FAQ in the category of Ramadan - Fasting

1 Is the fast broken because of kissing or embracing?

The fast is not broken because of kissing his wife or any other one, but the fast is broken if man or woman ejaculates because of kissing, caressing, embracing or etc… If something ejaculates without any desire from his/her sexual organs the fast is not broken.

Permitted Acts of Fasting:
    * Pouring water over oneself and submerging oneself in water.
    * Applying kohl, eye-drops, or anything else to the eyes.
    * Kissing, provided that one has self-control.
    * Rinsing the mouth and nose, without swallowing any water.
    * Tasting a liquid, food, or something else that one wants to buy. However, anything edible must not be swallowed.
    * Chewing gum (unlike something that has no sweetness or fragrance) is disliked but does not invalidate the fast.
    * Eating, drinking, or having sexual intercourse during the night until dawn.
    * If one eats due to forgetfulness, the day does not have to be made up later or expiated.
    * Performing ghusl before dawn is not required, but it is advisable to be pure before fasting.
    * If a woman’s menstrual or post-childbirth bleeding stops during the night, she can delay ghusl until the morning and still fasts. However, she must perform ghusl before the dawn prayer.
    * Those who are fasting can use a tooth stick or a brush to clean their teeth. It does not matter if this is done at the beginning or at the end of the day.
    * Smelling perfumes.
    * Swallowing anything wet with saliva remaining in the mouth after rising.
    * Swallowing only a few drops of tears and sweat, the taste of which one does not feel.
    * Eating anything edible remaining between teeth and which is smaller than a chickpea.
    * Anything that is inedible and enters the mouth without intention (e.g., smoke, dust, and the taste of medicine put on teeth) does not invalidate the fast.
    * Kissing, touching, and stroking the opposite sex, provided that no ejaculation occurs, as well as any sexual activity that does not result in ejaculation. Any ejaculation that is the result of looking and thinking does not invalidate the fast.
    * Having a wet dream during the day or any ejaculation of seminal fluid.
Forbidden Acts Requiring a Make-up Day:
    * Eating due to a mistake or coercion.
    * Swallowing the blood more than the saliva with which it is mixed and the taste of which one feels.
    * Swallowing more than a few drops of tears and sweat the taste of which one feels.
    * Removing from the mouth anything edible that remains between the teeth and which is greater than a chickpea, and then eating it.
    * Vomiting a mouthful. Anything less and which goes back into the stomach does not invalidate the fast. However, if one intentionally takes it back, the fast is broken.
    * Ejaculation that occurs with pleasure by kissing, touching, and masturbation.
    * Menses and post-childbirth bleeding, even if either begins just before sunset.
    * If one eats, drinks, or has intercourse, thinking that the sun has set or that fajr has not occurred.
    * Any injections, whether for feeding or for medicinal purposes. It does not matter if the injection was intravenous or underneath the skin, or whether what was injected reaches the stomach.
    * Any drink or medicine that passes through throat or nose. However, water that passes through the ears is allowed.
    * Any fluid going into body through the rectum.
Acts that Invalidate the Fast and Require a Make-up Day and Expiation:
Intentional eating, drinking, and having sexual intercourse during the day require making up the day and an expiation. Expiation is defined as freeing a slave if one can do so; if the person has no slaves or cannot free one for a valid reason, he or she must fast for 60 consecutive days; if one cannot do so, he or she must feed a poor person for 60 days or 60 poor people for one day with meals that are similar to what one would eat at home.
Most scholars say that both men and women have to perform acts of expiation if they intentionally have sexual intercourse during the day even if they had intended to fast on that day. If they engaged in it out of forgetfulness, coercion, or having no intention to fast, they do not have to perform any act of expiation. If the woman was raped or coerced by the man, only the man has to make an act of expiation.
All scholars agree that people who intentionally broke the fast and made expiation, and then broke it again in a way that requires another expiation, they must perform another act of expiation. Similarly, they all agree that if people break the fast twice during a day, before performing the expiation for the first act, they need to perform only one act of expiation. If people break their fast and then repeat it during the same Ramadan without expiation, they only have to make expiation one time. The reason for this is because there is a punishment for acts that are repeated, and if the expiation or punishment is not carried out, all of these acts are combined into one.

2 Is it prohibited to sell alcohol while fasting?

Selling alcohol does not invalidate the fast. But whether someone fasts or not, selling alcohol is prohibited in Islam.

The prohibition was not limited to drinking alcohol only; Buying and selling, that is, the trade of alcohol was also prohibited. Our Prophet (PBUH) stated that alcoholic drinks were damned in ten aspects and said the following in a hadith:  «Alcoholic drinks were damned in ten aspects: the drink itself, the producer, he who wants to produce it, seller, customer, carrier, he who makes others carry it, he who makes a living by the money earned from alcohol, he who drinks it and he who makes others drink it. » Ibn Majah, Ashriba : 6.

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Is it permissible to work in a place where alcoholic drinks are served and sold?

3 is the Sehri a must

Eating "sehri" is Sunnah, not mandatory. There isn't any problem with eating in the previous night and doing niyat (intention) for the Ramadan fasting. Such fasting is acceptable. Detailed explanation is given below.

Virtues of Sehri
by Sheikhul Hadith Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya
HADITH NO. 7 Ibn Umar (Radhi Allaho anho) relates: Rasulullah (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) said: ‘Verily Allah and His Malaa’ikah send Mercy upon those who eat ‘Sehri’ (sower-Suhoor).”
COMMENTARY How great is Allah’s favour upon us that even the partaking of food before dawn for fasting is so greatly rewarded. There are many Ahaadith in which the virtues of “Sehri” are expounded and the rewards mentioned. Allaamah Ain - Commentator on Bukhari - has quoted the virtues of “Sehri” from seventeen different ‘Sahaabah’ and all the “Ulama” are agreed on its being “Mustahab” (desirable). Many people are deprived of this great reward because of their own laziness. Some even go so far as to finish ‘Taraweeh’, eat (what they suppose to be “Sehri’!) and go to bed. What great blessings do they lose! “Sehri” actually means partaking of food shortly before dawn. Some authorities say that the time for “Sehri” commences after half the night has passed (Mirquat). The author of Kash-shaff (Zamakhshari) divided the night into six portions, stating that the last one of these is the time of “Sehri”; so that, when the night (from sunset till dawn) extends over twelve hours, the last two hours would be the correct time for “Sehri”. Then it must also be remembered that to eat at the latest possible time is better and greater in reward than eating earlier, subject to the condition that no doubt remains as to whether “Sehri” had been eaten before the time of dawn. The Ahaadith are full of virtues of “Sehri”.
Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) said: ‘The difference between our fasting and that of the Ahlul-Kitaab (Jews and Christians) lies in our partaking of food at “Sehri” which they do not.” The Prophet has said, “Eat Sehri, because in it lie great blessings; and again. “In three things, are the great blessings: in “Jama’ah” (company), in eating “Thareed” and in “Sehri”. In this Hadith, the use of the word “Jama’ah” is general, wherefrom we deduce that it includes “Salaat” with “Jamaa’ah” and all those righteous deeds done in company, as thus Allah’s help comes to them. “Thareed” is a tasty preparation, in which baked bread is cooked with meat. The third thing mentioned in this Hadith is “Sehri”. When Rasulullah (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) used to invite any of the companions to eat “Sehri” with him, he used to say: “Come and partake of blessed food with me.” One Hadith says: “Eat ‘Sehri’ and strengthen yourself for the fast. And sleep in the afternoon (Siesta), so as to gain assistance in waking up in the latter portion of the night (for “Ibaadah”).” Abdullah bin Haarith (Radhiallahu Anhu) reports that one of the Sahaaba said: “I once visited Rasulullah (Sallallaho alaihi wasallam) at a time when he was busy in partaking of ‘Sehri’. Rasulullah then said: “This is a thing full of blessings, which Allah has granted you. Do not give it up.” Rasulullah (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) in urging us repeatedly for ‘Sehri’ has said: “Even though there be no food, then one date should be eaten or a drink of water taken.” Thus, when there are definitely great advantages and reward in ‘Sehri’, Muslims should endeavour to observe this practice as much as possible. However, in all things moderation is important, and going beyond the bounds of moderation is harmful: neither should so little be eaten that one feels weak throughout the period of fasting, nor should so much be eaten that it causes discomfort. Repeatedly, we have been prohibited from filling the stomach excessively.
In his commentary on “Sahih Bukhari”, Ibne Hajar has mentioned various reasons for the blessedness of “Sehri”:
    * Because in it, the ‘Sunnah’ is followed.
    * Through “Sehri”, we differentiate ourselves from the ways of Ahlul-Kitaab, which we are at all times called upon to do.
    * It provides strength for “Ibaadah”
    * It promotes greater sincerity in “Ibaadah”
    * It aids in elimination of bad temper, which normally comes about as result of hunger.
    * ‘Sehri’ is the time when prayers are accepted.
    * At the time of ‘Sehri’, one gets the opportunity to remember Allah, makes Dhikr and lifts up the hand to Him in prayer.
These are a few of the major reasons; there are many others as well. Some ‘Sufis’ are in doubt as to whether the eating of ‘Sehri’ conflicts with the object of fasting or not. They maintain that the object of fasting is to stay away from food, drink and sexual desires, therefore ‘Sehri’ is against the object of fasting. In my opinion the amount to be eaten varies according to different persons and their activities. Foe example, for those students who are busy seeking knowledge of ‘Deen’, too little food at ‘Sehri’ as well as ‘Iftaar’ will be harmful; for them it is better not to have too little, because they seek ‘Deeni’ knowledge, which is very important (for the preservation and spread of Islam). similar is the case of those who are busy with ‘Dhikr’ and other ‘Deeni’ activities. Other people who have no such hard work to do should eat little at ‘Sehri’.
Once Rasulullah (Sallallaahu  layhi Wasallam) announced to those proceeding for ‘Jihaad’: ‘There is no virtue in fasting while travelling.’ That was in the month of Ramadhaan, when some Sahaaba were fasting. Allamah Sha’raani mentions in Sharh Iqna: ‘A covenant was made with us that we shall not fill our stomachs (completely) when eating, especially in the nights of Ramadhaan.’ It is better that one should eat less in the nights of Ramadhaan than on other nights. After all, what is the utility of fasting after having filled oneself at ‘Sehri’ and ‘Iftaar’? the religious divines have said, ‘Whoever remains hungry in Ramadhaan shall remain safe from the evil of ‘Shaytaan’ throughout the year, until the next Ramadhaan.’
Sharah Ihya Ulumuddin mentions the experiences of some saints, such as Sahl bin Abdullah Tastari, who used to eat only once every fifteen days, while in Ramadhaan he ate only one morsel; but in order to follow the Sunnah, he used to have a drink of water daily for ‘Sehri’ and ‘Iftaar’. Shaykh Junayd always used to fast throughout the year. However, when his noble friends would visit him occasionally, he used to break his fast and eat with them, saying, ‘The virtue of breaking fast and eating with (such noble) friends is not less than that of ‘Nafl’ fasting.
Similarly, we can mention the experiences of numerous saints who through eating less used to discipline their inner-selves, but let us bear in mind that it should not be carried to such extremes that the’religious’ activities and responsibilities are neglected, as a result of weakness of the body.

4 Are all of our sins forgiven during Ramadan?

Forgiveness of Sins in Ramadan 

Nobody can tell-in Ramadan-either whether his/her sins or whether any other person's sins will be definitely forgiven, either altogether or partially. On that matter, only some comments based on certain principles can be uttered. For instance: 
Ramadan is the month when Allah forgives humans the most.  
A good deed has a recompense of ten rewards in other months, while in Ramadan one good deed has a recompense of a thousand rewards. Inspired by the verse in the Qur'an which says: “The Night of Destiny and Power is better than a thousand months!” (The Qur'an, Al-Qadr Surah. 97:3), Bediuzzaman says that in this month good deeds and worships may earn us 30 thousand rewards for one good deed, and that especially at the Night of Destiny and Power (Laylat Al-Qadr) for each letter of the Ayat al-Qursi (The Throne Verse; 255th verse of the second chapter (surah) of the Qur'an; Al-Baqara Surah), 30 thousand rewards may be given. That increase of rewards in a way means forgiveness of sins.
 Violating others' rights comes among the prominent sins that are hard to be forgiven, even in Ramadan. Especially the rights of parents are very important. As a principle, it is also seen as hard for such sins to be forgiven as those because of which no remorse is felt, of which one does not repent and does not supplicate Allah for forgiveness. Of course, Allah's forgiveness embraces all sins. However, as a requisite of His name “Al-Hakim” (The Wise), Allah requires a reason or a means for forgiving those sins. Our Lord attached special importance to the sacred nights, Fridays, religious festivals and to three holy months, especially Ramadan, so that they serve as such an occasion and means. And He invited His servants to be more careful and alert at those times. 
We learn from this hadith (saying of the Prophet) that being in the month of Ramadan does not mean immediate forgiveness:
Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates:
Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings upon him, said: “Let him/her crawl on his/her nose; Let him/her crawl on his/her nose; Let him/her crawl on his/her nose.” When it was asked: “Who? O Allah's Messenger!” He answered: “A person whose parents, or one of them, attain old age, living with him, and they do not cause him to be admitted into heaven.” (Muslim, Bir, 9-10) 
According to Tirmidhi, the narration-again by Abu Hurayra-is as follows: “Let him/her crawl on his/her nose whoever doesn't say “Salawat” (sending peace and blessings to the Prophet) though my name was mentioned in his/her presence. Let him/her crawl on his/her nose whoever is not forgiven though the Month of Ramadan came and went. Let him/her crawl on his/her nose whoever cannot go to Paradise though both his/her old parents or one of them was alive and with him/her (and s/he couldn't take good care of them and thus couldn't enter Paradise).” (Tirmidhi, Daawat, 101) 

Finally, let us remember this hadith: “Whoever fasts the fast of Ramadan believing and expecting its recompense from Allah, and passes this month with ibadah (worship), his/her past sins are forgiven.” (Tirmidhi, Sawm,1) Tirmidhi said that this hadith is different. Here, there is encouragement and the expressions are aimed at that. It does not mean that everybody's every sin is forgiven.

Please click on the link given below to read another related article;

In a hadith it is said: “Whoever fasts the fast of Ramadan believing and expecting its recompense from Allah, and passes this month with ibadah his/her past sins are forgiven.” (Tirmidhi, Sawm,1). How should we understand this hadith? 

5 SUHOOR
6 What happens if a person breaks his/her fasting "mistakenly/accidentally" before sunset due to a cloudy sky or a faulty watch, etc?

You broke your fast earlier, so your fast is annulled. Therefore you need to compensate for it by fasting one day at another time.

7 Can you fast when you're not in Ramadan? and Do you get reward if you fast the day before Eid?

It is permitted to fast outside Ramadan, too. It is very meritorious to fast on the Eve of Eid al-Adha. Surely, the fasts other than Ramadan days are meritorious.
Our Prophet (PBUH) says: “I hope that Allah forgives the sins of the second and following years of the one who fasts on the Eve of Eid al-Adha. However, it is not recommended for the pilgrims standing for prayer on the Arafat Hill on the Eve Day. However,  it is recommended for Muslims except pilgrims to fast on that day." (Muslim, Siyam:1162)

Please click on the links given below;

Can you inform us about the Fast in the month of Dhul Hijjah, ten days, “the ten nights”

Magnificent Opportunity: the First Ten Days of Dhul Hijjah; Layal Ashara

8 alcohol during Ramadan
The fast starts at the first thread of light at dawn (between 1.5 and 2 hours before sunrise, depending on the time of year), and maintained until sunset (the beginning of night). Eating or drinking something during this time invalidates the fast. But one who drinks alcohol  (even drinking alcohol is haram) in the other time of the day (in between the beginning of the night and the first thread of light at down) can fast. Drinking alcohol  during the time specified above is not an obstacle for fasting.

9 Is it permissible to apply "Henna" to the head while fasting?

There is nothing wrong in applying HENNA to your head while fasting. It is permissible. It does not invalidate your fast. 

10 Is it permissbile not to fast while on trip during Ramadan?

The people who go on a journey, may not fast. After they leave their homes, they are accepted “travelers ” according to Islamic Jurisprudence. But it would be more excellent when the travelers fast. People fast as they wish according to their own condition.

If the travelers intend to stay less than 15 days in that place, they may not fast. But if they intend to stay more than 15 days or learn that they are going to stay more than 15 days then it becomes farz (obligatory).

BEING A MUSAFIR (TRAVELER)

It means traveling, making a journey. As a fiqh term, traveling means covering a certain distance. That distance is a three-day or eighteen-hour distance with a medium walking style. That distance is also called three-phase distance.
There are two different views as to when someone becomes a musafir:
1- Those considering the distance. According to that view, if a person travels to a distance of 90 km, he shortens his prayers because he is regarded a musafir.
2- Those considering the time. According to them, a three-day journey makes a person musafir. They can only shorten their prayers then. Otherwise, they cannot shorten their prayers.
According to Hanafis, a musafir has to shorten the four-rakat fard prayers to two rakats. However, if he prays it as four, it is valid. According to Shafiis, it is better to pray fully even if one is a musafir. Let us suppose that we perform our prayers fully when we are really musafirs; our prayers will be valid. If we are not musafirs really, then shortening the prayers makes our prayers invalid. Then, we think that it is better to perform the fard prayers fully. However, it is necessary to accept a view and act accordingly and not to criticize the people accepting other views.
Decrees about Musafir
There are some facilities, ease and permissions for musafirs. It is permissible for a Muslim to fast later if he is a musafir.
The masah (wiping over socks) period of a musafir is three days and three nights. Musafirs pray the four-rakat fards as two rakats. It is called qasr salah (shortening the prayer).
It is permissible to shorten the four-rakat prayers for a musafir by the Quran, sunnah and ijma (consensus).
Allah, the exalted, states the following: “When ye travel through the earth, there is no blame on you, if ye shorten your prayers, for fear the Unbelievers may attack you." (an-Nisa, 4/101). The fact that the reason of the shortening is limited to the condition of fear is to determine the event at that time because most of the travels of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) were not free from fear. Ya'la b. Umayya (may Allah be pleased with him), from the companions said to Hazrat Umar: Why are we shortening our prayers? We are safe now. Hazrat Umar answered him as follows: I had asked Hazrat Prophet the same thing; he said: "This is a grant of Allah to you. Accept what he has given you." (Muslim, Misafir, 4; Tirmidhi, Tahara, 4, 20; Nasai, Taqsir, I).
The news about Hazrat Prophet that he shortened his prayers in his travels for umra, hajj or war has the degree of tawatur. Abdullah Ibn Umar said the following:
"I accompanied Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) in his travels. He did not pray more than two rakats. Hazrat Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman did the same" (Ibn Majah, Iqama, 75). It is reported that Hazrat Umar said the following: "The prayer of the musafir is two rakats without shortening with the words of your Prophet." (Bukhari, Taqsir, 11; Kusuf, 4; Ibn Majah, Iqama, 73, 124).
Is it obligatory for a musafir to shorten four-rakat fard prayers or is he free to shorten them or to pray them fully?
According to Hanafis, it is wajib and also azimah for a musafir to shorten his prayers. It is makrooh (abominable) for a musafir to pray four rakats deliberately. However, if he performs two rakats and sits for tashahhud and then stands up and performs two more rakats, he is regarded to have performed the fard and the last two rakats are regarded as nafilah (supererogatory). However, he is regarded to have done something wrong because he has delayed the salutations. However, if he skips tashahhud or if he does not read the Quran in the first two rakats, he is not regarded to have performed the fard. As a matter of fact, the decree about the morning prayer and Friday prayer is the same. The following is reported from Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her): "When the prayers were first enjoined they were of two rakats each. Later the prayer in a journey was kept as it was but the prayers for non-travelers were increased (Bukhari, Salat,1; Muslim, Musafirin,1; Abu Dawud, II, 3). Ibn Abbas is reported to have said the following: "Allah enjoined prayers as four rakats for muqims and two rakats for musafirs with the tongue of our Prophet." (Muslim, Musafirin, 5, 6; Abu Dawud Safar, 18; Nasai, Khawf 4; Ibn Majah Iqama, 75).
According to Malikis, it is sunnah muakkad to shorten prayers while traveling; according to Shafii and Hanbalis, a musafir is free to shorten the prayer or not; it is a permission. A musafir can pray by shortening his prayers or fully. However, according to Hanbalis, it is more virtuous to shorten than to pray fully because Hazrat Prophet and the four Caliphs did so.  
It is permissible to shorten prayers during a journey whether the journey is for worshipping, something permissible or something bad. For instance a person who travels for robbing people, for an illegitimate enjoyment or for committing a haram can benefit from the shortening of the prayer because the verses and hadiths about it are certain; no distinction is made between a legitimate or illegitimate journey in the following verse; "When ye travel through the earth, there is no blame on you, if ye shorten your prayers" (an-Nisa, 4/104) (Ibnul-Humam, ibid, I, 405 et al.; Ibn Abidin, Raddul-Mukhtar, I, 733, 736).
According to most of the mujtahids except Hanafis, permissions like shortening the prayers, combining the prayers, not having to fast, masah for three days, performing nafilah prayers on animals are not in question for musafirs who travel to rob people, to buy or sell wine and other haram things, etc because those people travel to disobey Allah. The rule about the issue is as follows:
"Permissions cannot be used to support evil and bad things." Besides, Allah permits a person who is in real need to eat dead meat with the condition of "without willful disobedience, or transgressing due limits" (al-Baqara, 2/173). Then, permissions cannot be used to support evil and bad things (Ibn Qudama, al-Mughni, Cairo 1970, II, 261; Zuhayli, II, 323 et al.; Ibn Rushd Bidayatul-Mujtahid, I, 163).
When a musafir has the intention of staying fifteen days or more in a town, he becomes a muqim and performs his prayers fully. If he intends to stay there less than fifteen days, he continues to be a musafir. The evidence that the decree is compared to is the cleaning period of women. The cleaning period makes it necessary for a woman to restart praying and fasting that she was freed from due to menses. To stay in a place permanently makes it necessary for a musafir to return to some religious duties. Therefore, since the maximum cleaning period is fifteen days, the period of staying in a place should be calculated as maximum fifteen days. That view is based on the following words reported by Ibn Abbas and Ibn Umar: If you are a musafir and enter a town intending to stay there fifteen days, perform your prayers fully. If you do not know when you will leave that town, shorten your prayers." (az-Zuhayli, al-Fiqhul-Islami wa Adillatuh, Damascus 1405/1985, II, 323)
If a musafir stays in a town and waits to meet a certain need of his, he shortens his prayers even if he waits for it for years. He is regarded a musafir since he has not intended to stay there more than fifteen days. As a matter of fact, Ibn Umar stayed in Azerbaijan for six months and shortened his prayers accordingly. It is reported that some companions did the same.
If an army enters a town and even if the soldiers intend to stay there more than fifteen days, they shorten their prayers because there always exists the probability of staying there or being defeated and leaving that place; thus, the intention related to the period is not valid.
According to Shafiis and Malikis, if a musafir intends to stay four days in a place, he performs his prayers fully because it is explained in sunnah that staying somewhere less than four days will not break the judgment about a journey. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) stated the following:
"Muhajir stays for three days after he performs his worshipping related to hajj.” As a matter of fact, when Hazrat Prophet performed umra, he shortened his prayers though he stayed in Makkah for three days" (ash-Shawkani, Naylul-Awtar, III, 207 et al.).
According to Hanbalis, if a musafir intends to stay somewhere more than four days or twenty prayer times, he performs his prayers fully. If he intends to stay less than that period, he shortens his prayers. 
In terms of being a musafir or muqim, the intention of the person to be followed (leader) is valid not the intention of the person who follows or depends on someone. Therefore, a soldier, an employee, a student and a wife become a muqim or musafir depending on the intention of the commander, employer, teacher and husband respectively.
The decrees of being a musafir are not valid for a child who has not reached the age of puberty. According to Shafiis, the intention of a mumayyiz child (child who has attained the age of mental discrimination) about being a musafir is valid and he can shorten his prayers.
If a person who is traveling does not know where the person he is following is going and about the intention of that person and if he cannot get an answer from him, he performs his prayers fully for the distance of three days; then, he starts to shorten his prayers. 
If the head of the Islamic state travels around his country for a while without intending to be a musafir, he performs his prayers fully; however, if he intends to travel as long as the period of being a musafir, he shortens his prayers. That is the correct way.
The qada (missed) prayers of a muqim do not change when he becomes a musafir; the qada prayers of a musafir do not change when he becomes a muqim either. Therefore, a muqim performs the prayers that he missed when he was a musafir as two rakats. A musafir performs the prayers that he missed when he was a muqim as four rakats.  
A muqim can follow a musafir imam and a musafir can follow a muqim imam in congregation. When the musafir imam gives salutations at the end of the second rakat, the muqim stands up and, according to the sound view, completes his prayer without reciting the Quran; he does not perform sajdah sahw if he makes a mistake because that muqim is like a lahiq in this situation. It is mustahab (recommended) for the musafir imam to say, "I am a musafir, you should complete your prayer."
A musafir can follow a muqim imam only during the prescribed time of that prayer. He performs a four-rakat fard prayer fully like a muqim when he follows a muqim imam. When he follows the imam during the prescribed time of that prayer, his prayer turns to a four-rakat prayer from two. When Ibn Abbas was asked, "What do you say for the situation of a musafir? He prays two rakats when he prays alone and four rakats when he follows a muqim imam”, he said, "It is sunnah to do like that" (az-Zuhayli, ibid, II, 335).
Nafi said the following: "When Ibn Umar was a musafir and followed a muqim imam, he would pray four rakats; when he prayed alone, he would pray two rakats. " (az-Zuhayli, ibid, II, 335)
A person cannot follow the imam in a four-rakat prayer that he missed while he was a musafir because that prayer had occurred as two rakats.
It is not permissible to perform two prayers at one time due to an excuse like traveling, rain and snow. It is permissible to combine the noon (zuhr) and afternoon (asr) prayer only in Arafat, and the evening (maghrib) and night (isha) prayer only in Muzdalifa in congregation.
According to the three madhhabs accept Hanafis, it is permissible to combine the noon and afternoon prayers, and the evening and night prayers in the form of early or late combination. For instance, the noon and afternoon prayers can be performed either in the time of noon prayer or afternoon prayer together; the evening and night prayers can be performed either in the time of evening prayer or night prayer together, too. All of the scholars accept Hanafis have the opinion that early combination and late combination of prayers are permissible. However, it has some conditions; it is not always valid.
The prayers that are missed when one is muqim do not change when a person becomes a misafir; similarly, the prayers that are missed when one is musafir do not change when a person becomes a muqim. Therefore, the four-rakat prayers that are missed when one is a musafir are performed as two rakats whether the person peforms them when he is a musafir or muqim. The prayers that are missed when one is a muqim are performed fully if they are performed when one is a musafir.  
The end of being a musafir:
When a person returns to watan asli, his state of being a musafir ends. It does not matter whether he intends to stay there or not. When he returns to watan iqama, the intention of staying there is necessary.
There are three kinds of watan.
1. Watan asli: A place where someone was born or got married and decided to live permanently is called “watan asli”.
2. Watan iqama: A place where someone was not born or did not get married and did not decide to live permanently but settled with the intention of living more than fifteen days is called “watan iqama. The places where someone goes to and live for military service, attending a school, working as an employee or official, etc are regarded “watan iqama” due to the intention of staying more than fifteen days.
3. Watan sukna: A place where a musafir wants to stay for less than fifteen days is his watan sukna. Watan sukna is not taken into consideration. It does not change watan asli or watan iqama. Such a traveler is regarded a musafir both during his journey and during his stay less than fifteen days there. During the journeys to watan asli or watan iqama, decrees of being a musafir are valid only during the journey. When a person reaches those watans, he is regarded a muqim.  
Those watans become invalid only by a watan equal to or superior to them in terms of being a musafir. Therefore, watan asli does not become valid by watan iqama or watan sukna. That is, if a person who is in watan iqama returns to watan asli, he does not become a musafir. If a person reaches the place where he was born or the place where his wife settled, he does not become a musafir. Only if the place he will go to is far away enough for the distance of being a musafir, he becomes a musafir only during the journey; when he reaches there, he becomes a muqim.  
If a person abandons a place that he had settled and moves to another place in order to settle there, the new place he goes to becomes his watan asli; the place he abandoned is no longer his watan asli because when Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) went to Makkah, he regarded himself a musafir and said, “We are musafirs.” (ash-Shawkani, ibid, III, 270).
Watan asli does not become invalid by watan iqama. If a person leaves the place where he was born or where his wife lives for attending a school, military service or working in order to stay less than fifteen days, his previous watan asli does not change. When he returns there, he is not regarded a musafir even if he stays there only three days because watan iqama does not invalidate watan asli. 
While living in a city, if a person gets married in another city but does not transfer his family there, both cities become watan asli for him. He becomes a muqim no matter which one of the two cities he goes to. Watan iqama becomes invalid if a person goes to another watan iqama, or leaves that place for a journey or returns to watan asli. That is, if a person who leaves watan iqama returns there again, he is regarded a musafir if he intends to stay there less than fifteen days.  
Watan sukna, which is a place to be stayed less than fifteen days, has no importance. A person is regarded a musafir there. That watan does not change the other two types of watan. A person is regarded a musafir in all of his journeys that will last for less than fifteen days and that have a distance to be regarded a musafir as soon as he leaves the inhabited parts of the town and in the places he goes to. The state of being a musafir goes on until he returns.
If a muqim follows a musafir imam, the musafir imam gives salutations after completing two rakats and the muqim does not give salutations but completes the four rakats. He does not read anything in the third and fourth rakats because he has performed the beginning part with the imam and the fard reading has been fulfilled. (Ibnul-Humam, I, 405; Ibn Abidin, I, 733 et al.; Zaylai, at-Tabyin, I, 215).
Islam Ansiklopedisi

11 Is it permissible for a pregnant and breast-feeding woman not to fast?

Enes Ibn Malik (R.A.) quotes the Prophet as saying: “Undoubtedly Allah has relieved the travelers of fasting and half of the prayer, and the pregnant and the breast-feeding women of the fast." (Abu Dawud, Sawm: 44, Tirmidhi, Sawm: 21; Ibn Majah Sıyam: 12)
If pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers cannot endure fasting, they don’t have to fast in the month of Ramadan. They can perform their missed fast(s) without any necessary order at a reasonable time after Ramadan.

 

12 Breaking fast before Iftaar
13 Could you give information about the qada (compensation) of missed fasts and paying ransom (fidyah) for those fasts?

One who is healthy enough to fast cannot compensate for his/her missed fasts by paying ransom. He/she has to perform them all as qada. A Muslim who is too unhealthy to fast can pay ransom for each of the missed fasts. That ransom substitutes the fast. Fitrah (alms given in Ramadan) and ransom are equal in amount.

Ransom about fasting which is one of the worships is determined by the following verse: “(Fasting) for a fixed number of days; but if any of you is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed number (should be made up) from days later. For those who can do it (with hardship), is a ransom, the feeding of one that is indigent. But he that will give more, of his own free will,- it is better for him. And it is better for you that ye fast, if ye only knew.” (al-Baqarah, 2/184)

As it is understood from the clear expression of the verse, ransom for fasting is paid when one does not have an opportunity to perform it as qada because of illness or old age. If one pays ransom and then recovers from his/her illness, the ransom paid before will not be enough and he/she has to perform the missed fasts as qada. In this sense, if one dies before he/she performs the missed fasts as qada, he/she needs to tell his/her inheritors to pay the ransom on his/her behalf. If one dies before he/she recovers, the ransom paid before will be enough and he/she does not need to tell his/her inheritors about it.

Therefore, one must perform each of the missed fasts as qada. Moreover, one should repent for not having performed a fard worship in time without an excuse.

If one cannot perform the missed fasts as qada because of illness or old age, he/she has to pay ransom for each of them. The amount of a ransom is equal to the amount of fitrah determined for that year.

14 Is the fast of spouses valid who have interourse at night and wake up in the morning in a state of Junub?

The fast of spouses, who have intercourse at night and wake up in the morning in a state of Junub, is still valid. But spouses in a state of Junub should perform Ghusl as soon as possible without delaying any prayer. What is obligatory is to perform the prayers on time.

Fasting is invalidated by having intercourse during the day in Ramadan, from just before dawn until after sunset.

15 Could you please give information about the role of food factor on controlling bodily appetites?

One of the basics of Sufism is Qillah at-Taam (Scarcity of Food) which has the meaning of “eating little”
Eating much damages our physical body; it damages our spiritual life as well.

When a person eats like stuffing oneself,

• Fear from Allah vanishes  from the heart
• Prayers become difficult for him
• He is not much impressed with words of wisdom; he listens to the conversations that are of high wisdom yawning
• His power of impressing people reduces when he is to give advice
• He easily gets sick
• His bodily appetite becomes excessive and it does not obey the heart and mind
• His lustful desires strengthen
• Sleep takes over. His hours that he could spend with religious actions and praying are filled with sleep that resembles death and nothingness.

• Our Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him ) fasted on Mondays and Thursday. He also fasted on 13th, 14th and 15th days of every month of the lunar calendar. In the months of Rajab and Sha’ban, he fasted more often. He would not eat much even in the times that he was not fasting. Sometimes, smoke did not come out of his house for months.
The Holy Prophet advises that stomach should be separated into three parts: One third for food, one third for water and the remaining one third for air.

To eat only when one is hungry and to leave eating without a full stomach” is a significant unavoidable prescription for controlling bodily appetites.

Today’s Muslims who are turning the Month Ramadan into almost an “eating month”, with splendid iftar (the breaking of fast at sunset ) tables, reduce their benefit from this month of annual maintenance for the body and the soul. Nowadays desires and appetites of the body are spoiled with delicious meals, and the souls have become obstinate and disobedient. Eating little which is a common value in almost every mystical movement is what people today ultimately need. In parables of dervishes, we read stories of praiseworthy people who could survive with a single olive for forty days. It seems that a person who has forty olives along with cheese or jam in the breakfast would suspect these parables. However, it would be good not to forget that when a man rises to the level of life of the heart and soul, he becomes a sort of angel, and his need for food reduces to minimum. Besides, this should not be ignored: if the energy in an atom comes out of it, we encounter a huge amount of energy beyond our perception and imagination. Who knows, a similar situation can be the valid for these kinds of praiseworthy people.

From the book Nefis Terbiyesi (Discipline for Bodily Appetites)

Şadi Eren (Doç.Dr.)

16 Is it permissible to do anything sexual with my partner other than sexual intercourse during the holy month of Ramadan?

Sexual intercourse during fasting from dawn to dusk is not permissible. Sexual intercourse while fasting during the day invalidates the fast. The penalty is to fast an additional period of 60 continuous days. If one is not able to do so then he must feed sixty poor people-one average meal each. But it is permissible to have sexual intercourse after iftar (Breaking the fast after sunset) until the time of imsaq (abstinence).

The fast is not broken because of kissing his wife or any other one, but the fast is broken if man or woman ejaculates because of kissing, caressing, embracing or etcand this requires only one day qadha but not a kaffarah. If something ejaculates without any desire from his/her sexual organs the fast is not broken.

Permitted Acts of Fasting: (Related with your question)

Kissing, provided that one has self-control.

Kissing, touching, and stroking the opposite sex, provided that no ejaculation occurs, as well as any sexual activity that does not result in ejaculation. Any ejaculation that is the result of looking and thinking does not invalidate the fast.

Forbidden Acts Requiring a Make-up Day:

Ejaculation that occurs with pleasure by kissing, touching, and masturbation.

Please click on the link given below;

Does it invalidate the fast if somebody kisses his wife?

17 Does applying eye-drop invalidate fasting ?

According to the information received from the specialist opticians, a dosage of eye-drop that should be taken over a period of time is very little (50 microliters which is 1/20 of a milliliter), and some of it is thrown out by the blink of an eyelid, and some of it is absorbed in the eye, in the canals connecting the canals between the eye and the nasal cavity and in the mucus through pores, and scarcely any amount of it may arrive in the alimentary canal. When that information is considered together with the explanations above, eye drops do not invalidate fasting.

18 Things which invalidate the Fast

Hitting someone else does not break your fast. But there are things which invalidate fasting.

Avoid the following which invalidate fasting:

• Feeding oneself through mouth, nose, etc and taking medicine knowing that one is fasting.
• Having sexual intercourse knowing that one is fasting.
• Vomiting mouthful.
• Being unconscious or drunk whole day.
• Begin to have menstrual or post-natal bleeding during any time of the day.
• Having abandoned Islam due to a blasphemous act or word.

19 Do treatment methods like sprays, eye-nose-ear drops, endoscopy, anesthesia, suppositories, enema, injections, serum, donating blood, dialysis, angio, biopsy, ointment, medicine and gynecological examination invalidate fasting?

As a general rule and definite decree, injecting nourishment through serum in order to provide body resistance to a patient invalidates fasting. Injection in order to reduce the pain or for obligatory treatment invalidates fasting according to Abu Hanifa. However, it does not invalidate fasting according to Imam Abu Yusuf, Imam Muhammad and other madhhab imams. As a precaution, it is better to carry out those treatments at night. However, that permission can be used for the treatments that have to be carried out during the day. Gynecological examination does not invalidate fasting.

The judgments that the Directorate of Religious Affairs (of Turkey) made regarding the methods of examination and treatment that invalidate and do not invalidate fasting:

The Supreme Committee of Religious Affairs conducted a meeting under the presidency of Deputy Director Prof. Dr. M. Saim YEPREM on 22/09/2005.

The issue of “The Methods of Examination and Treatment That Invalidate and Do Not Invalidate Fasting” prepared by the Committee of Answering Religious Questions was negotiated. As a conclusion of the negotiations, the following decisions were made;

Many people undergo treatment due to various health problems. Today, many methods of treatments that did not exist during the age of Hazrat Prophet have emerged. Some of the patients who undergo treatment want to perform fasting. However, they have doubts whether those methods of treatment and examination invalidate fasting or not, and they ask our directorate about them.

Fasting, which is one of the five fundamentals of Islam, is, according to its definitions in the verses of the Quran, a kind of worship that is performed by restraining oneself from eating, drinking and sexual activity from dawn to dusk. The following is stated in the Glorious Quran, “Permitted to you on the night of the fasts, is the approach to your wives (...) Eat and drink, until the white thread of dawn appear to you distinct from its black thread.” (al-Baqara 2/187). Hazrat Prophet said; “Every (good) deed of the son of Adam would be multiplied, a good deed receiving a tenfold to seven hundredfold reward. Allah, the Exalted and Majestic, has said: ‘With the exception of fasting, for it is done for Me and I will give a reward for it, for one abandons his passion and food for My sake.’ ” (Muslim, Siyam, 30, H.No: 1151). Accordingly, fasting consists of abstaining from eating, drinking and sexual activity with the intention of worshipping; if one of those is carried out, fasting is invalidated. All of the Islamic scholars agree on it. As for the issues except eating, drinking and sexual activity, there are disagreements because they were either decided by analogy or by acting upon the meaning of imsak (seizing or abstaining) in the word “siyam” by mujtahids (Islamic legislators); many scholars expanded the things that invalidate fasting while some scholars kept them to a minimum acting upon the meaning of fasting in the verse and hadith.

In addition to eating, drinking and sexual activity, nothing that invalidates fasting except vomiting a mouthful intentionally and hajamat (a kind of cupping; drawing blood) is mentioned in hadiths (see Ibn Majah, Siyam, 18; Abu Dawud, Siyam, 28; Tirmidhi, Sawm, 25). However it is mentioned in the hadiths that many acts like having a bath, rinsing out the mouth (mazmaza), brushing teeth (using miswak), tinging with kohl, kissing one’s wife, applying oil on one’s body, wearing perfume do not invalidate fasting (see Bukhari, Sawm, 24, 27; Muslim, Siyam, 12; Tirmidhi, Sawm, 29, 31, 76; İbn Majah, Siyam, 17; …).
Fasting is a kind of worship that all Muslims must know about how to perform, what invalidates and what does not invalidate it. Therefore, as in the other kinds of worshipping, Hazrat Prophet would have explained in detail if there had been other things that invalidated fasting, and his companions would have reported them to the following generation. However, apart from the acts that were mentioned above, there are no other hadiths that were reported whether sahih (sound), da’if (weak), musnad (indexed by Sahaba) or mursal (reported by Tabi’in).

Some acts that are mentioned among the things that invalidate fasting in our fiqh resources like amma (deep wound in the head) or jaifa (deep wound in the abdomen) and huqna (enema) were carried out during the time of Hazrat Prophet and Muslims probably faced them and carried out those treatments but no narration was reported from our Prophet stating that they invalidated fasting. As a matter of fact, it is a necessity of tabligh (conveying the message) that the Prophet must explain the things that Muslims can face. Therefore, only eating, drinking and sexual activity that are stated clearly in the Quran and sahih sunnah invalidate fasting. It corresponds to restraining oneself from the desires of the soul and bodily habits that our religion means by fasting.

In the light of the explanations above, methods of examination and treatment can be evaluated as follows in terms of invalidating or not invalidating fasting:

a) Sprays for the patients of asthma
A very small amount (1/20 ml.) of the spray that lung patients use is delivered into the mouth at one time. Most of it is absorbed by the mouth and the wall of the trachea and disappears. There is no certain information that the rest reaches the stomach with the saliva. When that amount is compared to the water that remains in the mouth during wudu (ablution), it can be seen that it is very little. As a matter of fact, there is a hadith (Darimi, Sawm, 21) and the consensus of Islamic scholars that if the water remaining in the mouth after wudu reaches the stomach, it does not invalidate fasting. In addition, it is inevitable that some bits and chemicals from miswak (natural toothbrush) will reach the stomach but it is mentioned in sahih hadith resources that Hazrat Prophet used miswak while he was fasting. (Bukhari, Sawm, 27; Tirmidhi, Sawm, 29). On the other hand, fasting is not invalidated by something that is not certain whether it reaches the stomach or not according to the rule “what is known as certain is not invalidated by doubt”.

Therefore, if asthma patients do not have any other diseases and if their health is suitable for fasting, their fasting is not invalidated by the medicine containing oxygen that is sprayed into the mouth in order to enable them to breathe easily.

b) Eye Drops
According to the information received from the specialist opticians, a dosage of eye-drop that should be taken over a period of time is very little (50 microliters which is 1/20 of a milliliter), and some of it is thrown out by the blink of an eyelid, and some of it is absorbed in the eye, in the canals connecting the canals between the eye and the nasal cavity and in the mucus through pores, and scarcely any amount of it may arrive in the alimentary canal. When that information is considered together with the explanations above, eye drops do not invalidate fasting.

c) Nose Drops
One drop of medicine dropped into the nose for treatment is about 0,06 cm3. Some of it is absorbed through nose walls and only very little of it reaches the stomach. It can be evaluated as exempt as it is the case in mazmaza.

d) Sublingual Pills
The sublingual pill placed under the tongue in some cardiac diseases is absorbed through the mouth tissue, mixes with the blood and prevents heart attack. Since that pill is absorbed and disappears in the mouth, it does not reach the stomach. Therefore, sublingual pills do not invalidate fasting.

e) Endoscopy, colonoscopy, ultrasound from the anus or vagina
In endoscopy, which is carried out in order to determine the disease in the stomach by inspecting the stomach or carrying out a biopsy, a medical instrument is inserted through the mouth into the stomach, and the instrument is taken out after the procedure. In colonoscopy, which is carried out in order to determine the disease in the colons by inspecting the inside of the intestine or carrying out a biopsy, an instrument is inserted through the anus into the intestines, and the instrument is taken out after the procedure. In colonoscopy, almost always, and in endoscopy generally some water is sent into the body through the instrument in order to clean the area to be inspected.
Although endoscopy, colonoscopy, ultrasound from the anus or vagina do not mean eating or drinking, they invalidate fasting because water is generally sent into the body through the instrument. However, if water, oil or any other thing that has the quality of food does not enter into digestive system during those procedures, endoscopy, colonoscopy, ultrasound from the anus or vagina will not invalidate fasting.

f) Inspecting urinary canal and inserting medicine into the canal
The instruments or medicine inserted into the urinary canal do not invalidate fasting.

g) Anesthesia
Preventing transmission in various levels on the neural pathways that transmit pain forms anesthesia. There are three kinds of anesthesia: local, regional and general. In small operations, the anesthesia that is attained by administering drugs that prevent transmission to the immediate surroundings of the region to be operated on is called local anesthesia. The anesthesia that is formed by administering drugs to prevent transmission in the level of spinal cord in larger regions of the body, for instance, below the belt or one half of it to the spinal cord or before the spinal cord on the points of connection formed by a large neuron group is called regional anesthesia. The anesthesia in which the patient is anesthetized and the pain is prevented in the level of brain is called general anesthesia.
Anesthesia is formed through administering drugs into body through air passage or injection. The anesthesia that is carried out through air passage or injection does not reach the stomach, and it is not regarded as eating or drinking. However, in regional and general anesthesia, in emergencies, medicine, liquid and serum are administered through vascular access. Therefore, local anesthesia does not invalidate fasting. In regional and general anesthesia, fasting is invalidated because serum is administered.

h) Ear drops and having the ears washed
There is a canal between the ears and throat. However, since the eardrum blocks that canal, water or medicine does not reach the throat. Therefore, the medicine dropped into the ear and having the ears washed do not invalidate fasting. Even if there is a small hole in the eardrum, the medicine will not reach the stomach or very little of it will reach the stomach. As we have mentioned before, such a small amount is regarded exempt. However,if the eardrum membrane is pierced, water may reach the stomach during when one has his ears washed. Therefore, an amount of water that is enough to validate fasting reaches the stomach, fasting will be invalidated.

i) Suppositories and enema
Suppositories are inserted as painkillers and antipyretics and for some other purposes through the anus, and in order to treat fungal infections and some gynecological diseases through the vagina. Enema is the procedure of injecting liquid through the anus in order to remove the feces in the large intestine before medical operations or in the treatment of constipation.
Digestive system starts in the mouth and ends in the anus; it consists of the alimentary canal and digestive glands. The alimentary canal starts in the mouth. After the mouth comes the pharynx. Then the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus follow. Digestion is completed in the small intestine. In the large intestine, only water, glucose and some salts are absorbed. There is no connection between the vagina of a woman and the digestive system.
Therefore, the suppositories that women insert through their vaginas do not invalidate fasting. As for the suppositories inserted through the anus, although they enter into the digestive system, they do not invalidate fasting because digestion is completed in the small intestine and the suppositories do not have any nutritious properties and they are not regarded as eating or drinking when they enter the body through the anus. .

Two situations occur during enema: since water, glucose and some salts are absorbed in the large intestine, fasting is invalidated if a liquid containing nourishment is administered into intestines or if an amount of water enough to invalidate fasting stays in the intestine. However, if the water is not kept in the intestines and if the intestines are cleaned immediately fasting is not invalidated because the water is taken out together with the feces in the intestines and the water absorbed during that period is very little.

j) Injections, giving serum and blood to a patient
Whether injections invalidate fasting or not depends on the usage purpose of them. Injections are given in order to relieve pain, to treat a disease, to increase the resistance of the body and to give nourishment, etc. The injections that do not give nourishment or pleasure do not invalidate fasting because they are not regarded as eating and drinking. However, the injections that give nourishment or pleasure invalidate fasting. The same rule is valid regarding giving the patient blood or serum.

k) Dialysis
The dialysis that is applied to the patients with renal failure are of two types:peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.
Peritoneal dialysis is the procedure of cleaning the blood from the harmful substances and maintaining fluid balance through a special solution administered into the abdominal cavity. Hemodialysis is the procedure of cleaning the blood through a machine outside the body and giving the cleaned blood back to the body. The blood is drawn through a syringe from the arm of the patient. The hemodialysis machine filters the blood through a dialyser continuously and removes the harmful substances and the extra water. The filtered clean blood is given back to the patient through a second syringe. During that procedure, sometimes, fluid containing nourishment becomes necessary to be given to the patient.
Accordingly, fasting is not invalidated if hemodialysis is carried out without giving any fluid containing nourishment to the patient. In the other forms of dialysis, fasting is invalidated since fluid containing nourishment is given to the body.

l) Angio
The operation known as angio by people is carried out for diagnosis (angiography) and for treatment. Angiography means the imaging of the veins and arteries. A drug called contrast substance that makes the veins visible is administred into the veins and films called angiograms are obtained. Thanks to angiography, the veins fostering the organs are imaged and diagnostic information regarding vascular diseases or the organs fostered by those veins are obtained. The classical method for the treatment of angio is angioplasty. It is carried out in order to reopen the narrowed or blocked veins through a special devices called balloon or stent.

In the light of that information, since nothing related to eating and drinking take place in both angiography or angioplasty, fasting is not invalidated.

m) Biopsy
Removing tissue from the body (biopsy) in order to analyze it does not invalidate fasting.

n) Donating blood
As to whether donating blood invalidates fasting or not, acting upon the hadith reported from Hazrat Prophet “The one administering the cupping and the one being cupped have both invalidated their fasts” (Abu Dawud, Siyam, 28), some Islamic scholars say donating blood invalidates fasting. Acting upon the narration that Hazrat Prophet was cupped while he was fasting (Bukhari, Sawm, 32; Abu Dawud, Siyam, 29), most of the scholars say that donating blood does not invalidate fasting.

When those two hadiths and other narrations are evaluated together, the hadith “The one administering the cupping and the one being cupped have both invalidated their fasts” should be understood as “The one administering the cupping and the one being cupped bear the risk of invalidating fasting.” The one administering the cupping bears the risk of swallowing blood since he sucks the blood and the one being cupped may feel weak and may have to eat and drink something. As a matter of fact,Anas b. Malik said cupping is not liked because it will weaken the fasting person. (Bukhari, Sawm, 32).
Therefore, donating blood does not invalidate fasting.

o) Ointment and bands containing medicine
Oil, ointment and similar things applied on the skin are absorbed through the pores and capillaries under the skin and mix with blood. However, the skin absorbs them in very small amounts and very slowly. On the other hand, it does not mean eating or drinking. Therefore, the ointment applied on the skin and the band containing medicine that is stuck on the skin do not invalidate fasting.
In conclusion;

a) Our religion permits people who are ill and who are undergoing treatment not to perform fasting. Therefore, people who are continuing their treatment can delay performing fasting until they recover and their treatment is over. However, if they want to perform fasting in the month of Ramadan together with other people and if they do not have any other drawback to fasting, they can have their examination and treatment after iftar (breaking their fasting).
b) The spray used by asthma patients, eye, ear and nose drops, having the ear washed if the ear is not pierced, using sublingual pills, imaging the urinary canal, administering medicine into urinary canal, endoscopy on the condition that water, oil or a similar substance having the property of nutrition do not enter the body, colonoscopy, ultrasound through the anus or vagina, local anesthesia, enema on the condition that water is not kept in the intestines and the intestines are cleaned immediately, hemodialysis without administering the patient any fluid, injections that are not nourishing or that do not give pleasure, angio, biopsy, donating blood, applying ointment on the skin, sticking bands containing medicine on the body do not invalidate fasting.

c) Injections that are nourishing or that give pleasure, administering fluids that have nourishment to the body or enema that lasts so long enough as the water to be absorbed, endoscopy or colonoscopy if water, oil or a similar substance having the property of nutrition enter the body, regional and general anesthesia, having the ear washed if the ear is pierced so that an amount of water sufficient to invalidate fast reaches the stomach, peritoneal dialysis, and hemodialysis administering serum to the vein invalidate fasting.

20 Is it wrong to kiss a woman during fasting? Does kissing a woman invalidates the fast?

Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, narrates: 

“Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings upon him, would kiss one of his wives while he was fasting.” (Having said this, Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, smiled.)

In another narration, she says:

“Allah's Messenger (PBUH) would perform mubasharat (touching the wife/contact with the wife other than sexual intercourse) while fasting. He was more in control of his soul than all of you.” (Bukhari, Sawm: 24, 23; Muslim, Siyam: 62-65; Muwatta, Siyam: 14; Abu Dawud, Sawm: 33; Tirmidhi, Sawm: 31) 

Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates: 

One asked Allah's Messenger (PBUH) about mubasharat of the fasting person with his wife.

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) gave him permission. 

After that, somebody else came, he asked the same question, too. The Prophet forbade him from mubasharat (with his wife). 

The one to whom  Allah's Messenger (PBUH) gave permission was an old man; and the one whom he forbade from mubasharat was young. (Abu Dawud, Sawm: 35) 

Jaber, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates: 

Umar Ibn-i Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, (came with alarm and) said: 

“O Allah's Messenger (PBUH)! Today I have made a grave mistake; I kissed (my wife) while I was fasting.”

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) answered thus:

“Do you not take water in your mouth while fasting (so as to get Wudu: ablution for ritual purification from minor impurities before salat)? (Does it invalidate your fast)?”

(One of the narrators, Isa Ibn-i Hammad, says in his narration:)

I said: “There is no harm in that.”

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said:

“Then why (do you take alarm about kissing)?”

(Abu Dawud, Sawm: 33) 

'Mubasharat' means getting closer and a husband's benefiting from his wife. 

Here, it is used with the meaning of benefiting from one's wife's body except for sexual intercourse. 

While it is permitted for an old person, it is not permitted for young people. This is because a young man may not control himself and may fall into a situation necessitating kaffarah (compensation).

21 medication and fasting

If fasting gives harm to one's health, it is permissible for him  not to fast, but when s/he gets well he must fast for each missed days. If the ilness or the reason that avoids fasting is permanent then s/he must pay ransom (fidya).
If one is healthy enough to be able to fast, paying ransom (fidya, the feeding of one that is indigent) instead of fasting will not save him from the duty of fasting. He must perform fasting that he missed for each day. A Muslim, who is incapable of fasting, must pay ransom (if can afford) instead of each days that he didn’t fast. This ransom is current instead of fasting. The amount of ransom (fidya) is equal to the amount of fitra (special form of Islamic alms-charity).
Ransom (fidya) of fasting is testified directly by the Quran; “(Fasting) for a fixed number of days; but if any of you is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed number (should be made up) from days later. For those who can do it (with hardship), is a ransom, the feeding of one that is indigent. But he that will give more, of his own free will,- it is better for him. And it is better for you that ye fast, if ye only knew. (el-Bakara, 2/184)
Also, if it is testified by a pious doctor that one can not fast, s/he can pay ransom instead of fasting.
The limit of illness which make not to fast permissible has been listed by our Islamic law scholars as follows:
1-Having so much difficulty by fasting,
2-Having a life-critical because of fasting,
3- If ilness becomes intensfied or the cure delays because of fasting.
Nowadays, according to the depandable doctor’s statements, some of the certain ilnesses which make not to fast permissible are those:
1- The extremity heart illnesses.
2- Tuberculous and the disase of lung ichor
3- The disease of canser,
4- Intense kidney inchor,
5- Urethritis with having stone in it,
6- Extremity arterioslerosis,
7- Extremity diabetes disase (1)
8- Having ulcer with the stomach and bowel,

(1) el-Fıkh'ul-Islâmi and Edilletuha v. 2, p. 645

22 Is it permissible for me to fast consecutively to compensate that I missed?

Performing fard (compulsory) wajib (obligatory) fasts on Fridays and Saturdays as single days is not makrooh (abominable). That is why, there is no drawback for the ones who have skipped fasting or who has offerings to practice fasting in any day of the week of their choice.  

Furthermore, if the eves of eids or the days of the one of the five holy nights happen to be on Friday or Saturday, it is not be abominable to practice fasting on those days. As it is stated in the Hadith “There is no drawback if one of you is practicing the fast that he is accustomed to.We understand that if those who practice fasting on the days of five holy nights can practice their fasting even if the holy nights are on Fridays. (Naylu'l Awtar, 4, 249; İslam Fıkhı Ansiklopedisi, Wahba Zuhayli, v.3, p. 124)
However, fasting within the week only on Friday and Saturday for those who are not accustomed to practicing fard and wajib fasts on eves of eids or the days of holy nights is tanzihan makrooh (somewhat disliked). The hadiths stating the facts on the matter are below: 

Friday is a day of feast; do not turn your day of feast into day of fast.” (Musnad, 2:303)

Except the compulsory fast, do not practice fasting on Saturday” (Ibn Majah, Siyam: 38)

Saturdays and Sundays are days of feast for polytheists, I would like to oppose them.” (Nasai, Jumu’a: 1)

Among the nights do not assign only Friday night for praying; again, among the days, do not assign only Friday for fasting. However, if any of you is practicing the fast he is accustomed to, then it is an exception.” (Naylu'l Awtar, 4, 249; İslam Fıkhı Ansiklopedisi, Wahba Zuhayli, v.3, p. 124)

Those hadiths only advise not to practice fasting on Fridays and Saturdays. However practicing your fast on those days, in other words, practicing your fast on Fridays and Saturdays is tanzihan makrooh. It is not tahriman makrooh (strictly abominable).   

However, on those days, by performing fasting adding one day before or one day after to that day you can simply prevent it from being abominable. If one wants to practice his fasting on Friday, he should start practicing his fasting on Thursday or he should continue his practice on Saturday as well. Again, if someone wants to practice his fasting on Saturday he should add either Friday or Sunday to his practice. Fiqh scholars explain that matter as it is mentioned above:

If the one practices his fasting on Sunday without showing respect to that day, because it will be easier to practice his fasting on Sunday since its holiday, there is no drawback to that practice. However practicing fasting on Sunday considering it as a respectable day is inappropriate.

23 How can you tell what time to start and break your fast for Ramadan?

You must start fasting and break it according to the local prayer schedule defined by The Directorate of Religious Affairs. You must follow the prayer schedule for the area you live.

24 What are the excuses that make it permissbile not to fast in Ramadan?

Being ill is one of the excuses that make it permissible not to fast in Ramadan. Please read the text given below.

Excuses that make it permissible not to fast in Ramadan:

The following decree is stated in the Quran: " O ye who believe! fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you that ye may (learn) self-restraint.― (Fasting) for a fixed number of days; but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the prescribed number (should be made up) from days later. For those who can do it (with hardship) is a ransom, the feeding of one that is indigent. But he that will give more of his own free-will―it is better for him, and it is better for you that ye fast, if ye only knew. "(al-Bakara, 2/183-184) If it is noted, it can be seen what states make it permissible not to fast can be seen.

1) Being ill: If a person who is obliged to fast is afraid that he will die or he will lose one of his organs, he does not fast. Imam Marghinani says, "The increase in the illness or lengthening of the illness may sometimes cause a person’s death. He says, in that case, it is necessary to avoid it (increasing or lengthening it), pointing out its sensitivity. An illness becomes certain through experience or the diagnosis of a believing specialist (doctor). 

2) Going on an expedition (Traveling): A person who is obliged to fast and who goes on an expedition in the month of Ramadan does not make niyyat (have the intention) for fasting at night if he does not want want to fast. It is permissible and it is definite by verses. 

3) Being very old and weak: A very old person who is too weak to fast eats every day and pays a poor person fidyah (amount of money necessary for a person to fill his stomach for one day) for each day he does not fast. Imam Marghinani says "What is essential here is the decree of Allah that says “it is necessary for those who cannot fast to pay fidyah to the poor” If he can fast, the fidyah becomes invalid. The condition for the fidyah is the continuation of the weakness.” (al-Hidaya, I, 127). How old should one be so as not to fast? Fiqh scholars gave different answers to that question. However, being very old and weak changes from person to person. Fatawa al-Hindiyya (I, 207):

"A very old and weak person is someone whose strength decreases day by day and dies before gaining strength again”. It is the definition in Bahru'r-Raiq. People who are in that state can pay their fidyahs at the beginning of Ramadan wholly or pay it at the end of the month. If they gain strength and can fast after paying the fidyahs, their fidyahs become invalid. They have to fast for those days.

4) Menstruation and Post-Partum (Puerperium) Bleeding: It is haram for women who are in menstruation and puerperium to fast. It is recorded that Hazrat Aisha, our mother, (may Allah be pleased with her) said, "During the period of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh), when one of us became clean after menstrual period, she would fast for the days that she could not fast but would not perform the prayers that she missed." (Fathul-Qadir, I, 114). Therefore, the women in menstrual period and puerperium do not fast as long as they are in those states. Then, (after being clean) they perform fasting for those days.

5) Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: In Durru'l-Mukhtar, the following is written: “A pregnant woman who is afraid that her life or her child’s life will be endangered, or according to zahiru'r riwaya, a breastfeeding woman whether she is the mother or wet nurse does not have to fast." (Ibn Abidin, IV, 338). What is essential here is that, whether pregnant or breastfeeding, the danger of destroying their bodies or their children. As a matter of fact, the following is stated in Fatawa al-Hindiyya: "If pregnant or breastfeeding women are afraid that they or their children can be destroyed they do not have to fast or they can break their fast. Kaffarah (fasting for 60 days as a punishment of breaking fast intentionally) is not necessary; they can fast later one day for each day (ibid, I, 207).

6) Danger of Being Destroyed or Being Bitten by a Snake: A mujahid (Muslim who fights for Allah) who knows that he will fight the enemy in the month of Ramadan and who is worried that he will become weak and will not be able to fight as necessary if he fasts does not have to fast  (ibid, I, 208). In Durru'l-Mukhtar, the following is written, "A person who is forced, who is afraid of being destroyed or going mad and a person who has been bitten by a snake may break their fast." We can think that those states are covered by the expression “who is ill” in the verse. Those who break their fast due to the reasons mentioned above fast later one day for each day because the danger of being destroyed is in question in case of delaying. It is certain that it is an acceptable excuse. 

It is a great sin not to perform fasting in Ramadan apart from the excuses mentioned above. Even if a person fasts later for those days, he will still be regarded responsible. He should both perform fasting for those days, repent and ask forgiveness from Allah. To work during the summer days is not an excuse not to perform fasting.  

25 Ten days FASTIN

The aim of the first 10 days of Zilhicca which is mentioned in the hadiths is its first 9 days. Because, the 10th day of the Zilhicca is the first day of the Sacrifice Holiday. It is not permissible to fast that day. However that day is a worship day as well. The acceptable fast is the first 9 days before Sacrifice Holiday. The night of the Sacrifice Holiday is included in the 10 nights. Because nights come beforehand.

26 When should I "pay back" the missed fasts of Ramadan?

It is makruh tahriman (disliked close to forbidden) to fast on the first day of the Ramadan Festival and on the four days of the Feast of Sacrifice. There are also people who deem it forbidden to fast on those days. In this respect, they may be called forbidden fast. Those days are announced by Allah as festivals for His slaves.

There is no drawback in fasting on the second day of Ramadan Festival. May Allah accept it!..

27 How should the attitudes of those who fast and who do not fast towards one another be?

Muslims are obliged to be more careful in this century. As Muslims are widely considered to be supporters of violence, their first duty in Islam is to advice people the right with a gentle language. We should know that good communication does not include physical oppression over those whom we address and using words which could insult them. Victory against civilized people is won through persuasion not by force. So, we ourselves should first learn the importance of fasting and after that with a gentle use of language, we should tell it to others.

Those who do not fast might be having problems in belief – if they do not have other valid excuses. We should tell such people about the truth of belief. We cannot expect those who do not believe to commit religious deeds.

As a human being, the duty of those who do not fast in the month of Ramadan is not to obviously reveal that they are not fasting. There are some annotations of hadiths which show that a Jewish person won his/her chance –by saving his/her belief – to enter Paradise because of his/her respect toward a Muslim who fasted.

As people who fast, we should keep it in mind that we will not be serving Islam by being angry with, bearing enmity against and fighting those who do not fast. To consider one’s behaviour to be unpleasant and to dislike it on behalf of God is different than to be angry with such people.
 

As pointed out above, good deeds which consist of fulfilling Allah’s command and keeping away from His prohibitions is the outcome of a strong belief. Fasting or other ways of worshipping or having good morals can only be achievable by believing in the truthfulness of Islam in order to obey the universal principles of Islam. For this reason, if we desire to raise perfect people in every aspect, we must add good values to their belief with all efforts  we can give.

Today’s wretched situation of Islam is beacuse of the wretchedness in belief. This is the purpose of the conveying the message of Islam that is the most important thing in Islam : teaching and learning. The basic of the knowledge is the principles of belief. Knowing the priorty of importance, measuring our speech with the scale of wisdom, analysing the character of those whom we address with our perception, not touching their sore spots, agreeing with them in common subjects which they like, complimenting them and doing all for the sake of God is of utmost importance in this issue.

28 Who is exempt from Sawm (fasting)?

It seems that you are not an adolescent yet because you are only (11), so you are exempt from Ramadan fasting.

Please read the information given below;

WHO IS EXEMPT FROM SAWM?
Fasting is mandatory on every Muslim who is sane, adult, able and resident. The following exemptions apply:
1. the insane;
2. children who are not adolescent yet;
3. the elderly and chronically ill for whom fasting is unreasonably strenuous; Such persons are required to feed at least one poor person every day in Ramadan for which he or she has missed fasting.
4. pregnant women and nursing may postpone the fasting at a later time;
5. the ill and the travellers can also defer their fasting.
Please click on the link given below;

RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR FASTING

29 How do I compensate for the missed fasts?

There is no certain time for the performance of the fasts that were missed. However, it is necessary to perform them as soon as possible because it is not definite when a person will die. As those who die without making up for the fasts they missed will be indebted; they will be responsible. In order to be free from the debt, they should perform fasting immediately.

A person should fast for the days he has missed by estimating the days. He can complete his fasting by fasting on Mondays and Thursdays or every other day easily.

Nevertheless, except the first four days of the Feast of the Sacrifice and the first day of the Ramadan Feast, it is permissible to fast on every day of the year.

30 What should a sick person do while fasting in Ramadan?

There is no drawback in sleeping because of an illness or fatigue. The fasting person can sleep on condition that s/he does not skip such obligations as the prayers.

Those who are worried that if they fast their illness will deteriorate or will be lengthened, and those who suffer when they fast because of their illness, are permitted not to fast in the month of Ramadan and to compensate for it (by fasting at another time) after they recover.

This verse in the Qur'an points out that:

O you who believe! Prescribed for you is the Fast, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may deserve God's protection (against the temptations of your carnal soul) and attain piety. (Fasting is for) a fixed number of days. If any of you is so ill that he cannot fast, or on a journey, he must fast the same number of other days. But for those who can no longer manage to fast, there is redemption (penance) by feeding a person in destitution (for each day missed, or giving him the same amount in money). Yet better it is for him who volunteers greater good (by either giving more, or fasting in case of recovery), and that you should fast (when you are able to) is better for you, if you but knew (the worth of fasting)” (The Qur’an, Al-Baqarah, 2:183-184)

The person, who is notified by a specialist that if s/he fasts, s/he will become ill, is also considered as ill. 

31 When should we recite the prayer of Iftar?

Prayer of iftar can be recited either at the beginnig or at the end. But reciting the prayer at the time of iftar is Sunnah. (the way and the manners of Muhammad (Pbuh).

The Prophet’s Prayer of Iftar

Muadh ibn-i Zuhra, may Allah be pleased with him, narrates:

- I have heard that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, would recite this prayer when he ate iftar (the meal eaten by Muslims breaking their fast after sunset during the month of Ramadan):

“Allahumma laka sumtu wa ala rizqika aftartu.”

(O my Allah! I have fasted for your acceptance and I am breaking my fast with Your provision.)

(Abu Dawud, Sawm: 22)

Marvan ibn-i Salim narrates from ibn-i Umar, may Allah be pleased with them both:

- The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, would say this when he broke his fast:

“The thirst gone, the arteries dampened; the reward has become definite, Allah willing.”

The narrator of the hadith Razin added the word “Alhamdulillah” (Praise be to Allah!) to the beginning of the prayer. (Abu Dawud, Sawm: 22)

Abdullah ibn-i Umar, peace be upon them both, would also pray as follows at the time of iftar:

“O my Allah, forgive me for the sake of your rahmat (mercy) which encompasses the whole universe and forgive me my sins.”

32 how to feed the poor if i cant fast
If one cannot fast, s/he must feed an indigent (if can afford) during the month Ramadan (if the reason that prevent him/her from fasting is permanent). If s/he cannot afford s/he doesn't have to do something else. This ransom can be given whether directly or indirectly to the person in need. Also it can be sent to any other countries. The condition for such ransom is that it must be used just for indigents or students. For example it can be given to an aid organizaiton on the condition that they must spend the money just for the pople in need or students.

33 What is perfect fast like?

A person intending to fast does not only stop eating and drinking. He makes his mouth and stomach fast; and he also sends his other faculties to help  them.

Anyway, is not the perfect fast the one fasted in that way? Namely, along with the stomach the other faculties such as eyes, ears, the heart and imagination also perform a kind of fasting. Each of them starts performing its particular worship.

The fasting of tongue is abstaining from lying, back-biting, and indecent words, and being busy with worships such as Qur’an, dhikr (remembrance of Allah), glorifying Allah’s names, asking for Allah’s blessings on the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and praying to Allah for His forgiveness.

The fasting of eyes is not looking at what is forbidden. The fasting of ears is not listening to unnecessary words. Instead of those, eyes try to look in order to take lessons and ears try to listen to the true words and the Qur’an. Faculties such as heart, imagination and mind also think about favorable things.

In this way, since all faculties fast along with the stomach, man does not keep away from eating and drinking in vain and he approaches the perfect fast as a result.

According to Abu Hurayra’s (may Allah be pleased with him) relation, the Noble Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) stated as follows:

“There are some fasting people whose only benefit from their fasting is remaining without food and water.

There are some people who get up in the night and perform salat (prayer) but can not obtain anything except not sleeping enough.” (Ibn Majah, Siyam: 21)

34 When is Ramadan starting in the year 1430 ?

Ramadan in 2009 will start on Friday, the 21st of August and will continue for 30 days until Saturday, the 19th of September. The 20th of September is the first day of Eid ul-Fitr

The movements of the sun and the moon are accepted as criteria in today's communities for the calculation of the year and the month. The lunar calendar is based on the movements of the moon in reckoning the month and the year. The times of the fasting and Hajj (Pilgrimage), which are among the essential worships of Islam, are measured according to the moon's revolutions around the earth. In the Qur'an it is stated: “They ask you (O Messenger) about the new moons (because of the month of Ramadan). Say: "They are appointed times (markers) for the people (to determine time periods) and for the Pilgrimage.” (The Qur'an, al-Bakarah, 2:189)
The twelfth of the lunar months, Dhi'l-Hijja, is the month when the worship of Hajj, one of the five pillars of Islam, is performed. The period from the first day of this month till tenth, are the “layala-i ashara (the sacred ten days)”. And the tenth day of this month is the first day of the Festival of Sacrifice, (Eid al-Adha or Īd ul-Kabīr).

35 “All the deeds of Adam's sons are for them, except fasting which is for Me, and I will give the reward for it.”

The translations of the two hadiths regarding the issue are as follows: 

"Fasting is a shield (or a screen or a shelter). So, the person observing fasting should not behave foolishly and impudently, and if somebody fights with him or abuses him, he should tell him twice, 'I am fasting. By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, the smell coming out from the mouth of a fasting person is better in the sight of Allah than the smell of musk. (Allah says about the fasting person), 'He has left his food, drink and desires for My sake. The fast is for Me. So I will reward (the fasting person) for it and the reward of good deeds is multiplied ten times."(Bukhari, Sawm, 2).

Allah says, "All the deeds of Adam's sons (people) are for them, except fasting which is for Me, and I will give the reward for it.”

Fasting is a shield or protection from the fire and from committing sins. If one of you is fasting, he should not utter bad words and quarrel. If somebody should fight or quarrel with him, he should say, 'I am fasting.'

By Him in Whose Hands my soul is' The unpleasant smell coming out from the mouth of a fasting person is better in the sight of Allah than the smell of musk.

 There are two pleasures for the fasting person, one at the time of breaking his fast, and the other at the time when he will meet his Lord." (Bukhari, Sawm 9; Muslim, Siyam 163)

The meaning of the sentence in the hadith, “All the deeds of Adam's sons (people) are for them, except fasting which is for Me” is as follows:

All of the other deeds and worship generally have some aspects that are related to outward appearance; so, there may be hypocrisy or show off in them. However, fasting is worship that is based on intention and related to the heart. Hypocrisy or show off is not in question in fasting because it has no aspects related to outward appearance. A person may eat at home and act as if he is fasting outside. Therefore, if a person fasts, it means he fasts for Allah.   

Since fasting is a sincere act of worship based on the consent of Allah, its reward will be special; the criterion “ten or more rewards for one deed” will not be applied for fasting; it will have a criterion unlike and beyond the other criteria and it will be presented like a divine surprise. (see Ibn Hajar, the explanation of the relevant verse)

That is the meaning of “fasting being a kind of worship done only for the sake of Allah” means a kind of worship that is free from hypocrisy and show off that cannot be known by others unless the person fasting mentions it. For, fasting does not have an aspect that can be seen and understood from the outside.

On the other hand, the polytheists in history did not have any kind of worship for their idols similar to fasting. That is, no idolater worshipped idols by fasting. In this sense, fasting is a kind of worship performed only for Allah.

Another different aspect of worship from other worship is that its reward will be determined by Allah - in a way superior to the criteria declared before.  

Both properties are enough for us to understand the virtue and superiority of fasting.

The hadith states and declares that the reward to be given for fasting is beyond and superior to the criterion of ten to seven hundred times for one good deed and that it will be determined by Allah, indicating the exceptional place of fasting and its virtue in our religion. The virtue of fasting originates from the fact that our Lord said, "Fasting is for me" and "I will give the reward for it", opening the door of endless grace and generosity to the person who fasts. Such honoring and compliments are superior to anything. It forms the glad tiding in the hadith.  

"All the deeds of Adam's sons are for them." The reason why the sentence above is stated by Allah is that all of the worship except fasting has an aspect that man takes pleasure from, that he cannot hide from others and that he might want to show. That fasting does not have these properties shows how sincere and special worship it is. This is the main determination regarding the hadith in the question.

Accordingly:

- The only worship about which Allah says, " I will give the reward for it" is fasting.

- No sacrifice and deed done for Allah remains without reward.

- A person who fasts means a person wearing a shield against sins and torture in Hell. For, the Prophet said, "Fasting is a shield."

36 What are the conditions during which fasting is not allowed?

- It is makruh tahrimi (strictly abominable;close to haram) to perform fasting on five days. They are the first day of eid al-fitr and all four days of eid al-adha. 

The fasting performed on these days are still regarded as fasting but it is not necessary to perform them again if one breaks it. For, it is not reasonable for something that is makruh to be regarded as debt (obligation).  

- It is makruh tanzihi (slightly abominable) to perform fasting only on Friday or only on Saturday. For, Friday is eid day. It is necessary not perform fasting to join the eid day of the believers. Saturday is the special day of Jews. It is not appropriate to perform fasting only on that day so as not to resemble Jews. 

"It is not abominable for you to perform regular fasting when it corresponds to a Friday or Saturday." (Naylu'l-Awtar, IV/249)

It is understood from the hadith above that those who habitually perform fasting on the days of holy nights can perform fasting only on Friday if that holy day corresponds to a Friday. It is also valid for those who perform fasting like the Prophet Dawud (David), who performed fasting every other day. 

- It is similarly makruh tanzihi to perform fasting only on the tenth day of the month of Muharram, that is, on the day of ashura. Fasting performed only on that day is abominable but it is not abominable if one performs fasting on the tenth day together with the ninth or eleventh day. 

- It is also makruh to perform fasting only on the day of "Nawruz" (the first day of spring) deliberately. If a person’s regular fasting corresponds to the day of Nawruz, it is not abominable to perform fasting only on that day.

Yawm ash-shakk (doubtful day) is the day that cannot be known whether it is the first day of the month of Ramadan or the last day of the month of Shaban. It is makruh to perform fasting on such a doubtful day since the intention is not certain. If there is no doubt in the intention, if it is known that it is the last day of the month of Shaban and if one intends to perform a supererogatory (nafilah) fasting, it is not makruh. If it is known later that it was the first day of the Ramadan, this supererogatory fasting replaces the fard fasting.  

However, fasting cannot be performed with an ambiguous intention like the following: “I intend to perform fard fasting if it is Ramadan or supererogatory fasting if it is not Ramadan." It is necessary to be careful about it.

It is not makruh to perform fasting only on Sunday if it is not performed with the intention of respect.

37 On what day is it necessary to fast in the month of Muharram?

Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) advised his Companions to perform fasting on the ninth, tenth and eleventh days of the month of Muharram. The Prophet said,  

"The most virtuous fasting after the month of Ramadan is the one performed in the month of Muharram, which is honored by being attributed to Allah." (Riyadu's-Salihin, II, 504).

It is stated in other hadiths that fasting on the day of Ashura, which is on the tenth day of the month of Muharram and on which many incidents took place, will be a means of forgiveness of the mistakes and sins committed in the last year." (Riyadu's-Salihin, II, 509).

The fasting mentioned in the hadith is fasting on the 9th, 10th and 11th days of the month of Muharram.

It is not necessary to cook ashura (Noah's pudding); however, you can cook it and give some of it to your neighbors.

38 How to make niyyah (intention) for performing missed fasting?

A niyyah like that is valid for missed fasting. In fact, niyyah is a deed related to the heart; it is better to express it by the tongue.

The best way for a person to make niyyah for the missed fasting of Ramadan is to say, "I intend to perform the first fard fasting I missed". However, it is enough to make niyyah without saying "the first" or "the last" missed fasting.

39 Is fasting invalidated if a person has his teeth filled while he is fasting?

If any liquid like water or blood goes down to your stomach, your fasting is invalidated and it becomes necessary to perform fasting for one day to recompense it; otherwise, it is not invalidated. Fasting is not invalidated if an injection is made for anesthezia while the tooth is filled.

Whether an injection invalidates fasting or not can be evaluated based on the reason why it is used. Injections are made for various purposes like relieving pain, treating, increasing the resistance of the body, feeding the body, etc. Injections that do not give food and pleasure to the body do not mean to eat and drink; therefore, they do not invalidate fasting. However, injections that give food and/or pleasure to the body invalidate fasting. Giving serum or blood to a patient is subject to the same decree.

40 Is it necessary for a person to perform fasting again if he breaks a supererogatory fasting deliberately according to Shafiis and Hanafis?

It is necessary to perform fasting again if a person breaks any supererogatory fasting. It does not matter whether a person breaks his fasting deliberately or not.

Accordingly, if a woman who starts supererogatory fasting but has to break it due to having menstruation, she needs to perform it again according to the sound view. For, it is necessary (wajib) to continue a deed of worshipping and a religious duty and not to give it up.

According to Shafiis, such a person does not have to perform fasting again; however, if she wishes, she can perform it again. For, she started a deed of worshipping that is not wajib for her. Performing an extra (supererogatory) deed of worshipping again is not necessary.

41 Should a person who fasts eat iftar (dinner) first or perform the evening prayer?

When the time for the evening prayer starts and when the dinner is ready, it is mustahab to eat dinner and to perform the evening prayer after that.

For, peace of the heart is necessary for the prayer. The dinner at the table might arouse the soul and eliminate the peace of the heart in the prayer. As a matter of fact, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) stated the following regarding the issue:

"When dinner is ready and the table is laid, eat it before performing the evening prayer."

The following is stated in a similar narration:

"When the table is laid for dinner, start eating it before performing the evening prayer." [Bukhari - Muslim: from Anas b. Malik (ra) İslam Fıkhı, Celal Yıldırım]

- Should a person who fasts eat iftar (dinner) first or perform the evening prayer?

If it is definitely known that the time for the evening prayer started, it is better to break the fast by eating dates or drinking water first; then, the evening prayer is performed. It is also appropriate to eat the dinner quickly and then perform the evening prayer. However, when there are several kinds of food at the dinner (iftar) table, the evening prayer will have to be performed late.

To perform fard prayers when the time for a fard period starts is the best. Therefore, it is more appropriate to perform the evening prayer immediately after breaking the fast.

However, there is also the view that it is makruh to eat when a meal is ready. As we have mentioned above, what is meant by this view is the fact that a person cannot perform a prayer properly if his mind is busy with the food. It is appropriate to do so if the dinner does not delay the evening prayer very much. However, as we have mentioned above, the best way is to break the fast (with some dates and/or water) and to perform the evening prayer after it so as not to delay the evening prayer very much and to eat dinner after the prayer. Thus, one breaks his fast early in accordance with the Prophet (pbuh) and performs the evening prayer on time.