incident of rajm took place; in that incident, the sheikh al-Islam resigned saying, "I cannot issue a fatwa about it."

Islam aims to eliminate harmful things like hatred and blood feuds among people. In Islam, there are three decrees related to a person who kills another person: 

1. If the killer is forgiven by the family of the person who was killed, he is freed.

2. The family of the person who was killeddemands "blood money". They may forgive the man when they get the amount they want. The killer is freed.

3. The family of the person who was killed demands retaliation (blood for blood). Thereupon, "the Islamic state" executes the killer. There will be no blood feud because the state executes the killer. Thefamily of the person who was killed cannot object and does not try to take revenge because the killer was executed.

5 What are the five sacred things Allah entrusted to man?

These entrusted things are the universal values that are necessary to be protected in all heavenly religions: To protect the religion, to protect life, to protect lineage, to protect mind and to protect property.

The protection of thereligion, life, mind, lineage and property are binding things. They are divided into three levels:

1. Daruriyyat (Essentials): They are the affairs on which people’s religious and worldly life are dependent. Daruriyyat is the strongest level of affairs. If they cannot be ensured, corruption and separation can start in a community. The religion of Islam gives importance to the protection of these essentials.

It is obligatory to protect the religion, life, mind, lineage and property and to eliminate the things that will cause them to be lost. Therefore, jihad was ordered to protect the religion, killing a person and committing suicide were forbidden to protect life, taking drugs and alcohol were forbidden to protect mind, fornication and slandering regarding chastity were forbidden to protect lineage, and theft and fraud were forbidden to protect property.

2. Hajiyyat (Complementary things): They are the affairs that people need related to the protection ofthe religion, life, mind, lineage and property, elimination of hardship and ensuring ease. If these affairs are not observed, problems will occur or the protection of the essentials will be risked. For instance, the permissions given related to travelling, the validity of salama and istisna contracts, the prohibition of the production and sale of alcoholic drinks and prohibition of stocking goods with the intention of profiteering are these kinds of affairs.

3. Tahsiniyyat (Embellishments): They do not form the affairs and they are not precautions related to them. However, they are affairs that help the protection ofthe religion, life, mind, lineage and property. Dressing well, obeying ethical rules are among these things.

Daruriyyat forms the first level, hajiyyat the second level and tahsiniyyat the third level. If they contradict one another, the one that is in the upper level is preferred to the one that is in the lower level (the first to the second, the second to the third, etc.).