What is amr bi al-maruf wa nahy an al-munkar? How and whom to be done?

Jihad within the Islamic state and abroad will indeed be carried out differently. If necessary, hot war could be conducted in external Jihad to eliminate oppression. But within an Islamic State, people are invited to Religion in appropriate ways, it is fought against misdeeds. (1) And this is called, amr bi al-maruf wa nahy an al- munkar (enjoining good and forbidding evil). The Quran calls Muslims the model community with the following verse, There must be among you a community calling to good, and enjoining and actively promoting what is right and forbidding and trying to prevent evil... (Al-Imran Surah, 3:104) Such a model community would be the spiritual leader and protector of the society, which is necessary for public peace. Just as security forces provide public security, such a model community provides public morality and spiritual support for society.

Messenger of God (pbuh) emphasizes the importance of amr bi al-maruf wa nahy an al- munkar with the following hadith; Hudhaifah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (pbuh) said, "By Him in Whose Hand my life is, you either enjoin good and forbid evil, or God will certainly soon send His punishment to you. Then you will make supplication and it will not be accepted.
(At-Tirmidhi).

A community that take enjoining good and forbidding evil as a goal generates a solid, powerful, and moderate union. And it turns out to be a society of virtue. Weedy grass cannot leaf out in such a society. Public conscience becomes sensitive

Invitation to the way of God necessitates different methods according to the situation of the addressee. Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and fair exhortation, and argue with them in the best way possible. (An-Nahl Surah, 16:125)

People of knowledge are invited to the religion of God with absolute proofs; ordinary people, with beautiful sermons; antagonists, with best effort. (2)

Struggle method against the people of the book is given in the following verse:
Do not argue with those who were given the Book save in the best way, unless it be those of them who are given to wrongdoing (and therefore not accessible to courteous argument). Say (to them): "We believe in what has been sent down to us and what was sent down to you, and your God and our God is one and the same. We are Muslims wholly submitted to Him." (Al-Ankabut Surah, 29:46)

As it is seen in the verse, people who were given Book, divided into two:
1- those who are given to wrongdoing
2- those who are accessible to courteous argument

Save in the best way kind of argument could only be done with the ones who are accessible to courteous argument. For instance, it should be argued without criticizing and condemning them until they behave justly towards the person whose only intention is to announce the True Religion. For, arrogance and stubbornness can only be eased with patience. (3)

"Go, both of you, to the Pharaoh for he has exceedingly rebelled. But speak to him with gentle words, so that he might reflect and be mindful or feel some awe (of me, and behave with humility)." (Ta-Ha Surah, 20:43, 44)

The above given verse worth consideration from our point of view.

As a matter of fact, Muslims, in Western countries having affirmative dialogues with Christians today, conduce many Christians to convert to Islam. Today, the number of converted Christians is expressed in hundred thousands. Once, by using the force of arms it was only achieved to reach to the frontiers of Vienna, with the appropriate invitation method, Islam has reached almost every corner of Europe today.

Bediuzzaman says that Qurans expression of people of the Book covers the people of Knowledge today.(4) The dialogue environment has provided the people of knowledge, once enemies of Islam, to surrender to Islam. In fact, Conquering over the civilized is with persuasion not with compulsion which the obstinate savage would understand.

The verse, There is no compulsion in the Religion (Al-Baraqah Surah, 2:256) declares an important truth. No one can be converted with compulsion, but there is invitation in Religion. The person who is invited to the True Religion has the right to convert or not.

Sources:
1-Nursi, Emirdağ Lahikası, s., 481-482
2-Razi, XX,138-139; Beydavi, I, 561
3-Kutub, IV, 2202
4-Nursi, Sözler, s., 378 - 379
5-Nursi, Hutbe-i Şamiye, s., 88

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