How and when alcoholic drinks were proclaimed religiously forbidden?

Alcoholic drinks were banned in the fourth year of the Hijra (Muslims migration from Mecca to Medina) when Bani Nadeer Jews were driven into exile from their lands.

When the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) honored Medina with his migration, drinking and gambling were widespread among Muslims. When the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) arrived, Muslims asked him for his views about drinking and gambling. Umar offered a supplication to Allah Almighty about a decisive decree to be stated by Him.

After a while, the decree that they had been waiting for came: They ask you about intoxicating drinks and games of chance. Say: "In both there is great evil, though some use for people, but their evil is greater than their usefulness." They also ask you what they should spend (in Gods cause and for the needy). Say: "What is left over (after you have spent on your dependents needs). Thus does God make clear to you His Revelations, that you may reflect (Al-Baqarah Surah, 2:219)

Upon that, some Muslims quit drinking due to its harm, but some continued to drink as before.

Those who were drunk caused some unpleasant things to happen. During the evening worship, someone from the Muslims was confused as he was reciting the Quran in a way that totally sounded in the reverse meaning.

Umar again supplicated; O Lord! Send us a clear and final verse about drinking.

Before long, the verse came: O you who believe! Do not come forward to (stand in) the Prayer while you are in (any sort of) state of drunkenness until you know what you are saying, nor while you are in the state of ritual impurity (requiring the total ablution) – save when you are on a journey (and then unable to bathe) – until you have bathed (done the total ablution)... (An-Nisa Surah, 4:43)

And this verse was the second phase of the ban on drinking.
Until then, there were a large number of Muslims who drank. When the verse came, they promised the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) not to approach worship when they were drunk. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) remained silent in the face of the promise.

When the prayer times came, some always reminded the others not to come near to worship if they were drunk. Nevertheless, a Muslim came to worship when he was drunk.

Umar again supplicated: O Lord! Give us a clear and final verse about drinking. Then another verse came: O you who believe! Intoxicants, games of chance, sacrifices to (anything serving the function of) idols (and at places consecrated for offerings to other than God), and (the pagan practice of) divination by arrows (and similar practices) are a loathsome evil of Satans doing; so turn wholly away from it so that you may prosper (in both worlds) Satan only seeks to provoke enmity and hatred among you by means of intoxicants and games of chance, and to bar you from the remembrance of God and from Prayer. So, then, will you abstain? (Al-Maidah Surah, 5:90, 91)

On hearing this final verse, Muslims promised not to approach drinking and gambling any more. And that was the third phase of the ban on alcoholic drinks. Thus, alcoholic drinks were proclaimed religiously forbidden for all Muslims.

After those verses came down, a town crier called out to the people of Medina with the order of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) about this final ban.

On hearing this order, all the Muslims poured out their drinks.

Below are some hadiths about the issue:

Verily Allah Almighty curses alcoholic drinks, those who make them, the place where they are made, who drink them, and who have them drunk, who carry them, who have them carried, who sell and buy them, and who make a living with them. (4)

Every intoxicating substance is haram (religiously prohibited).

Whoever keeps drinking in the world and dies before s/he could repent, s/he will not be able to drink sherbet (sweet nonalcoholic drinks) in the hereafter. (5)

Stay away from drinking alcohol! For it is a key to every evil thing. (6)

Alcohol is the mother of all evil things. (7)

Very little of those intoxicating is also haram (religiously unlawful). (8)

1. Abu Davud, Sunan, 2:292.
2. Muslim, 5:100.
3. Haqim, Mustadraq, 4:145.
4. Daree qutni, Sunan, 4:247.
5. Abu Davud, Sunan, 2:294.
6. Hakim, Mustadrak, 4:145.
7. Dara Kutni, Sunan, 4:247.
8. Abu Davud, Sanan, 2:294.

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