FAQ in the category of Miscellaneous

1 Can I read Quran without wudhu and lying down on bed?

Without ablution (wudu), one can recite or read the Qur’an without touching it. However, one can read the Qur’an and its interpretation on the mobile phone without ablution.
It was among Our Prophet’s (peace be upon him) continuous practices to pray before going to bed and to recite the verses of praying such as the chapters of Ikhlas, Falaq and Nas. There are many hadiths regarding the issue in the hadith books. For instance, Hazrath Aisha narrates what Our Prophet (pbuh) used to do before going to bed as follows:
“The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) used to put his palms together, blow upon them and then recite “qul huwallahu ahad”, “qul audhu bi rabbil falaq”, “qul audu bi rabbin nas”, after that rub his whole body with his palms beginning from his head and face to wherever he could touch. He used to repeat that that action three times.” (1)
Bara bin Adhib (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated a hadith from Our Prophet (pbuh) as follows:
“When you go to bed, perform ablution as if you will perform prayers, then lie on your right side and pray as follows: ‘O Allah, I surrendered my soul to You. And I assigned my tasks to You. Since I love you and I fear You, I leant my back against You. I take refuge only in You. I believed in the Book You revealed and the Messenger You sent.’ If you die that night, you die as a Muslim and as a believer. The last words you say should be as I stated.” (2)
As it is seen from both hadiths, these prayers are recited after going to bed. In the first hadith, when Our Prophet is told to rub his blessed body by reciting the chapters of prayers while sitting. In the other hadith, it is understood that after lying in bed, he used to recite them. Therefore, it is permissible to recite both before lying, and after lying in bed.
In the book “al-Fatawa’l-Hindiyya”, the following sentences regarding the issue are written: “There is no drawback in lying on one’s side when reciting the Qur’an. However, in the meantime, one should stretch his/her legs but should bend them. There is no drawback in reciting a chapter or a verse from the Qur’an, either. However, in the meantime, one should not cover his/her head with the blanket. The blanket takes the place of the dress. If it is not applied as mentioned, it is not permissible to recite it.” (3)
(1). Tirmizi, Dua: 21.
(2). Muslim, Zikr: 56.
(3). Al-Fatawa’l-Hindiyya, 5: 316.

2 What happens to the spirits of animals after they die and will those animals enter Heaven?

As spirit is eternal, spirits of all animals will stay eternally in a world exclusive to them. Prophet Solomon’s hoopoe and the Seven Sleepers’ dog, named Qitmir, will enter Heaven together with both their spirits and bodies.

The spirits of other animals will enter Heaven, too. And moreover, it is stated that each creature in Heaven will have a body which they will use from time to time. Only Allah knows how their lives in Heaven will be and where and how they will stay. Our perception is incapable of the real essence of the Hereafter.
What will be the situation of animals in Hereafter?

Which animals will enter Heaven?

The following information on this issue is narrated in the book titled Mishkatu’l Anwar by Imam Muqatil:

These ten animals will enter Heaven:

1. Prophet Abraham’s calf.
2. The ram slaughtered instead of prophet Ismail.
3. The camel which was a miracle of Prophet Saleh.
4. The fish which swallowed Prophet Jonah.
5. Prophet Moses’ cow.
6. Prophet Uzair’s donkey.
7. Prophet Solomon’s ant.
8. Bilqis’s hoopoe bird.
9. Seven Sleepers’ dog named Qitmir.
10. Our Prophet’s camel named Qaswa. 1

In addition, Badiuzzaman Said Nursi, in his work named Munajat which is “The Third Ray”, says:

Yes, the true friend of the Eternal One should be eternal, and the conscious mirror of the Enduring One should be enduring.
It is understood from sound narrations that the spirits of animals will live eternally, and that certain individual animals, like the Hudhud (Hoopoe) of Solomon (PUH) and his ant, Salih’s (PUH) she-camel, and the dog of the Companions of the Cave, will go to the eternal realm with both their spirits and their bodies, and that each species will have a single body that may be utilized from time to time. This is also demanded by wisdom and reality, and mercy and dominicality.” 2
That is to say; since souls will stay eternal, souls of all animals will stay eternal, too. However, like these animals which will enter Heaven, some special beings will go to the eternal realm with both their spirits and bodies. Moreover, it is stated that each species will have a single body that they will use from time to time. 
Yes, though there are different narrations on the issue, the main ones of the animals to enter Heaven are those we have mentioned above. Only Allah knows how their lives in Heaven will be and where and how they will stay. Our perception is incapable of the real essence of the Hereafter.
1. Durratu’n Nasihin, p. 57.
2. The Rays, p. 45.

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Will animals go to the arena of the Gathering Place (Mahshar), too? What will their shares from the life in the hereafter be?

3 marriage without imam

Firstly, marrige without the intention to live together in their whole life, but just because to satisfy their sexual desire is not acceptable in Islam.

Solemnize a marriage by an Imam is not an obligation. It can be performed by someone else who is a sensible man.
Nikah is a contract, an arrangement and a marriage agreement. Therefore it requires some conditions. If one of these conditions doesn’t accrue then the nikah is invalid;
   1. Ones who are going to marry or their agents must be present.
   2. The declaration of the acceptance of the parts. The spouses must declare their acceptances of marriage by saying “I accept”.
   3. Nikah must be announced, not be kept secret. This condition is according to some of the sects.
   4. The permission of the parent of the girl. This rule is according to all sects but Hanefi sect.
   5. Testifiers must be present. Such testifiers must be whether two males or one male two females who are sensible and at least in their adolescence. So there must be at least one male testifier.

4 Why does the word "Amin" used in other cultures? Is it a word that was driven from "Amun"?

We could not find any information about the similarity of the word “amun” and the word “amen”. Even if they are the same, since every community was sent a prophet and the expressions those Prophets used at the end of their prayers were the same, there could be similarity because of that. That is the evidence that every community was sent a Prophet. Although the religions have been distorted, some true remainders of them may continue in the cultures.

Please read the artciles given below;


The word said after prayers having the meaning “so be it”, “accept our prayers”, “it is extremely true”. It is especially said after the Fatiha in prayers. It is one of the words accepted as verbal-noun verbs in Arabic. The word is considered to be in Hebrew. Because, Jews and Christians who use that word as “amen” express that word originates from the Syriac wordAmin”. Although that word is recited in prayers, it is known that it does not take place in Qur’an. The Prophet (pbuh) has especially commended to say “amen” after the recitation of Surah Al-Fatiha. As follows: “You, say “amen” after the prayer- leader finishes the Fatiha and says amen. If a person’s saying “amen” at that time coincides with the angels’ saying “amen”, his previous sins are forgiven.” (Muslim, K. Salat, 72; Abu Dawud, Salat, 167-168; Tirmidhi, Mawakit as-Salat, 116).

According to those hadiths, saying “amen” after Al- Fatiha in prayers is a sunnah (acts and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)). According to Imam A’zam, it is sunnah for the prayer-leader and the congregation to recite “amen” silently; and according to Imam Shafi’ and Ahmad b. Hanbal, it is a Sunnah to say it loudly with the prayer-leader. (Translation and Explanation of Sunan Abu Dawud, Istanbul, 1988, III, 470-474). 


Saying “Amen” after the recitation of Al-Fatiha

Should the congregation say “Amen” silently or loudly after the prayer-leader recites the Al-Fatiha?

What are the practices of the Messenger of Allah in that issue? Can you explain it by evidences since there are a lot of people asking for evidences?

The Prophet (pbuh) especially ordered to say “amen” after the recitation of Al-Fatiha in the prayer.
As follows: “You, say “amen” after the prayer- leader finishes the Fatiha and says amen. When the imam says Amen, the one whose Amen coincides with the Amen of angels, his previous wrong actions are forgiven. (Muslim, K. Salat, 72; Abu Da’ud, Salat, 167-168; Tirmidhi, Mawakit as-Salat, 116).  
According to those hadiths, saying “amen” after the Fatiha in prayers is a Sunnah (acts and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)). According to Imam A’zam, it is sunnah for the prayer-leader and the congregation to say “amen” silently; and according to Imam Shafi’ and Ahmad b. Hanbal, it is a Sunnah to say it loudly with the prayer-leader. (Translation and Explanation of Sunan Abu Da’ud, Istanbul, 1988, III, 470-474). 

5 Is it allowed for somebody who has committed adultery to marry somebody who has not committed it?
6 Is it forbidden to feed dog in Islam?

According to the Hanafi school, if a dog touches one's clothes, one can perform prayers with those clothes on. Only, the saliva and the feces of the dog are najis (unclean).
There are hadiths (sayings of the Prophet) such as: “The angels of mercy do not enter those houses where there is a dog; certain merits for good deeds of the owner of such a house decrease each day; however, for such needs as hunting, looking after herds and guarding it is permitted to keep a dog.” Besides, as their saliva and hairs spread everywhere, it is possible for them to harm our prayers and health. For this reason, it is not right to keep a dog at home if there is no need. It is not forbidden to keep a dog at home even if there is no need, but it is lightly makrooh (abominable, though not forbidden).
On the other hand, one can live in a house where there is a dog, and the prayers and other religious activities performed are also valid, provided that the place or the rug where the prayer is done is clean.
Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) says: “A certain portion is decreased out of the merits (of good deeds) of a person who keeps dogs other than dogs of hunting, field, garden and herd.” (Bukhari, Zabaih, 6; Muslim, Musaqat, 46, 50, 56-58)
When the hadiths that inform that angels do not enter the houses where there is a dog, are taken into consideration, it is forbidden in Islam to keep dog in houses without such needs as security or hunting. This is because;
a) The poor and the needy are in more need of the care and expenses of those who have enough opportunities to keep a dog.
b) According to the established medical researches, there are many illnesses caused by dogs infecting humans.
c) Dogs scare and pester those passing by and guests. (Günlük Hayatımızda Helaller ve Haramlar, Hayreddin Karaman, İz Publishing)
The reason why angels do not enter houses with dogs is that they stink and eat unclean things. For this reason, the person who keeps a dog without any need is punished with being deprived of angels' presence at his/her house. (Nawawi, Sharhu'l-Muslim, Cairo 1347-49/1929-30, XIV, 84; Ayni, Umdatu'l-Qari, Cairo 1348, XV, 139)
What is essential in the Hanafi school is that dog itself is not unclean, as it is made use of in security and hunting. Pig, though, is unclean on its own. Pig is meant in the verse, in the Qur'an: “It is unclean.”
Only, the saliva and the feces of dog are najis (unclean). Other parts of its body are not compared to those. If it puts its mouth into a pot, the pot is washed for seven times. The Prophet said: “If a dog drinks from the cup of one of you, let him/her wash it for seven times.” In the hadith books of Ahmad and Muslim: “The cleaning for one of your cups in which a dog put its mouth is by washing it for seven times, the first of which is done with earth.” (Ahmad, Bukhari, Muslim)
According to the school of Maliki, whether it is the dog which is permitted to be kept such as for guarding and herds, or any dog, it is absolutely clean. Only, if it puts its mouth into something, according to the most known view, it is washed for seven times as a religious act. If it puts its foot or its tongue without moving it, or if its saliva falls in, there is no need to wash it.
According to the Shafii and the Hanbali schools, dogs, pigs and those born of them, their leftovers and feces are unclean. The things polluted with those are cleaned for seven times, one of them being with earth. Based on the previous hadith, given the uncleanness of its mouth, the remaining parts are already unclean, because the mouth is actually the cleanest part of it, as respiration takes place. (See İslam Fıkhı Ansiklopedisi, Prof. Dr. Vehbe Zuhayli)

7 Interpret my dream please.
We do not interpret any dreams. But we just want to inform you that jinns can not appear in the shape of Our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

8 Is it permissible for a Muslim woman to work as a midwife?

It is permissible for a Muslim woman to work as a midwife. She can work as a midwife in a hospital, village clinic or health care center as long as she obeys the rules of Islamic dress. (Tasattur)

9 praying to a ka'br
We don not make comment about individuals. But the Illustrious Practices of the Prophet (PBUH) is clear. If one acts in accordance with the Illustrious sunnah, he is on the right path, otherwise he is not.

10 Cracked Quran Software for Mobile Phones

It is not forbidden to copy or load one sample without the intention of trade in religion. However, if it is prohibited according to their law, one should comply with them. For this reason, we do not advise copying .

11 representative on marrige

Yes, she can make one of your Muslim friend as her representative by writing a letter. And also the represantation can be made by telephone and telgraph as long as it is clear and obvious that who telephoned is the proxy giver or not.

12 Human Being
13 Wearing Suras

Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani says that scholars agree that treatment through ruqyah (reciting or writing prayers) is permissible as long as the following three conditions are met:
a) It must consists of verses from the Quran, the names or attributes of the Exalted Allah;
b) It must be written in Arabic or another language legibly and understandably;
c) It must be believed that the ruqyah itself cannot cure but the cure is sent by Allah (Fathul-Bari, X, 206).
Ruqyah is divided into three as mubah (permissible), haram (prohibited) and shirk (associating partners to Allah).
1- Ruqyah that is mubah: If it consists of verses from the Quran, the names or attributes of the Exalted Allah and if it is in Arabic and understandable, it is mubah. In a hadith reported by Hazrat Aisha (May Allah be pleased with her), the following is stated: "Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) recited al-Muawwizatain (chapters al-Falaq and an-Nas) and then blew onto his body. During his last illness, when his illness became more serious, I recited them and blew onto his body and rubbed my hand on his body for abundance." (Bukhari, Tib, 32; Muslim, Salam, 51-52).
Hazrat Aisha (May Allah be pleased with her) also said the following while mentioning the illness of the Prophet: "When Allah’s Messenger (pbuh), became ill, he recited al-Ikhlas and al-Muawwizatain and then blew into his palms the he rubbed with his hands his face and any part of his body that he could reach." (Bukhari, Tib, 39).
There is a hadith reporting that ruqyah was carried out through chapter al-Baqara against scorpion sting. (Bukhar, Tib, 33). It was also reported that Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) recited al-Muawwizatain and rubbed the patients with his right hand and said the following, "O the Lord of people, O Allah! Free him from his disease; cure him. Only you can cure. There is no cure other than yours. Cure him removing his illness." (Bukhari, Tib, 37).
There are many hadiths reported about the issue. Some scholars concluded that ruqyah was not permissible accept against the evil eye, snake bite and scorpion sting based on the following hadith of Allah’s Messenger (pbuh); "There is no ruqyah except the evil eye and the fever." (Bukhari, Tib, 17). However, some other scholars said that the hadith mentioned above meant ruqyah would be the most useful, as in the sentence, “There is no sword except Zulfiqar.” As it is seen, in other hadith Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) permitted ruqyah for other things.
2- Ruqyah that is haram: Unintelligible words, meaningless divided letters, unknown names, ruqyah in a language other than Arabic despite knowing Arabic, carrying out ruqyah bu using iron, salt or a rope are haram. The practices that are proved to be useful are excluded. The following is reported by Shabir:
"Allah’s Messenger (pbuh) prohibited carrying out ruqyah. The children of Amr ibn Hazm came and said: "O Messenger of Allah! We carried out a kind of ruqyah and got protected from scorpion stings through it.” The Messenger of Allah said, “Go on doing it, I do not see any harm in it. Whoever can help his brother should do so." (Muslim, Salam, 63) When al-Izz b. Abdussalam was aked about the ruqyah carried out by unknown letters, he did not permit it because it was not known whether those letters meant unbelief or not.

14 marriage procdure

Firstly, marrige without the intention to live together in their whole life, but just because to satisfy their sexual desire is not acceptable in Islam.
Solemnize a marriage by an Imam is not an obligation. It can be performed by a man who is sensible.
Nikah is a contract, an arrangement and a marriage agreement. Therefore it requires some conditions. If one of these conditions doesn’t accrue then the nikah is invalid;
    1. Ones who are going to marry or their agents must be present.
   2. The declaration of the acceptance of the parts. The spouses must declare their acceptances of marriage by saying “I accept”.
   3. Nikah must be announced, not be kept secret. This condition is according to some of the sects.
   4. The permission of the parent of the girl. This rule is according to all sects but Hanefi sect.
   5. Testifiers must be present. Such testifiers must be whether two males or one male two females who are sensible and at least in their adolescence. So there must be at least one male testifier.


How does a nikah be solemnized? What is said and what prays are recited?
Nikah is performed as follows;
The person (an Imam or a sensible person) who is going to solemnize nikah firstly writes the name of the girl going to marry, for instance he writes “Fatima bint-i Ahmed”.
Then he writes the name of the agent of the girl, for example “Ali bin Zayd”.
Then he writes the names of the two testifiers.
Then he writes the name of the boy going to marry, for example “Omar bin Hussein”.
Then he writes the name of the agent of the boy, if the boy is not present.
Then he writes the amount of mahr-i mueccel (mahr paid in advance) and mahr-i muaccel (mahr paid on account) by asking both parts. (mahr: the money which is supposed to be given by the man as a right to the woman)
Then he seeks refuge in Allah and recites A’udhu-Bismillah (A’udhubillahiminasshaytanirrajimm- Bismillahirrahmanirrahim) and says; “Alhamdu lillahillezi zavvacal arvaha bil ashbah ve ahallannikaha ve harramessifah. Vassalatu vassalamu ala rasulena Muhammadinillezi bayyana-l-harame va-l-mubah ve ala Alihi va A
ashabi-hillezina hum ahlussalahi valfalah”.
Then he recites again A’udhu-Bismillah and reads 32nd verse of the Surah An- Nur (24th chapter of the Quran) and after he reads “Sadakallahuladhim”. Then he says; “Kale rasulallah, “An-nikahu sunneti faman ragiba an sünneti falaysa minni” sadaka Resulullah. ‘Bismillahi va ala sunnet-i rasulillah’”
Then he asks the agent of the girl;
“By the order of Allah and the sunnah of Rasulallah and the rule (ijtiha) of the Imam of our sect (Abu Hanife) and the testimony of present Muslims, do you agree, since you are the agent of the girl, to give Fatima bint-i Ahmad in marriage to Omar bin Hussein, who promise to give such amount of mahr-i mueccel and mahr-i muaccel?”
Then he reads the same pray by starting from (Bismillahi va ala) and asks the agent of the boy going to marry; “And since you are the agent of the boy going to marry, do you agree to take Fatima bint-i Ahmad in marriage to Omar bin Hussein by agreeing to give such amount of mahr-i mueccel and mahr-i muaccel?”
Three times the questions are asked to the parts and the answers are received from them. Then the prayer given below is recited;
 (Allahummac’al hadhal akta maymunan mubarakan vacal beyna-huma ulfetan va mahabbeten va karara va la tac’al beyna-huma nafratan va fitnetan va ferara. Allahumma allif baynahuma kema allafta beyna Adama va Havva. Va kama allafta beyna Muhammadin va Khatica-tal-Kubra va Aişa -ta umm-il muminine . Va beyna Aliyyin va Fatima-taz-Zahra. Allahumma ati la-huma evladan salihan ve umran tavelan va rizkan vasian. Rabbena hab lana min azvacina va zurriyatina kurrata ayunin vac’alna lil muttekina imama. Rabbena atina fiddunya hasanatan va fil ahirati hasanatan va kina azabannar. Sabhana rabbika rabbilizzati amma yasifun va salamun alal mursaleen valhamdulillahi rabbilalameen al fatiha).
Therby performing nikah finishes.

15 pets

What does our religion say about raising domestic animals (cat, bird, fish...) at home?

We live in a beautiful world. It has every beauty from the birds gliding in the skies, to the fishes swimming under the deep seas; from the beautiful flowers smiling with their colors and smell, to the butterflies flying around; from the mountains reaching to the skies and containing beautiful trees inside, to the burbling streams, all together.

What does Quran tell about the birds of these beauties and boons? 

“Do they not look at the birds, held poised in the midst of (the air and) the sky? Nothing holds them up but (the power of) Allah. Verily in this are signs for those who believe.”1
“Do you not see that Allah is He Whom do glorify all those who are in the heavens and the earth, and the (very) birds with expanded wings? He knows the prayer of each one and its glorification, and Allah is Cognizant of what they do.”2

Quran wants us to pay attention to the power holding the birds in the sky and commanding them. It tells that their movements and voices are not meaningless and uncontrolled and they all have a worship of their own style. Shortly each one of the billions of birds is a divine letter declaring the existence and uniqueness of Allah. The person who looks to the universe and the beauties within it with this eye reaches to the Creator who is Al-Lateef (The Subtly Kind) and Al-Jamil (The One who is beautiful).
Yes birds are a boon. A boon introducing us our Creator. A boon crying their dhikr (mentioning Allah) by their warbles. A boon presenting us views one more beautiful from the other with their colorful feathers, flights, and postures.
People who can’t make use of these boons much especially for the style of the urban life are having some birds like canary, nightingale, lovebird and parrot at their homes for their voices and appearances. There is not a torture here for these kinds of birds. Besides these birds have a structure which is suitable to live in a cage. They are not harmed because they are fed and looked after seriously.
Also an incident takes place lighting up this issue on the time of our prophet. Little brother of Anas Ibn Malik used to have a little bird. Once when Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) saw this little kid he asked him “What happened to the birdie?” 3. We understand from this that it is ok to have a bird.
But there is a point here we should pay attention to. Such that: love, curiosity or hobby of bird should not take the most of our day, it should not keep us away from our primary tasks, and it should not waste our time.
Same things apply to the aquarium. Watching each more beautiful from the other fishes’ swimming can remind us many divine meanings. Other sea animals apply to this category too.
Raising cat at home is permitted. Besides in some situations it may be a necessity too.  Some scholars like Bediuzzaman say that their murmurs are a prayer like “O Rahim, O Rahim” (Most Merciful).
1 Surah (Chapter) of Nahl (The Bee), 79.
2 Surah of Nur (The Light), 41.
3 Ibn Maja, Adab: 2.
Mehmed Paksu, Aileye Özel Fetvalar (Juridical Decisions for Family)

Is there a drawback in raising dog? Can we raise dog in the garden?

There are some hadith (word of prophet Muhammad) stating that “angels of God’s mercy and grace do not enter the house with a dog in it, some rewards of that home owner that he won for his good deeds decrease everyday, but it is permissible raising a dog for the purpose of hunting, for the sheep, and as a guard”. Also it has a possibility to harm our health and worship (which requires cleanness) because dog saliva and hair may spread around. Therefore if there is not a necessity it is not proper to have a dog inside the house. Raising a dog at home when there is no necessity is not haram (forbidden) but slightly makruh (disliked or abominable acts). In the Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) this is called “tanzehan makruh” (not close to haram (illicit) like tahreman makruh but better if avoided).

In addition to this we can live and worship in a house having dog. It is enough for the floor that we perform salah on, to be clean.
Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) says: “Some rewards of a dog raising person that he won for his good deeds decrease everyday except that it is for hunting, for the sheep, or as a guard for gardens or fields.” (Bukhari, Zabaih, 6; Muslim, Musakhat, 46,50,56-58)
And when the hadith that declaring angels not entering a home with a dog in it taken into consideration,  raising dog at home without a necessity like protection or hunting is banned in Islam, because:
a) Poor and lonely people deserve the maintenance and spending of the people who can raise dog more.
b) According to definite medical information there are many contagious diseases passing from dogs to humans.
c) A dog may scare or disturb people near home or coming home. (Günlük Hayatımızda Helaller ve Haramlar (Halals and Harams in Our Daily Life), Hayreddin Karaman, İz Yayıncılık)

Not: We could not understood what actually you meant by the question "are there clothes clean for prayers?" Could you please explain it?

16 Can we donate to muslim organizations and then claim the donation as a tax deduction?

If the person gives it with the intention of zakat (obligatory alms) and if the place he gives it to is one of the places that zakat can be given to, then, the zakat is valid. If the country that the person who gives zakat lives in deduces it from the tax, you can definitely use it as tax deduction. You will receive the reward of zakat. However, we recommend those who have enough money to give money to charities and as zakat other than that.

17 Was the Gospel Matthew forbidden at the time of the Prophet (Pbuh)?

We don't think that the Gospel According to Matthew was forbidden at the time of the Prophet, peace and blessings upon him. For he did not have such a duty as to search which one of the Gospels was right. The so-called prohibition of Matthew might also have posed a contrast to the advices of the Qur'an, which commands discussing with Ahl al-Kitab (the People of the Book; followers of pre-Islamic monotheistic religions with some form of scripture of divine origin) with beautiful speech and elocution. Besides, we could not come across such information in the sources of verse and of healthy hadiths. There are narrations which explain the views of our Prophet about the People of the Book. According to a narration, Umar Ibn-i Khattab read from a book that he took from the People of the Book in the presence of the Prophet, and the Prophet got angry at him, and after warning about the danger of “Rejecting the truths told by the People of the Book, and accepting their mistakes.” the Prophet made a statement the meaning of which is: “If Moses lived today, he wouldn't have any other option than follow me.” However, the narrations about this subject are said to be weak. (see Majmau’z-zawaid, 1/174; 8/262)

There are narrations which say: “You can quote (information) from the Children of Israel; there is no drawback in that.” However, Haysami pointed out that in that narration, too, the narrator is weak in reliability (See Majmau’z-zawaid, 1/151). There is no doubt that such narrations of hadiths, which give the permission, have great share in Islamic scholars' making quotations-in the matters not related to decrees- from the People of the Book. We cannot tell from such narrations whether the Gospel According to Matthew or any other Gospel was forbidden at the time of the Companions of the Prophet.

18 What is the name of Hz. Khadijah's relative who was a Christian scholar?

His name is Waraqa b. Nawfal. Waraqa b. Nawfal was a Christian scholar and a relative of Hz. Khadijah. When revelation started to come to the Messenger of Allah, Hz. Khadijah went to Waraqa to find out what was happening. Waraqa said to her,

“O Khadijah! Muhammad (pbuh) is an honest person. What he saw is what is necessary to be seen at the beginning of prophethood. The being that came to him is Jibril (Gabriel). He also went to Hz. Musa (Moses) and Hz. Isa (Jesus). He will be a prophet soon. If I live long enough to see those days, I will believe in him and support him.”

19 Is it permissible to read books that are not related to one's job and to use the internet at work? Is an employee regarded to have violated the rights of his employer if he does so?

If you use the internet after fulfilling your duties and if the employer allows you to use it, it is permissible and no violation of rights is in question. If you have not been told anything about it, you should inform the employer about it and pay for the internet you use if it is necessary.

20 Does a non-Muslim who is converted to Islam have to change his name? Is it permissible for him to use his previous name?

There is no such obligation. A new Muslim can use his previous name. It is permissible to use the names whose meanings are nice in different languages. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) changed the names that were not appropriate in terms of Islam. It is sunnah.

However, the Prophet (pbuh) did not want those who became Muslims to change their names and those who were non-Arabs to replace their names with Arabic names. He ordered the names to be given to have nice meanings. 

He changed some names because their meanings were bad; he also changed some names with nice meanings because they would assume a different meaning when used negatively or because they would affect the owners of the names badly.

21 What is the decree about leaving food uncovered? It is said that the food that is left uncovered cannot be eaten. Is it true?

It is not a sin to leave the food uncovered. However, the Prophet advised us to cover the food and drinks. It is nice to follow this advice but a person who does not act accordingly is not regarded to have committed a sin.

It is not appropriate to leave food and drinks uncovered because some living beings like flies, insects and ants, the foreign substances around and in the air can enter in them and they can go off quickly when they contact air. Therefore, it is among good manners to be careful and to cover the food and drinks.   

When they are put in a fridge or cupboard, they are regarded to have been covered. 

There are two hadith narrations regarding the issue:

"Cover the containers and tie the mouths of your water skins" (Bukhari, Ashriba, Bab 22, Bad´ul-Khalq: 11, 14, Isti´zan: 49, 50; Muslim, Ashriba: 96-99)

"When night falls (or when it is evening), stop your children from going out, for the devils spread out at that time. But when an hour of the night has passed, release them and close the doors and mention Allah's Name, for Satan does not open a closed door. Tie the mouth of your waterskin and mention Allah's Name; cover your containers and utensils and mention Allah's Name. Cover them even by placing something across it, and extinguish your lamps." (Bukhari, Ashriba, Bab 21, Hadith no: 47, 48)

For more information please click on the link given below;

What is the sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH) regarding eating?

22 When does a day start and end according to our religion?

A whole day is a day with the night and daytime. Every night belongs to the day that comes after it. Therefore, a whole day starts in the evening and continues up to the evening of the following day.

For instance, "Friday night" is the night connecting Thursday with Friday. Similarly, the night of arafah is the night before the day of arafah. The other holy nights are also determined based on this criterion.

23 Will you give information about arranging time?

It is a fact that needs to be accepted that every moment spent in vain takes many opportunities away because the time of man is very short compared to the life of the world. Therefore, time, whose one second is more valuable than gold, needs to be spent by things that will shed light on the eternal life. Therefore, the worship and work of man are related to good deeds; the remaining time needs to be spent meaningfully and legitimately so that man will not lose something while winning something.

Today, there are so many unnecessary things that kill man’s time that most of them are not related to any material or spiritual development; they drive man away from the purpose of his creation. The more man keeps away from theses purposeless and unnecessary things, the more benefits he will obtain.

“There are two things; most people are not aware of their value; they are health and free time.”(Bukhari, Riqaq 1; Tirmidhi, Zuhd 1; Ibn Majah, Zuhd 15)

The understanding of “time” is very important for a person to be successful in life. Sociologists who make research on “time” have observed that time is regarded differently by the people of developed and developing countries. According to those researchers, it is necessary to arrange things based on time beforehand and to do everything in the period of time specified for it in developed countries. Acting in accordance with the schedule means to discipline life and to make human life as efficient as possible.


The Quran uses phrases that remind people of time frequently in order to keep people active. All kinds of fard, wajib and nafilah prayers contain aims that are related to arranging time. From this point of view, the religion teaches man to make maximum use of time as much as possible through most of its orders. It can even be said that this is the main purpose.

The way the Quran Expresses Time:

“Time” lexically means “long or short time”. The word waqt is generally preferred and used by the Quran. Waqt means “the end of the time period determined for a certain thing”. The words day, week, year, century, time and hour are used and repeated many times in the Quran based on its importance for an individual. The most important one among them for an individual is the word “yawm” (day), which is mentioned 475 times in the Quran. The Quran reminds its readers the concept of time from its first pages to the last pages constantly.

In Arabic the word “layl” (night) expresses the time period between the sunset and the dawn. The remaining period is called nahar (day). In the Quran, the word day (nahar) is mentioned 57 times and night (layl) 92 times. When the period of night is considered annually, it covers half of the 24-hour day. Therefore, it needs to be evaluated in the best way.

One of the most important aims of the fard prayers is to make a Muslim have the habit of dividing and programming time.The Quran gives importance to qiyamu'l-layl (getting up at night). Getting up at night has an important place in the life of those who prepared the bright periods of the great Islamic civilization. Qiyamu'l-layl was fard for the Prophet but it is nafilah for his ummah. This sunnah is the command of the Quran.

“And celebrate the name of thy Lord morning and evening. And part of the night, prostrate thyself to Him; and glorify Him a long night through.” (al-Insan, 76/25,26).

“Is one who worships devoutly during the hours of the night prostrating himself or standing (in adoration), who takes heed of the Hereafter, and who places his hope in the Mercy of his Lord― (like one who does not)?” (az-Zumar, 39/9).

However, some moderations were expressed about getting up at night in the Quran later (it is stated to be sent down after a period between 8 months and 10 years). Ill people and those who are on an expedition of jihad were regarded as exempt from getting up at night. The period of getting up and worshipping at night is at least one fourth and at most three fourths of the night. This difference is due to the lengthening and shortening of the night.

Getting up at night is primarily for performing prayers and reading the Quran. Studying is also permissible. Getting up at night is regarded as more important because the word night is mentioned more than the word day in the Quran and this command was sent to the Prophet (pbuh) during the first years of his prophethood.


Taking conscientious measures is defined as a “view”. A person should not spend all of his days in the same style in order to be conscious of his being alive. Some months, some hours should be different from the others. In our religion, holy months and days provide it. Thanks to these months and days of different values, the monotony that could happen for man is interrupted. An important view for a person who believes in the hereafter and who feels in depths of his conscience the anxiety of being accounted for every day and every hour is to regard his life as the day he is living currently. The desire for living long called tul al-amal is regarded as the source of many evils.

The religion of Islam orders us to program the day based on three main aims:

1. Worshipping,
2. Making one’s living,
3. Controlling and meditating one’s life.


The Prophet (pbuh) followed weekly programs based on days and daily programs based on hours. The Prophet did the same things on certain days of the week. There were also some daily things that emerged without programming; for instance, accepting a delegation, application of a stranger, the emergence of a necessity. Usual chores and tasks were done at the same hours. There was some time for each work. That work was completed during the same time period every day.


The wordholiday” will be used in the sense of free time here. Islam does not accept a period of time that will be spent without doing anything.The Quran tells us that one can relax by changing the thing, work or task he is doing. It can be called “relaxing through working”. Muslims should be away from an understanding of weekly holiday that will be spent “without doing anything” like Jews and Christians.

It is unanimously agreed that it is haram to look at something or somebody if there exists the possibility of lust and mischief during entertainment.

When it is stated “Islam does not accept free time”, it does not mean that Islam rejects relaxation. It is stated in the Quran that the best way of relaxation is sleeping in one’s own house. 

“And He it is Who makes the Night as a Robe for you; and Sleep as Repose and makes the Day (as it were) a Resurrection.” (al-Furqan, 25/47).

“It is Allah who made out of the things He created, some things to give you shade; of the hills He made some for your shelter...” (an-Nahl, 16/80).

Forbidden games and entertainment are gambling, playing with animals, entertainment with alcoholic drinks, music and women.Some games are preferable because they prepare man for jihad. Therefore, Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) encouraged them insistently. Swimming, archery, riding horses, running and wrestling are included in this category.

Legitimate occasions of entertainment are various ceremonies, feasts (circumcision, wedding, returning from an expedition, moving to a new house, getting rid of a trouble) and wedding receptions.


The common view of Islamic scholars about time is as follows:

“The past has gone; the future is unknown; then, the moment that you are living in is the time for you.”

Islamic scholars always mentioned the relationship between eating and time, relationship with other people, always being busy with something and making an effort until one dies. They even calculated the difference between eating small pieces of bread in the form of crumbs and loaves of bread in order to decrease the time spent for eating. Dawud at-Tai determined that there was a difference of time enough to read 50 verses of the Quran between these two types of eating bread. Imam Abu Yusuf was busy with learning and teaching until he breathed his last.


Everything is based on belief. Therefore, our religion does not give importance to sheer belief and knowledge without practice. The knowledge which is not practiced is called “useless knowledge”.

Some principles related to time in order to make young people healthier and more efficient are as follows: 

1. Young people should be taught about the consciousness of time.

2. Annual, monthly, weekly and daily plans should be made and they should be applied.

3. Making use of the night should be dealt with as a separate issue and the amount of sleep should be taught well.

4. The government should determine the views and habits that young people need to be taught based on their age levels.

5. The government and parents should deal with the period of youth carefully; they should determine the problems and work hard to solve them.

24 What does fard al-kifayah mean? Will you explain it? Is working and learning ilm (knowledge/science) fard al-kifayah?

Fard al-kifayah: The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"Seeking knowledge is fard or every believing man and woman."(1)

Islamic scholars divide ilm (knowledge) into two as "fard al-ayn" and "fard al-kifayah" acting upon religious evidence. (2)

After classifying "fard al-ayn" and "fard al-kifayah" ilms, Ibn Abidin made the following determination:

Fard al-ayn is better than fard al-kifayah. For, fard al-ayn was rendered fard for the right of the soul. It is more important and difficult for the soul. Fard al-kifayah is not like that. It was rendered fard for the right of the public. If something becomes for public, it gets easier; if it becomes personal, it gets more difficult. Other scholars say fard al-kifayah is better. For, fulfilling fard al-kifayah saves the whole ummah. If it is abandoned, everybody who can do it becomes a sinner. It is definite that a fard that has this quality will be superior. However, according to the report of Tahtawi, the first view (that fard al-ayn is better) is regarded reliable."(3)

Imam Burhanuddin Az Zarnuji states the following:

"It is fard for every Muslim to learn the information/knowledge about the things that occur in his current state no matter what his situation is. For, it is obligatory for a Muslim to perform prayers. Therefore, it is fard for him to learn the knowledge about the conditions and parts of the prayer that will be enough for him to perform the fard prayers. Similarly, it is wajib for him to learn the knowledge that is necessary to perform fard deeds. For, it is fard to learn the knowledge that serves to fulfill fard and it is wajib to learn the knowledge that serves to fulfill wajib."(4)

Thus, he expressed an important subtlety. It is fard for every responsible Muslim to learn the knowledge about the things related to his state. For instance, the knowledge about zakah and hajj is not fard for a believer who is poor. However, if the same believer obtains property that is more than the amount of nisab, it becomes fard al-ayn for him to learn the knowledge about zakah. It is fard for the Muslims whose land is invaded or who are in minority to learn the decrees about congregation and jihad.

It is haram to learn ilms rendered haram by Shari’ah like magic, sorcery, fortune telling and, philosophy, and to drive people away from the line of oneness with them. However, it is permissible to learn them in order to prevent their harms.

It is fard to learn ilms that are fard al-ayn; it is also fard to act in accordance with them. The following glad tiding of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) is clear:

"If a person acts in accordance with what he knows, Allah will teach him what he does not know."(5)

It is makruh to learn ilm in order to defeat one’s rivals in debates and arguments, and in order to satisfy one’s soul. It is not permissible to learn ilm with the motive of worldly greed and ambition.

When a person who has ilm is asked by a responsible Muslim, he cannot hide his ilm. It is certain that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said,

"On the Day of Judgment, Allah will bridle a person who is asked something but who hides his knowledge with a bridle made of fire."(6)

According to Hanafis, it is mandub and mustahab to take a child who is abandoned. It is fard al-kifayah to take an abandoned child who risks death if he is left where he is and it is fard al-ayn to take him if only that person has seen him. According to the other three madhhabs, it fard al-kifayah to take an abandoned child and it is fard al-ayn to take an abandoned child who risks death. (7)

“Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong; they are the ones to attain felicity.” (Aal-i Imran, 3/104)

The verse above encumbers a responsibility on believers. This responsibility is to tell people by all means about the good and bad values determined by Allah Almighty Himself, or by the Prophet in accordance with His revelation or by people of certain qualities making use of these two resources. This duty is the most honorable and valuable duty of the world. If there had been a more valuable duty, Allah would have appointed His prophets, whom He created as distinguished slaves, to do it.

When tafsir scholars dealt with this verse in general, they insistently mentioned that this duty was fard al-kifayah in the religious sense. This decree, which was made acting upon the meaning of “some” of the preposition “min” in the word “minkum”, should make every believer think deeply. For, it is a fact accepted by everybody that the number of the people who are aware and conscious of this duty is very low.   In addition, some tafsir scholars say that if there is no group that fulfills this responsibility encumbered by the verse, the duty of enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil is fard al-ayn.  This shows that the duty that is mentioned is included in the scope of individual responsibilities like prayers, fasting and zakah.

If a community does not bring up guides for conquest armies, mentors for artists, and businessmen and pioneers for all vital issues with its scholars, intellectuals and qualified staff, this community is paralyzed and it is unlucky in terms of future. Therefore, knowing the conditions that are necessary for the worldly affairs to run in a balanced way is regarded as “fard al-kifayah”; and a community in which they are left is regarded as a sinful community. Along with the purity of its conscience, depth of its knowledge and sincerity of its worshipping, a community, as Imam Ghazali puts it, needs to have masters, or in today’s understanding, experts in all jobs from shoemaking to textile, from farming to all branches of industry.

Therefore, a community whose individuals have not reached inner brightness and conscientious purity cannot be innocent; similarly, a community that cannot embrace everything from art to trade, from agriculture to military and the finest details of technology - by distribution of work - is not innocent. 


1. Al Ajluni-Kashful Khafa-Beirut: 1351-2, Vol: 2, p: 43, Had. No: 1665, also Imam Sarakhsi-Al Mabsut-Beirut: nd, Vol: 1, p: 2.
2. Ibn Abidin-Raddul Muhtar Alad Durri'l Mukhtar-İst: 1982, Şamil Publications. Vol: 1, p: 40
3. Ibn Abidin ibid, Vol: 1, p: 41 (Warning part).
4. Imam Burhanuddin Az Zarnuji-Ta'limul Mutaallim-İst: 1980, Çağrı Publications. p: 9.
5. Al Ajluni-Kashful Khafa-Beirut: 1351-2, Vol: 2, p: 265, Hd. No: 2542.
6. Sunani Abu Dawud-İst: 1401, Çağrı Publications. Vol: 4, p: 67-68, Hd. No: 3568.
7. Qasani, ibid, VI/198; Ibnul-Humam, ibid, VI/110; Ibn Qudama, al-Kafi, Beirut 1402/1982, II/363; Ibn Rushd, Bidayatul-Mujtahid, İstanbul 1985, II/259; Shirbini, ibid, II/418; M. Shaltut, al-Fatawa, Beirut 1403/1983. p. 219; Mustafa Shalabi, Ahkamul- Usra, Beirut 1397/1977, p. 709.

25 Will you explain the benefits and virtues of getting up early? What are the hadiths regarding the issue?

It is not good to sleep from the time the sun rises to about forty-five minutes after it. What is essential is to go to bed early and to get up early.

It is necessary no to sleep after performing the morning prayer and to start work after reading the Quran, hadith, tafsir and ilm al-hal. Our Prophet (pbuh) said,

"There is blessing and success in the early hours of the morning."

It is necessary to try to get up before the time for the morning prayer starts, that is, at dawn. It is a blessing to get up at dawn. It is harmful in terms of sustenance also to sleep after the time for the morning prayer up to the time when the sun rises. The following is stated in a hadith:

“To sleep after the morning prayer prevents sustenance.(Bayhaqi, al-Adab, 1/276; Sharani, Lawaqihul-Anwar, p. 295)

The reason for the increasing inefficiency and failure in recent times must be sought in the light of this hadith.

Unfortunately, television faces man as "the enemy of sleeping early". It is necessary to overcome this violent enemy, to go to bed as early as possible, to get up for tahajjud prayer, then to wake up vigorously for the morning prayer before the sunrise, and then to start work without going to bed again. Our grandfathers and grandmothers, whom we know to be fit, vigorous and hardworking, did like this. When this nice custom ceased to exist, health, abundance and peace disappeared.

26 We do not buy Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola thinking that the money we give is used by the Israeli army against Muslims. What will the degree of our responsibility be if we buy them?

It is permissible to buy and use the products of non-Muslims. Therefore, a Muslim does not commit a haram deed if he buys Coca Cola, which belongs to non-Muslims.  

Nevertheless, we can avoid drinking them but we cannot criticize those who drink them.

It is permissible to drink Nescafe, Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola.

However, some religious scholars say, "It is better not to drink them since it is doubtful." It is always better to avoid doubtful things. Some Hanafi scholars even said that it was haram to drink coffee. However, these kinds of fatwas were not accepted by the majority. 

A Muslim is not regarded to have committed a haram deed when he drinks them. We cannot prohibit anybody from drinking them. It is not haram to drink them. However, we cannot force anyone who does not drink them to drink them.  

As for the second part of the question,

If it is certain that a weapon or product is going to be used against Muslims, it is not permissible to work in the production of it and to buy and sell it. A Muslim who does so will be held responsible according to the rule "A person who causes something is like a person who does it". Therefore, a person will be held responsible if buys or sells something that is definitely known to be used against Muslims. Muslims should be careful about the issue.

What needs to be done and not to be done for Palestine: 

No individual who has not lost his/her consciousness, good manners and humanity, no matter what his religion, language, sect, country is, can justify the founders and administrators of Israel regarding the cause of Palestine. There is an obvious grabbing, invasion, massacre and oppression there.

No conscientious person can criticize the Palestinians whose land, houses, vineyards, gardens, water and positions have been grabbed, who live in refugee camps that are worse than prisons, who were sent to prison and tortured, whose relatives were killed, who were destined to kill in the long run, when they resort to out-of-the-way defense methods; no conscientious person can see them as the cause of the biggest massacre and the most disgusting attacks of our times. The only cause for this oppression is Israel. It is Israel that uses the causes produced by themselves against Palestinians.

The cause of Palestine can be solved only through a just peace. The initial condition of it is to force Israel to accept this just peace. The way to it is as follows: Muslim countries should leave aside separation - through the pressure of the people - and act together; then, they should take necessary measures in time and properly.

As for the issue about what we can do for our Palestinian brothers, who underwent a big disaster, experienced unendurable pains and lost almost all of their belongings, and what we can do to relieve them:

We can divide what we can do into two as what not to do and what to do.

What not to do:

Not to buy anything from the companies that are definitely known to support Israel. To continue this boycott until Israel accepts a just peace. 

- The state should revise all of the agreements made with Israel; it should not make any new agreements with Israel and should annul or suspend the previous ones if possible. 

- Not to break the commercial ties and human relations with the Jews that are not Zionists, that do not support Israel's unjust practices and that support those who favor justice so that justice will be done and oppression will end.   

What to do: 

Everyone, whether poor or rich, should try to send financial aid as much as they can to Gaza through reliable ways. This aid is fard until the daily needs of our Palestinian brothers are met.

- It is time we did our best to help them as a requirement of being their religious and human brothers.

(Prof. Dr. Hayrettin KARAMAN)

27 Is it permissible to go to receptions where haram deeds are committed (wedding receptions where alcohol is served)?

When a person accepts an invitation, goes to a wedding reception and sees that a sin like drinking alcohol is committed there, it will be a sin for him to stay there if alcohol is drunk at the table that he sits; it is a sin for an Islamic scholar or a righteous person who is regarded as a model for Muslims to stay there. 

If there is no alcoholic drink at the table a Muslim sits and if he is not regarded as a model for Muslims it is permissible for him to stay there (1).

According to Shafiis, it is definitely haram and not permissible to stay there for a Muslim if an illegitimate deed is committed there (2).

If there is no illegitimate deed at the wedding dinner or reception, it sunnah to go there when a person is invited according to Hanafis (3), it is wajib according to Shafiis if a person has no excuse (4).


1. al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, V/343.
2. Ianatu'l-Talibin, 3/361.
3. al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, V/343.
4. Ianatu'l-Talibin, III/358.

(see Halil GÜNENÇ, Günümüz Meselelerine Fetvalar, II/242)

28 What are Tashriq Takbirs? When are they Uttered?

The first day of the eid al-adha is called yawm an-nahr (day of sacrificing); the other two days are called ayyam at-tashriq (days of drying flesh). The day before the eid al-adha is called yawm al-arafa, which is the ninth day of Dhul-hijjah. There is no arafa in the eid al-fitr.

Beginning from the morning prayer of the day of arafa, to the afternoon prayer of the fourth day of the eid al-adha, the following takbir is uttered after 23 fard prayers: 


Allahu Akbar Allahu Akbar La ilaha Illallahu Wallahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar wa Lillahi'l-Hamd. They are called tashriq takbirs.

According to the majority of the fiqh scholars, tashriq takbirs are wajib for everybody who performs prayers. Some scholars say, they are sunnah.

A person who misses a prayer on the day of tashriq takbirs utters tashriq takbirs if he performs that prayer on tashriq days. If he performs it on another day, he does not utter tashriq takbirs after the prayer.

Women read tashriq takbirs silently.


Tashriq means to go to the east, to shine and to lay the meat under the sun.

Takbirs of tashriq are the takbirs that are uttered after the fard prayers on the eid al-adha. The first day of the eid al-adha is called "yawm an-nahr" (day of sacrifice); the other three days are called "ayyamu't-tashriq (days of tashriq)". The day before the eid is called “the day of Arafa”.

Beginning from the morning prayer on the day of Arafa to the afternoon prayer on the fourth day of the eid, "Allahu akbar Allahu akbar, La ilahe illallahu wallahu akbar. Allahu akbar wa lillahi'l-hamd" is uttered once after each fard prayer (twenty-three fard prayers); it is called “takbir of tashriq”; the meaning of it is as follows: "Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest. There is no god but Allah. He, Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest. Priase be to Allah". That form of takbir is reported from Hz. Ali and Abdullah b. Mas'ud (may Allah be pleased with them).

The beginning of takbirs of tashriq dates back to the incident of Hz. Ibrahim sacrificing Hz Ismail, his son. Based on the sound dream he sees, Hz. Ibrahim (pbuh) decides to sacrifice his son for the sake of Allah. While he is preparing for the sacrifice, Allah sends a ram to be sacrificed instead of his son. When Gabriel (pbuh) reaches the sky of the world, he utters takbirs, “Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar” because he fears he will not be able to reach on time. When Ibrahim (pbuh) hears it, he looks up at the sky, sees Gabriel coming down with a ram, and utters, “There is no god but Allah. He, Allah is the greatest. Ismail (pbuh), who hears those words of takbir and tawhid and waiting to be sacrificed, says, “Allah is the greatest. Praise be to Allah." Thus, a great sunnah that will last until the Day of Judgment starts. (as-Saffat, 37/102, 107; Ismail" item; al-Mawsili, al-Ikhtiyar li Ta'lili'l-Mukhtar, Cairo (n.d), I, 87, 88).

According to Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad, takbirs are uttered after twenty-three fard prayers. Fatwa is issued based on their views. According to Abu Hanifa, takbirs of tashriq are uttered after eight fard prayers: beginning from the morning prayer on the day of Arafa to the afternoon prayer on the first day of the eid. 

Takbirs of tashriq are wajib according to many fiqh scholars. As for others, it is sunnah to utter them. According to Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad, it is wajib for those who are obliged to perform fard prayers. There is no difference between a person who is praying alone and in congregation, a person living in the village and a person living in the city, man and woman regarding the issue. Takbirs of tashriq can be uttered in congregation or on one’s own. They can be uttered later if the prayers of those days are skipped and performed later. Men utter them loudly but women say them silently. takbirs are not uttered after the prayer of eid and the prayers of witr.

According to Abu Hanifa, takbirs of tashriq become wajib if the person is free, not traveling, and male and performs the fard prayer in congregation. Therefore, they are not wajib for a person who is traveling, a slave, female, performing the prayer alone. However, if they follow an imam and perform the prayer in congregation, they are to utter takbirs together with the congregation. Takbirs of tashriq are not uttered in small settlements where Friday and eid prayers are not performed; takbirs of tashriq are not wajib for the disabled people who perform the noon prayer in congregation on Friday. 

If a prayer is skipped on the days of tashriq of a year and is performed on another tashriq day of the same year, takbirs of tashriq are uttered at the end of that prayer; however, if that prayer is performed on another day of the year or on a tashriq day of a different year, takbirs of tashriq are not uttered.

If sajdah as-sahw (prostration of forgetfulness), takbirs of tashriq and talbiya are to be performed at the end of the same prayer, first sajdah as-sahw is performed, then takbirs are uttered and then talbiya is uttered (for talbiya, see "Hajj" item).

29 What is universal intellect? How should it be understood?

Man’s powers of animal appetites, anger and intellect has been left free in terms of creation; they have not been limited. The reason for it is to ensure man’s development through his partial free will. Therefore, there may be oppression, cruelty and injustice in treatments. It is necessary to be just in order to prevent them.

However, the intellect of each individual is too weak to understand justice fully. Therefore, there is a need for universal intellect so that individuals will make use of that universal will. Such a universal intellect can be in the form of a law. Such a law can be imposed only by Allah.

Then, the book in which theuniversal intellect that will protect man from the extremism of thepowers of animal appetites, anger and intellect and protect the community oppression and transgression is the Quran.

30 What kind of a tafsir is Risale-i Nur? Who is Badiuzzaman Said Nursi?

RISALE-I NUR COLLECTION is an original work with its language and content as well as its written style and arrangement. This work, which was generally written on the mountains, in the countryside or under the deadly conditions of dungeons, deals with the heaviest, deepest and most ambiguous issues, the most difficult questions related to ilm, and presents solutions to the problems that have been discussed for centuries, in a way that cannot be expected under those circumstances; in addition, it does all of them in a style and method peculiar to it.   

Risale-i Nur has commonly been described as “a contemporary tafsir”. This description reflects a fact since it is directly based on the Quran and it explains some verses of the Quran related to belief in a detailed way.   

However, Risale-i Nur differs from ordinary tafsir books in terms of its arrangement and style of explanation; some parts of the Collection (NineteenthLetter, Twenty-Ninth Flash, Nineteenth Word, addendums in general and defenses, etc.) include works that can be studied in other branches of science. For instance, it is understood at first sight that İşârâtü’l-İ’câz and Sünuhat are not books that can be classified in the same way.  

Another aspect of Risale-i Nur that is as important as tafsir is related to the science of kalam. It might be more appropriate to deal with the majority of the Collection within the science of kalam. In the remaining parts including addendums, issues related to the methods of service are in majority. 

When Risale-i Nur is compared to the works on the history of kalam and classical kalam books, it will not be difficult to see that it developed a brand-new style in this field and marked a new epoch. Besides, the writer of Risale-i Nur mentions this issue clearly in various places in his works.  

Risale-i Nur attracted the attention of many people with its style of dealing with issues, its depth in its content and its comprehensiveness. On the one hand, it has been read by various layers of people in Turkey and abroad; on the other hand, international symposiums have been held about it and it has been the topic of many academic articles and theses.

For instance, Prof. Dr. Taha Abdurrahman of Morocco, one of the contemporary thinkers, mentions the great revolution Risale-i Nur made in the world of thought; he attracts attention to the fact that this aspect of Risale-i Nur is remarkable along with its other aspects:

"Some Western philosophers put the intellect in the center of everything; and they relied on only the things that are the products of the intellect. They even went so far regarding the issue that they brought a definition for the heavenly books such as the Bible and the Quran and the religions they represented in the intellectual system by including them among other things based on the intellect. That is, they regarded the mind as something fixed and made the celestial books and religions go round it just as old people thought that the world was fixed and that the sun went round it.

"Badiuzzaman Said Nursi changed this trend in the world of thought and put it in the course where it needed to be with Risale-i Nur - just as Copernicus did in the world of science. Copernicus refuted the old view that the world was fixed and the sun went round it; instead, he proved that the world turned around its own axis and around the sun. Badiuzzaman Said made a similar revolution in the world of thought with Risale-i Nur. He said, "Man’s world of thought cannot be fixed; the world of thought turns around its own axis and around the sun of Revelation." Thus, He determined the real place where human thought should be, and illuminated and relieved the mind by saving it from loneliness and darkness."

In addition, Risale-i Nur addresses the heart, soul and all other senses as well as the mind since it is a Quranic tafsir. It sheds light on all dimensions of ethics and offers solutions for many social problems. However, the best way to understand its many other virtues similar to this one is to open it, read it and live it.

What kind of a tafsir is Risale-i Nur?

Tafsirs are divided into two. The first ones are the tafsirs that explain the phrases, words and sentences of the Quran, explain and prove.The second ones explain the truths of the Quran related to belief with strong evidence, prove and explain. This part is very important. The tafsirs in the first group sometimes deal with this part in summary. However, Risale-i Nur is a spiritual tafsir that is based on this second part and that silences stubborn philosophers incomparably.

Risale-i Nur is a collection that explains the truths of the Quran, which is our holy book and which has been a guide for millions of people in every century, in a rational and objective way, away from subjective theories and views; and it presents them to humanity so that they will benefit from them.  

Risale-i Nur is a luminous tafsir of the verses of the Quran.It is full of the proven truths of belief and oneness. It was prepared based on the understanding of all layers of people and is equipped with exact sciences.

Risale-i Nur answers the needs of this age fully.It satisfies the mind and the heart. It convinces scrupulous sceptics. It forces even the most stubborn philosophers to surrender. Risale-i Nur eliminates all of the questions that come to mind. It explains the levels of belief from atoms to the sun. It proves the divine oneness and the truth of prophethood.

Risale-i Nur proves all of the issues that can come to mind related to belief mentally, scientifically and logically with definite evidencesfrom the layers of the earth and skies, angels and spirits, the reality of time, the occurrence of the resurrection and the hereafter, the nature of death to the source of eternal bliss and destruction. It supports positive sciences. It convinces the mind and heart with definite evidences and eliminates doubts.  

Once, the great Turkish poet Mehmed Akif stated the following in a literary meeting: "Victor Hugo, Shakespeare, Descartes, etc. can only be Said Nursi’s students in literature and philosophy."

When Badiuzzaman Said Nursi saves people from debauchery and deviation with  Risale-i Nur, he does not use the method of giving fear and terror. It shows one hundred pains in an illegitimate pleasure, overcomes the feelings and saves the heart and spirit from being overcome by feelings. It proves that there is a seed of oleander of Hell in unbelief and deviation, that they cause man suffer torture of Hell even in the world, that there are delicious flavors and pleasures in belief, Islam and worship and that they gain man a kind of reward like seeds and fruits of Paradise in the world.

The Quran is an all-embracing divine speech and universal dominical address delivered from the Sublime Throne that addresses all the classes, nations, and members of mankind in every age. So also, and especially at this time, does it encompass many sciences and branches of learning related to the physical aspects of the world, knowledge of which is beyond the capacity of a single individual or small group.

Therefore, a commentary issuing from the understanding and imaginative power of a single individual, the scope of whose comprehension is very narrow with regard to time, place, and specialization, cannot truly expound the Quran. For an individual cannot be acquainted with and be an expert in all the exact sciences and the branches of knowledge concerned with the spiritual and material states of nations and peoples, all of whom the Qur’an addresses.

And he cannot be free of bias towards his own profession and discipline that he might explicate the truths of the Qur’an impartially.

Also, a person’s understanding is peculiar to him and he may not call on others to accept it – unless it be affirmed by a consensus of some sort.

In consequence of this, a commentary should be written after minute studies and researches by an elevated committee of authoritative scholars each of whom is a specialist in a number of sciences, proving the Qur’an’s subtle meanings and its fine points to be found scattered through other commentaries, and its truths, which become manifest in time due to the discoveries of science. Just as its legal ordinances have to be ordered and regulated, not according to the thought of a single individual, but by such a committee after being scrutinized and studied minutely by it. Thus, gaining the trust and confidence of the mass of the people, the committee will implicitly assume responsibility for them and be an authoritative source for the Muslim community.

Indeed, one who expounds the Quran should possess high intelligence, penetrating independent judgement, and a high degree of sainthood. But in these times in particular, such conditions can be met only by the brilliantcollective personality born of the co-operation of an elevated, esteemed committee and the uniting of the minds of its members, of their assistance for one another and harmony of spirit, and of their freedom of thought, and, being free of bias, of their complete sincerity. Only a collective personality such as this can expound the Qur’an.

For in accordance with the rule, ‘What is not found in the parts is present in the whole,’ conditions like these which are not to be found in every individual are present in the group.

Great Islamic scholars and sheikhs reached the following conclusion after a lot of experience and tests: Whatever Badiuzzaman Said Nursi says is true. His works are based on the inspirations coming to his heart and they receive the approval and appreciation of the majority of scholars.

Risale-i Nur, is a high and bright tafsir of the miraculous Quranwith a spiritual miracle in this age. Yes, Risale-i Nur is the conqueror and beloved of hearts, sultan of spirits, teacher of minds, trainer and cleaner of souls.  

Thus, Badiuzzaman Said Nursi discovered the truths in the Quran that this age needed and was able to interpret and explain the Quran in a way that everybody could benefit in accordance with their abilities. Therefore, it is thought that Risale-i Nur is an unprecedented masterpiece.

Who is Badiuzzaman Said Nursi?

Said Nursi was born in 1876 in Nurs village, Hizan in the province of Bitlis. In his childhood, he studied in the madrasahs around. Due to his extraordinary intelligence and memory, he was first known as "Mulla Said, the Famous". Afterwards, he became known as "Badiuzzaman" "the Wonder of the Time".

During the years when he was a student, he memorized ninety books. He revised one of them every night. Those revisions became a means of understanding the verses of the Quran in depth and he saw that each verse of the Quran encompassed the whole universe. 

He went to Istanbul, which was the center of the caliphate, in early 1900s with the intention of establishing an Islamic university in the east called "Madrasatuz-Zahra", in which religious and exacts sciences will be studied together; he made efforts to realize this idea throughout his life. He could not establish the university but he established a madrasah system that had branches all over the country. 

During the First World War, he worked as a volunteering regiment commander in the eastern front. He was wounded during the war and was captivated by Russians. He was a prisoner of war for two and a half years when he escaped by making use of the chaos caused by the Bolshevik revolution in 1917. When he returned, he was appointed by the general staff as a member of "Darul-Hikmatil-Islamiyya", which was the highest religious consultation center of the Ottoman State. 

During the years when Istanbul was under the occupation of the British, he published a booklet called "Khutuwat as-Sitta" against them. He supported the struggle of independence started in Anatolia.

While he was busy with teaching in Van in 1925, he was exiled to Burdur, then to Isparta and after that to Barla due to the revolt started by Sheikh Said. He remained there for eight years. He wrote most parts of his tafsir of the Quran called Risale-i Nur there. He was sent to Eskişehir Court due to his books and ideas in 1935.

He continued writing his works in Kastamonu, where he was exiled. He was sent to  Denizli Court in 1943 and Afyon Court in 1948. He was acquitted in both courts.

When the multi-party system started in Turkey in 1950, religious rights and freedom increased. Said Nursi established Nur madrasahs in Emirdağ, Isparta and the towns around it when he lived in this region and raised a lot of students. He printed and published his books.

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi died on March 23, 1960.

31 Are there rivers that originate/come from Paradise?

The origin of every river is in a different place. However, all water bodies and rivers come from Allah's treasure of mercy. As a matter of fact, it is narrated that some rivers come from Paradise.

The number of the rivers coming from Paradise is mentioned as three in some narrations and four and five in others. For instance, while explaining the sentence “For among rocks there are some from which rivers gush forth” in verse 74 of the chapter of al-Baqara in his book called Sözler (Words), Badiuzzaman Said Nursi attracts attention to the rivers like the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates and quotes the hadith “The source of each of those three rivers is in Paradise.” In most of the hadith books including Muslim, four rivers that come from Paradise are mentioned. The hadith is as follows:

“The Sayhan, Jayhan, Euphrates and Nile are all among the rivers of Paradise.”1

The translation of the same hadith reported by Abu Hurayra is as follows in Musnad:

“Four rivers gush forth from Paradise: the Euphrates, the Nile, the Sayhan, and the Jayhan.”2

Fakhrddin ar-Razi quotes the following narration from Ibn Abbas in the explanation of verse 20 of the chapter of al-Muminun:  

“Allah Almighty sent down five rivers from Paradise: the Sayhun, Jayhun, Tigris, Euphrates and Nile.”3

In the “Isra” hadith in Bukhari, when the Prophet (pbuh) and Jibril travel on the Night of Miraj (Ascension), they arrive at Sidratul-Muntaha (the lote tree at the utmost boundary); Jibril states the following:

“This is Sidratul-Muntaha. Four river were emerging from the bottom of this tree. Two rivers were visible and two were invisible." The Messenger of Allah asked,

‘O Jibril! What are those four rivers?’ Jibril said,

‘The invisible rivers are two rivers in Paradise; the visible rivers are the rivers of the Nile and Euphrates.”4

The result obtained from the apparent meanings of those hadiths is as follows: The rivers the Euphrates, Tigris, Sayhan, Jayhan and Nile come from Paradise; their real source is there.

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi makes the best explanation about those rivers coming from Paradise:

“It is certainly not possible that the mountains could be the actual source of such mighty rivers. For let us suppose the water was cut completely and the mountains each became a conical reservoir, they would only persist a few months before losing the balance to the swift and abundant flow of those large rivers. And the rain, which penetrates only about a meter into the earth, would not be sufficient income for that high expenditure. This means that the springs of these rivers are not something ordinary and natural arising from chance, but that the All-Glorious Creator makes them flow forth from an unseen treasury in truly marvelous fashion.Thus, alluding to this mystery and stating this meaning, it is narrated in a Hadith: “Each of those three rivers is a drop from Paradise which continuously issues forth from Paradise, as a result of which they are sources of abundance.”5

Yes, it is obvious and clear that all of those estuaries, springs, streams and big rivers, whose benefits, duties and flows are full of wisdom, emerge from Allah Almighty’s treasury of mercy. For, those rivers are beyond the apparent reasons:  

"That is, they transcend by far apparent causes, and flow forth instead from the treasury of a non-material Paradise, from the superabundance of an unseen and inexhaustible source. For example, the blessed Nile, that turns the sandy land of Egypt into a paradise, flows from the Mountains of the Moon in the south without ever being exhausted, as if it were a small sea. If the water that flowed down the river in six months were gathered together in the form of a mountain and then frozen, it would be larger than those mountains. But the place in the mountains where the water is lodged and stored is less than a sixth of their mass. As for the water that replenishes the river, the rain that enters the reservoir of the river is very sparse in that torrid region and is quickly swallowed up by the thirsty soil; hence it is incapable of maintaining the equilibrium of the river. A tradition has thus grown up that the blessed Nile springs, in miraculous fashion, from an unseen Paradise.”6


1. Muslim, Jannah:26.
2. Musnad, 2:261, 289, 440.
3. Futuhul-Ghayb, 23:89.
4. Sahih Bukhari Tajrid Sarikh translation,10:71,
5. Sözler (Words), Yirminci Söz (Twentieth Word), p. 260.
6. Şualar (Rays), p. 94.

32 Is it appropriate to keep a plate, etc. having a pattern of evil eye bead on at home? Is it permissible to wear an evil eye bead?

It is definitely haram to wear an evil eye bead. It is a nonsensical custom dating back to the Era of Jahiliyyah. The Prophet (pbuh) stated the following:

"May Allah not complete the work of a person who wears an evil eye bead!" (Hakim and Ahmad narrated it)

Even if it is an ornament, it is necessary not to keep it at home so as not to spread such a superstitious custom.

(Halil GÜNENÇ, Günümüz Meselelerine Fetvalar II / 259)