FAQ in the category of History of Islam

1 Why is the covering of the Kaaba black?

The cloth of the Kaaba is not made black at one time. First it is dyed in red, then green and then in black. There are black woven embossed embroideries on the covering. There are the 99 names of Allah, kalima at-tawhid and tasbihat in embroidery. There is a band of 47-meter long on the top one-third part of the covering. There are Quranic verses related to hajj on the band. Those verses are woven with silver threads dipped in gold water.

The Kaaba has always maintained its identity of a holy shrine that arouses religious enthusiasm and tranquility in the spirits of Muslims. Therefore, looking at the Kaaba is regarded as a kind of worshipping. The place of the Kaaba in the universe is resembled and compared to the place of the heart in the human body. In other words, the Kaaba is the heart of the universe. The Muslims that circumambulate around the Kaaba in waves express the beating of that heart. Each Muslim that circumambulates the Kaaba feels some, whether little or much, enthusiasm and grandeur. Al-Batanuni expresses his feelings about it in his book called ar-Rihla al-Hijaziyya as follows:

The whole congregation gathered with a feeling of the deepest awe in front of the grandiose dominance and lofty splendor, in front of which the greatest spirits felt themselves as nothing. If we had not seen the movements of the bodies during the prayer (salah) and the raising of the hands during the supplication, had not heard whispering of the words uttered and the beating of the hearts in the presence of that endless grandeur, we would have thought that we had been transferred to another realm and life. In fact, we were in a different realm, then. We were in the house of Allah and in the presence of Allah.  Our heads were bent down; our tongues were tied. Our hands were turned upwards; our eyes were full of tears; our hearts were full of awe and our inner selves were full of good and clean feelings.”

In another place, he also said, “Makkah is the peak of His power and will and the place where His revelation was sent down; the Kaaba is His shrine and the place of His grandeur and help.”

The feeling of respect toward the Kaaba became manifest by putting the covering around it. There are different narrations about who put the first covering around the Kaaba. Although it is reported that Hazrat Ismail (Ishmael) (pbuh) put the first covering around the Kaaba, it is more widely accepted that As’ad Abu Karib, a Yemeni King, put the first covering around the Kaaba. According to a narration, once As’ad Abu Karib traveled to Makkah and stayed there for six days; he sacrificed animals and gave the meat away to the people of Makkah and to the poor.  While he was in Makkah, he saw in his dream that he put a covering around the Kaaba. In the morning, he realized what he saw in his dream and put a covering from the fabric that he saw in his dream around the Kaaba. On the second night, he saw in his dream that he put a covering from another fabric around the Kaaba and on the third night yet another covering. Every morning, he realized what he saw in his dream. Thus, he was known as the first person to put a covering around the Kaaba. Therefore, Our Prophet (pbuh) said, “Do not curse Tubba (As’ad Abu Karib) because he is from the People of Oneness.”

There are several narrations that Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) put a covering around the Kaaba. According to the narrations, the Kaaba was covered by woolen fabrics during the Era of Ignorance. Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) covered the Kaaba with a covering of Yemeni fabric. Hazrat Umar and Hazrat Uthman covered it with thin Egyptian fabric. The narrations agree that the Prophet covered the Kaaba but there are different narrations about the type of the fabric. However, the scholars explaining hadiths say that it is possible that the Messenger of Allah put coverings of different fabrics at different times around the Kaaba. During the Era of Bliss and the Four Caliphs, the covering was changed every year. Hazrat Muawiyah changed it twice a year, and Mamun changed it three times a year.

He covered it with a red fabric on the day of Tarwiyah, one day before the day of Arafah, a fabric called Qabati on the first day of the month of Rajab and a white fabric on the twenty-seventh day of the month of Ramadan. During the Era of Fatimis, a white covering was put around the Kaaba. Sultan  Mahmud Sebuk Tekin put a yellow covering around the Kaaba. During the time of Abbasid Caliph Nasir, the Kaaba was covered with a green covering. Then, during the time of the same Caliph, it was changed to black.  From then on, the covering of the Kaaba is black.  During the history of Islam, the covering of the Kaaba was never ignored; in Hijri 750, Salih Ismail bin Nasir set up a foundation in a village near Cairo, and he allocated that village for the covering of the Kaaba; the covering of the Kaaba was renewed every year with the income of that foundation.

It is reported in narrations that the covering of the Kaaba was renewed every year during the time of Hazrat Umar and that the covering that was removed was divided among hajis. Those who go to Makkah from Jeddah using the old motorway today see separate buildings in an area of 100.000 square meters just before entering Makkah. In those building, about 300 workers and artisans work on a very blessed thing. They manufacture “Kiswa”, the great fabric that covers the Kaaba. Until 1962, the covering of the Kaaba was manufactured in Egypt. Then, King Saud had a factory to produce Kiswa built in Makkah. Today, the covering of the Kaaba is woven and produced in that factory by skillful artisans, weavers, calligraphers and technical experts.  Every year, 24 million riyals (according to 1988) are allocated for Kiswa.  670 kilograms of pure white silk and 720 kilograms of dye and acid are used for the covering.  Kiswa consists of 47 parts. Each part is 14 meters long and 95 centimeters wide. The total are of the covering is 650 square meters. The chapter of al-Ikhlas is embroidered with gold on each corner. Other verses are woven on the panels under the band. 120 kilograms of gold and silver were used on the silk dyed black. The ratio of gold to silver is 1 to 4. The weaving, dyeing and embroidering process of Kiswa takes about 1 year. Kiswa is completed one month before Hajj and it is delivered to the family of ash-Shaibi. When the Kaaba is washed for the second time, the old covering is removed and the new one is placed. The old covering is cut into pieces and distributed to Muslims.

2 Why did the Battle of Siffin take place between Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Muawiyah? It is narrated in the history books that the soldiers of Muawiyah flagged their spears with the copies of the Quran. Is it not disrespect to the Quran?

The Battle of Siffin took place between Hazrat Ali (may Allah be pleased with him), the fourth one of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, and Hazrat Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan (may Allah be pleased with him), the governor of Damascus, who did not accept the caliphate of Hazrat Ali. The Battle took place in 657, in Siffin, which is located in the east of ar-Raqqa in the basin of Euphrates.; many Muslims were martyred in this battle.   

The reason of the breaking out of the war was based on a difference of ijtihad. Since the issue was a political one, it ended up in the form of a war. If the difference of ijtihad had been about science, it would have been on paper. The way to the war took place as follows in short: While Hazrat Uthman was the Caliph, a group of rebels came to Madinah. After surrounding Hazrat Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him) for a while, one or some of them martyred Hazrat Uthman.

Thereupon, Hazrat Ali declared his caliphate and started to seek the murderer(s) of Hazrat Uthman. However, it was impossible to determine the murderer(s) among the group of rebels. Then, Hazrat Muawiyah, who was the governor of Damascus then, wanted all of the rebels to be punished by defending relative justice, saying, “The right of the individual is sacrificed for the safety of the nation.” Hazrat Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) defended absolute justice and said, “The right of the individual cannot be sacrificed for anything”, and tried to find the murderer(s) among the rebels. When the identification of the murderer(s) was delayed, the discontent increased. Due to the provocation of the mischief-makers, two armies faced each other.   

Meanwhile, the Battle of Jamal took place. After the Battle of Jamal, Hazrat Ali headed toward Kufa; he sent an envoy to Hazrat Muawiyah informing him that Muhajirs and Ansar of the Companions approved his caliphate and asked Hazrat Muawiyah to pledge allegiance to him. Muawiyah stalled Jarir bin Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him), the envoy, and consulted Hazrat Amr bin al-As (may Allah be pleased with him); then, he told the envoy that if the murderers of Hazrat Uthman were not punished at once, he would head toward them with his army. Hazrat Muawiyah left Damascus with an army of eighty-five thousand people. Hazrat Ali left Kufa for Siffin with an army of ninety thousand people.

Hazrat Ali sent envoys to Hazrat Muawiyah to dissuade him. However, he did not get a positive response. Small clashes took place between the two armies; meanwhile, envoys tried to make a treaty until the end of the month of Muharram of the year 37 H. However, they could not make a treaty. The battle began again on the first day of the month of Safar.   

With the severe attack of the army of Hazrat Ali, the army of Damascus fell into a state of disbanding. Hazrat Ali was about to win the war when Amr bin al-As told the soldiers of Damascus, to put copies of the Quran on the spearheads. They fulfilled this order and shouted to the soldiers of Hazrat Ali, “Let the Book of Allah be the arbitrator between us.” The precaution of Hazrat Amr bin al-As became effective and the Iraqi soldiers started to say, “Let us answer the call for the Book of Allah.” Hazrat Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) tried to explain to them that it was a tactical maneuver, but he could not succeed. They chose an arbitrator from each party and wanted a decision in accordance with the Quran made. The soldiers of Hazrat Ali were glad about it. The people of Damascus chose Hazrat Amr bin al-As as the arbitrator and the Iraqis supporting Hazrat Ali chose Hazrat Abu Musa al-Ash’ari. They met in Dumat al-Jandal in the month of Safar of the year 37 H and wrote down the “Tahkim”, which included the principles to be referred to while making the decision. It is called the Incident of Tahkim (Arbitration) in the Islamic history.

3 How was life in Arabian Peninsula before Islam? Could you please give information about the belief systems of that time?

Arabs lived as nomads in the Arabian Peninsula before Islam. Their livelihood was based on animal breeding, and some Arabs were engaged in farming in oases in the inner parts of Arabia. In addition to this, one of the most important ways of livelihood was also robberies of caravans which were the custom of the desert. The way of being organized of Arabs before Islam was the classical Badawi system (nomadic way of living).
According to that system, there was a committee whose members were respectable persons of tribe. In tribal life, rules were formed according to the ancestors’ way of living and there was no private land. Meadows, waters, and sometimes even herds were common property of the tribe. Makkah turned into a commercial center because of its convenient position and people were settled there. The settled life, development of trade, and private riches earned as a result of it accelerated the collapse of tribal life. 
Tribal ties became loose. Economic concerns and the idea of earning more replaced tribal solidarity. The fact that Makkah was getting urbanized more and more and due to the hierarchy among tribes and members of tribes, a new separate regime emerged. According to that regime, the city was governed by a council. As for the council, it consisted of ten leaders who had different roles inside that regime and whose powers inherited from father to son. Thanks to the Kaaba which was worshipped, Makkah was considered as Holy Land. Among tribes, peace was announced by the city government for development of trade and tribes went on pilgrimage by visiting the temple in Makkah in that period. Loots and robberies against caravans which were the cornerstones of trade still went on although if they decreased within that period. The continuing wars and tribalism, though they were about to disappear, were the biggest obstacles to social life and trade. There was a need for an institution which would organize life and relationships among tribes. That would be a state.
Tribal life in Arabia started to be shaken to the foundation. However, there was no slavery in progress. After primitive communal society, the next step as a result of natural development would be slavery society. However, slavery had not developed, that is, labor of slaves had never been crucial to social development and production. Although there were slaves owned by people within the society, they were mostly used for housework, protection of caravans, and as concubines (female slaves). It was rare to see labor of slaves in the production.
Dominant religion before the rise of Islam was paganism. Each tribe had many idols each of whom were symbol of a god. The idols had been sculptured as figures such as a woman, bird, lion etc. the inside Kaaba, which was considered holy by all tribes. It was full of idols and there were also about one hundred temples far from the Kaaba in Arabia. Judaism and Christianity had also entered Arabia through merchants. However, Arabs did not show interest in those religions that they did not see close to themselves. Those religions had very little support within Arabia. Islam, unlike Christianity, arose within those historical conditions. When Christianity arose, the state of Rome was a slavery society. Christianity also existed by rejecting the authority of that state and giving hope to the oppressed class. However, tribal system was still dominant although it was about to collapse in the conditions in which Islam arose. Therefore, Islam’s development process would be different from Christianity.
As it is known, our Prophet was born in 570 (or 571) on the Gregorian calendar, on a Monday corresponding to the twelfth day of the month Rabi al- Awwal . When we search for religions and belief systems, we meet some strange faith types as far as we understand from the Holy Qur’an.
 The most important ones of them are as follows:
1. Hanif (monotheism): They were persons who continued the remains of the religion of Abraham. It is accepted that most of Arabs believed in that religion until idolatry was spread. They had accepted the belief in One God via Ismail. When the Prophet (pbuh) was born, those who believed in One God believed in Oneness of Allah and the Day of Judgment, refused to worship idols, and did not accept many customs of Jahiliyya. They had no military or political power.
2. Star-worshipping: There were people who worshipped stars in Yemen, Arab Peninsula (near Damascus according to some), Hurran valleys, and upper parts of Iraq. They were called Sabiis. Although we do not accurately know when and how star-worshipping had begun within Arab society, we can understand that this belief was available in the time of Suleiman from the anecdote of Suleiman and Balkis, the Queen of Sheba, which is mentioned in the Qur’an (The Ant (an-Naml), 27/20-24). They maintained their existence till the time of our Prophet. They are mentioned in the Qur’an as follows: “Among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. But do not prostrate yourselves before the sun or the moon; rather prostrate before Allah, who created them both, if it is He whom you worship.” (Detailed (Fussilat), 41/33)
However, those people were in the minority and had no military and political power.
3. Zoroastrianism: There were some groups which believed in Zoroastrianism in Iraq and Bahrain. They worshipped fire. The Iranian emperor who was Zoroastrian protected them. Later on, along with Jewish people, they played a crucial role by setting Muslims against each other and casting doubt on Islamic beliefs.
4. Christianity: There were some Christian groups among Taghlib, Qudaa, and Ghassan tribes in the north of Peninsula and the South of Yemen. They also had no political or military power. Within the Peninsula, there were also some Christian groups but they were very little in number. Christianity entered Arabia as from beginning from the year 340 as a result of the invasions of Romans and Ethiopians. (Mubarakfuri 1980, 47)
5. Judaism: There were Jewish people in Yemen, Wadil Qura, Khyber, Tayma and Yathrib (Madinah’s name before Islam). Jewish people had economic, political, and military power unlike the orher groups. They were predominant. They called themselves as the elite nation of God and believed that God would make them authorize to manage people. Therefore, they expected that the last prophet would be born among their own nation. Upon the invasion of their country by Buhtunnasr in 587 B.C, they had migrated to Arabia. (ibid , 46)

6. Idolatry: It had spread all around Arab Peninsula. It was more effective and more common than all the other belief systems. There are different views about when it had entered Arabia and how it had been common. The most common one of them is that idolatry entered Arabia via a man named Amr Bin Luhai. This person, the leader of the tribe Huzaa, was a person who was famous for his honesty and interest in religions. The people of that time saw him as one of great scholars of his time. Amr who caught a kind of skin disease was recommended to go to Hurran, located in Damascus, and to have a bath with water there. Keeping the advice, Amr went to that place, had a bath and recovered. He saw there that people worshipped idols and he liked it. Taking an idol called Hubal with him, he put into Kaaba and began to worship it. He also wanted his people to worship it. In the course of time, this worshipping had become so common that among Arabs that each tribe had its own idol. When the Prophet (pbuh) conquered Makkah, there were 360 idols in the Kaaba; destroying all them, our Prophet cleaned the Kaaba from idols.
Another account says: “when Ismail’s children grew up and had to go outside Makkah because of lack of enough food, they took some Haram soil with them to remember their father and later showed respect to it very much. In the course of time, it changed into worshipping by accepting it as holy. Thus, idolatry was founded and it developed in the course of time.
Since the most common faith was idolatry in Hejaz District in which the Prophet was actually brought up, the Prophet primarily fought against idolatry. The most well-known ones of idols, some of which are also mentioned in the Qur’an are as follows:
Manat: It was in a place called Al-Musallal between Makkah and Madinah. Ansar tribes such as Saad, Huzaa etc. worshipped it.
Lat : it was in Taif. People of Taif worshipped it. Our Prophet, after the conquest of Makkah, made it break down by sending Abu Sufian bin Harb and Mughira bin Shuba.
Uzza: It was the idol of the tribes Ghatafan, Ghani, and Bahila. Our Prophet made it break down by sending Khalid.
Hubal: it was the biggest idol of Quraysh. It was made of red agate.
Apart from those, they had idols named Isaaf, Naila, Wadd, Suwa, Yaghus, and Yauq etc., some of which have been mentioned in Arabic poems. For example, Amr bin Humama ad-Dusi, when he burnt the idol called Dhulkaffain, read this couplet:
“Oh Dhulkaffain! I am not from the time of your father.. My birth is before your birth. I filled your heart with fire. (Shukri, 2/209)
Arabs made their idols of stone, wood and other; they also made them of food. For example, the tribe Sons of Hanifa ate a big idol that they had made of flour and dates during a famine so they were criticized by the poet of the rival tribe as follows: 
Sons of Hanifa ate their gods, when the time of famine came. (Qalaji 1998, 2)
When someone saw that a fox peed on an idol which he built in the garden of his house, he burst with anger by saying how one who could not protect itself in such a condition could be a god and said the following:
“Is he a god over whose head a fox peed? Pay attention; those over whom foxes peed are despised.” (ibid)
As far as we understand from those kinds of verses above and some verses in the Holy Qur’an, idolatry did not satisfy most of the Arabs. Since they originally had the belief of Ismail and Abraham (pbuh), they believed in the existence of an Almighty God. Thus, some verses in the Holy Qur’an refer to it. For example:
If you ask them: 'Who has created the heavens and the earth?' They will reply: 'Allah.' Say: 'Praise belongs to Allah!' But most of them do not have knowledge. (Luqman, 31/25)

“‘We only worship them so that they will bring us near to Allah’ (they say)” (the Troops (az-Zumar), 39/3)

But those whom you invoke, other than Allah do not create anything, they are themselves created. (The Bee, 16/20)
As it is seen, Arabs had some contradiction about that issue. In the Qur’an, that contradiction is mentioned in many verses. For example:
Is He (Allah) who creates as he (idols) who does not create? Will you not remember? (the Bee (an-Nahl), 16/17)

We can shortly classify Arabs’ ways of worshipping and ceremony as follows: begging and praying in front of idols, wishing that they ease their worries when they are in trouble or sick; visiting idols inside the Kaaba, prostrating themselves in front of them, circumambulating them, and praying; sacrificing an animal for them in order to be close to them, which has been banned in the Qur’an by saying “you are forbidden (to consume)………….of animals sacrificed on stones (to idols).” (al-Maida, 5/3)
Idolater Arabs gave a part of their foods or crop and livestock to idols or Allah. The holy Qur’an mentions it and bans it:
They set aside for Allah a share of what He has created of tilth and cattle saying: 'This is for Allah so they claim and this for our associates (gods).' The share of their associates never reaches Allah, but the share of Allah reaches their associates. How evil they judge! (Cattle (al-Anam), 6/136)

Arabs made a vow to idols, too. When they decided to go for a long journey or to start an important work, they came to the Kaaba and sacrificed an animal for idols; the oracle who was there took out a bag in which there were fortune-telling arrows and told their fortunes. On some of those arrows “Do”, over some “do not do”, over some “empty” were written. If it was “do”, they would do what they wanted to do; if it was “do not do”, they gave up; if it was “empty”, they drew again. Islam banned those, too. In Islam, when somebody cannot decide over what he or she will do, there are some methods which are called consultation (istishara) and seeking goodness from Allah (istikhara)
Arabs in that period did not believe in the Day of Judgment and resurrection after death. Thus, someday, one of the notable persons of Quraysh, Umayya Ibn Khalaf, by holding two decayed bones in his hand, came to the Prophet; breaking them into small pieces, he asked: “Oh Muhammad! Do you think that Allah can vitalize these, too?” Replying him, the Messenger of Allah said, “Yes, Allah will kill you, later vitalize, and then burn you in Hell.” That incidence is mentioned in the Qur’an as follows:
“Has the human not seen how We created him from a drop (of sperm)? Yet he is a clear opponent.  And he has struck for Us a parable, and forgotten his
own creation. He asks: 'Who will quicken the bones after they have decayed?’ Say: 'He will quicken them who originated them the first
time; He has knowledge of every creation.” (Ya Seen, 36/77-79)

Despite all of the corrupt belief systems, we see that there were those who believed in the Day of Judgment affected by Christianity and Hanif (monotheism). Thus, one of the poets of Jahiliyya Period, Al-Akhnas Ibn Shihab at-Tamimi writes the following in one of his poems:
There is no doubt that Allah will reward people in the Day of Reckoning because of their good deeds.” (Qalaji, 18)
Prof. Dr. Hüseyin Elmalı

4 Can I have some information about Hazrat Sumayya, one of the woman Companions?

Sumayya bint Habbat (may Allah be pleased with her)

Hazrat Sumayya is the first martyr woman companion in Islam....

She is Ammar Ibn Yasir’s mother... Although she was tortured by polytheists together with her husband Yasir, and her son, she did not abandon her faith... They were brave people who took the risk of dying honorably in the way of Allah and His Messenger...

They were a family that strove so as not to fall into polytheism and that resisted oppression and torment… They were the first suffering family in Islam... They were the first martyrs that died in the way of Allah and His Messenger.

Sumayya bint Habbat was the female slave of Abu Huzayfa Ibn Mughira from Sons of Mahzum. She was liked by her master due to her service. Abu Huzayfa made her marry Yasir. Yasir was a young man who came from Yemen to Makkah; he took shelter with Abu Huzayfa and worked for him. When they had children, he freed Yasir.

Ammar Ibn Yasir, a great Companion, was born out of this marriage. In the first days of Islam, this fortunate family became Muslims and all of its members became an activist of belief. They suffered unbelievable tortures of furious Makkans. They were exposed to the most anguished and severe tortures since there was nobody to protect them. They suffered the heaviest tortures of Qurayshi polytheists, especially Sons of Mahzum. They were tied to camels and dragged by camels at noon, when the sun was the hottest, on the sand. polytheists put scorching hot rocks on their bodies and burnt their bodies. However, they could not make Sumayya and her family abandon their belief.

Yasir family, husband-wife and their son, Ammar, showed the best examples of perseverance in belief. They showed what a great power and happiness it was to believe in Allah and His Messenger at the risk of their lives. The wife and husband were martyred together. Yasir and Sumayya were honorably recorded as the first martyrs in the history of Islam.

Once, the Sun of the two Worlds, our Prophet, went to the place where those heroes were tortured. When they saw the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) coming toward them, they forgot about their pains and started to look at him. They did not keep their eyes off him as if they wanted to welcome him. They felt relieved due to the joy of seeing him heedless of the tortures. When the Prophet of Mercy approached them, he gave them the following glad tiding that will increase their resistance, give them the power of patience and endurance to maintain their belief and that will console and relieve them from the oppression and torment:

“Show patience, o family of Yasir! Show patience, o family of Yasir! I am giving you the glad tiding of Paradise.”, He addressed them.

He promised the first sufferers of Islam Paradise, the place where they would live eternally, and showed them Dar as-Salam (place where they would live peacefully) as target. However, man was weak. He was created in a weak form. Would the days pass under torture? Yasir asked again, by relying on Allah and His Messenger:

“O Messenger of Allah! Will time always pass like that?”

The Prophet of mercy was moved. He felt as if he suffered the tortures that they were exposed to. However, a struggle was necessary as a human being. He asked them to resist and prayed Allah, “O Allah! Grant your mercy and forgiveness to Yasir family!” He tried to console them only this way.

A few days passed. The tortures continued. Yasir was old. He could not resist the oppression and torment, and he died. He became fortunate by being the first martyr among men in the way of Allah and His Messenger, in the struggle of belief.

Abu Huzayfa, the uncle of Abu Jahl, wanted to relieve his anger by torturing Sumayya and her son Ammar after Yasir’s death. Abu Huzayfa was exhausted after his oppression and torment. He said to Abu Jahl, his uncle, “I leave Sumayya to you.”

Abu Jahl headed toward Sumayya like savages that saw red due to their conceit and insulted her, “You believed in Muhammad because you fell in love with him.” Sumayya answered the debauched man back with stronger words. Abu Jahl went crazy. The debauched, cruel, savage person feeling as if someone spat in his face due to the words of Sumayya stuck the spear in Sumayya and martyred her.

What a high belief!.. What patience!.. What endurance!.. And what a nice end!.. What a bravery not to keep silent against the oppressor!.. What a bravery to defend the right and to shout out everywhere!.. What a great strength belief is!.. A faithless heart is really a burden for the chest!.. O Allah! Make us all activists of belief!.. Do not include us among the people that are deceived by the short life of this world!.. Always enable us to defend and help the truth!.. Include us among those who live and die believing in you!.. Amin.

Hazrat Sumayya (may Allah be pleased with her) is a brave person of belief that obtained the honor of being the first woman martyr of Islam. She became famous for her devotion to Islam and endurance against torture for the sake of Islam; she was a brave mother who sacrificed her life in the way of Allah and His Messenger.

Ammar Ibn Yasir (may Allah be pleased with him), the son of Sumayya, went to the presence of the Sun of the two Worlds, our Prophet, as soon as he was saved from torture. He told the Prophet that he was very sorry because of the death of his mother so painfully and that he had no endurance left against the tortures. Our Prophet (pbuh) advised him to show patience. He prayed Allah for them, “O Allah! Do not torture anybody from the family of Yasir with fire.”

Abu Jahl, the debauched polytheist, was killed in the Battle of Badr. That day, the Prophet of Mercy said to Ammar, “Allah killed the murderer of your mother.”

May Allah mercy this family of belief activists abundantly. May Allah enable us to take lessons and our shares from their love of struggle, patience and strength. Amin.

Mustafa Eriş

5 What is the Battle of Jamal? There are hadiths about the issue. Did Hazrat Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) and Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) set off to fight for the caliphate? If so, how is it possible?

The murderer of Hazrat Uthman was al-Ghafiqi, a Yemenite Jew. With the martyrdom of Hazrat Uthman, Ibn Saba covered a great distance on the way of his cause. The seeds of discord started to yield fruit. This deplorable incident prevented Muslims from spreading Islam to other countries. The period of conquest and conveying the message of Islam ended; a period of stagnation and conflict started.

After this stage, Ibn Saba prepared a new plan to make the Hashimites and Umayyads fight each other. He provoked Umayyads by spreading a rumor that Hazrat Ali got Hazrat Uthman killed and that he wanted to replace Hazrat Uthman since Hazrat Uthman was from Umayyads and Hazrat Ali was from Hashimites. While the followers of Ibn Saba were slandering Ali like that, they were also trying openly to make Hazrat Ali the Caliph; thus, they wanted to make people believe their slander.

To this end, he chose a group of delegates led by Ibn Maymun, a Jew, from the caravan coming from Egypt and sent them to Hazrat Ali. The delegates said to Hazrat Ali, "As you know, the ummah has been left leaderless. You deserve to be the Caliph the most. We would like you to undertake this duty." Hazrat Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) refused their offer and sent them away.

When Hazrat Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) responded to them like that, Ibn Saba sent a group of delegates from the people of Kufa to Hazrat Zubayr and a group of delegates from the people of Basra to Hazrat Talha. Both of them rejected their offer of being the Caliph just like Hazrat Ali did.  

When Ibn Saba could not get what he wanted, he said to Ghafiqi, who led the group of aggressors, "Gather all of the people of Madinah in the mosque and tell them to choose a Caliph at once. Otherwise, threaten all of them with your swords..."

The rebels led by Ghafiqi gathered the people of Madinah in the mosque as Ibn Saba ordered and said to them, "Choose a leader for yourself immediately. If you do not do it today, we will kill you all with our swords including Ali, Zubayr and Talha." Having heard this threat, the people of Madinah went to Hazrat Ali and asked them to accept to be the Caliph. Considering the disorder and chaos, Hazrat Ali had to accept their offer although he did not want to.

After a while, Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubayr went to Hazrat Ali and asked them to act in accordance with the decrees of the Quran and punish the murderers of Hazrat Uthman. Hazrat Ali said to them, "You are right but the state has not suppressed the rebels fully yet. It is necessary to wait until the state dominates fully..."

Hazrat Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) wanted to determine the criminals one by one, question them and then convict them. Hazrat Aisha, Hazrat Zubayr and Hazrat Talha held this view: "The disorder has increased and targeted the state; the Caliph was martyred. The issue is not the issue of finding the murderers of Hazrat Uthman only. Most of those who joined this movement of disorder must be killed. Therefore, the rebels must be punished at once."

Acting upon the verse in the Quran: “Wa la taziru waziratun wizra ukhra” (Nor can a bearer of burdens bear another's burden), Hazrat Ali said no one could be held responsible for the mistake of others, and did not agree with them.

After finding out about the view of Hazrat Ali, Hazrat  Zubayr and Hazrat Talha went to Makkah and had a meeting with Hazrat Aisha there. They decided to go to Basra in order to gather armed people to attack the rebels.   

When Hazrat Ali found out that Hazrat Aisha, Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubayr went to Basra, he left for Basra with his army because he did not want a break-up or separation in the state and encamped in a place called Ziqar. Hazrat Ali sent an envoy called Qa’qa to Hazrat Aisha, Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubayr to settle the issue peacefully; he told his envoy to tell them about the evil of dissension and separation, the importance of unity and accord, and the fact that it would be better to settle everything peacefully. Qa’qa went to Hazrat Aisha, Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubayr and told them the views of Hazrat Ali, explaining that the remedy for that disorder was calmness, and that after the calmness all kinds of measures could be taken and that otherwise there would be discord, mischief and disorder, which would cause great trouble among Muslims. They said, "If Ali holds these views, there is no disagreement between him and us.

Both parties were pleased about the result. Thus, stability and calmness prevailed. Everybody went back to their tents.

Ibn Saba, the hypocrite, was very disturbed by this peace; he gathered his followers and said, "We must do something to start a fight and make Muslims kill each other. If we cannot do it, our efforts will be fruitless; we will not be able to reach our target." They made a new plan to start a war. In accordance with the plan to be carried out very early in the morning, Ibn Saba positioned his men around the tents of Hazrat Ali, and Hazrat Zubayr and Hazrat Talha. Later, they attacked the tents of both parties. Hazrat Zubayr and Hazrat Talha woke up to the noise and asked what was happening. The men of Ibn Saba said, “Hazrat Ali’s men (people of Kufa) attacked us at night."

Thereupon, Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubayr said, “We see it now. Hazrat Ali was not sincere when he wanted to prevent the war.” On the other hand, Hazrat Ali asked what was happening when he heard the noise. The men of Ibn Saba said, “The other party attacked us at night and we drove them back."  Hazrat Ali said, "I see. Talha and Zubayr did not agree with us about the peace." Then, the Battle of Jamal, which claimed the lives of ten thousand people, took place. Hazrat Talha and Hazrat Zubayr were martyred. Thus, Ibn Saba covered a great distance toward his aim after the murder of Hazrat Uthman.  

Question: How should Muslims see the disagreements that took place among the Companions?

The attribute of "ismah" (innocence), that is, "protection from sins through divine assistance” belongs to the prophets only. Only prophets are infallible. Since the Companions do not have this attribute, it cannot be said that the Companions never made mistakes. However, a Muslim does not exit Islam when he makes a mistake; likewise, a Companion does not lose the honor of being a Companion when he makes a mistake.

All of the mujtahids of four madhhabs evaluated the disagreements and conflicts among the Honorable Companions as follows: All of the Companions are mujtahids. They have the right before everybody else to make ijtihad regarding the issues that are not stated clearly in the Quran and hadiths. It is a definite rule in the methodology of fiqh that if someone has the right to make ijtihad, he does not have to act in accordance with the ijtihad of another mujtahid. The conflicts, arguments and battles that took place among them arose from the difference of ijtihad. Their own desires and wishes had nothing with their disagreements because they had been freed from the bad attributes like hatred, enmity and animosity by the religious talks of the Prophet. Their souls were purified from such mean qualities; and they became pure and lofty.  

Yes, each one of the Companions was a mujtahid in establishing the religion of Islam. As it is known, if a mujtahid is right in his ijtihad, he gains two rewards; if he is wrong in his ijtihad, he gains one reward. The ijtihads of those distinguished companions, who sacrificed their property and lives for Islam and who had no other goal but to exalt and spread Islam, aimed to exalt Islam. Their love and determination for Islam was so great that they did not refrain from expressing the view that was contrary to that of the Prophet during the Battle of Uhud. They stated their view clearly by saying, "We think that the success of Islam depends on this view." When most of the Companions had the opposite view, the Prophet (pbuh) had to do what they wanted. The events that took place later justified the Prophet. Not even a single verse was sent down by God Almighty to warn the Companions although the Quran was still being sent down then. Allah did not warn them with any verses; on the contrary, He ordered His Prophet to continue asking their views as he did previously. The Messenger of Allah did not blame them; he still loved them and showed compassion to them; he continued asking their ideas as he was ordered by Allah. Even only this incident is enough to show clearly that the Companions were appreciated by Allah and His Messenger and that they had the right to make ijtihad.

Now let us think justly. How can we dare to judge them because of the disagreements among them although neither Allah nor the Messenger of Allah warned them because they made a different ijtihad from that of the Prophet? It is necessary for a person who has the slightest degree of conscience, foresight and understanding not to try to commit a sin like that.  

If we dare to transgress our limits and try to judge those distinguished people, who sacrificed their blood for the establishment of Islam, and justify some of them while criticizing others, we will not besmirch those stars of guidance but pave the way for ruining ourselves.

Besides, the people that we judge are the most distinguished ones of the Companions. Some of them were given the glad tidings that they would enter Paradise while they were alive. Those people, whom we talk about, were praised by the Quran and the Prophet.

We should never forget about it and we should be very cautious about the disagreements among the Companions; we should avoid transgressing our limits.

If the disagreement among the Companions had not been legitimate and reasonable, a command to prevent them would have been sent down. As a matter of fact, when the Companions spoke loudly in the presence of the Prophet (pbuh) the following verse was sent down to warn them:

"O ye who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk, as ye may speak aloud to one another lest your deeds become vain and ye perceive not." (al-Hujurat, 2)

The believers are asked to avoid having bad thoughts about others:

"Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother?" (al-Hujurat, 12)

In the verse, God Almighty informs us that to backbite a believer is as ugly as to eat the flesh of a dead person and that it does not fit a believer. You can think about the degree of the risk of the issue when the believer that is backbitten is a Companion, and one of the most distinguished ones.

In a hadith, the Messenger of Allah said, "Backbiting eats up good deeds just as fire eats up wood”, warning us severely about the issue.

It behooves us to listen to those truths and act accordingly both for the safety of our life in the hereafter and for the sake of the future of Islam. A believer is prohibited from thinking bad things about another believer; the risk of thinking bad things about the Companions, who were the associates and army mates of the Prophet and who were the means of guidance for believers, and the most distinguished ones of the Companions, will be understood clearly. 

The safest way for the clever and reasonable people is to avoid sounding off regarding the issue. It will be easily understood when someone thinks about it a little that we were not sent to the world to analyze the problems among the Companions and to judge them as right and wrong. It cannot be the aim of our creation to have an idea about the issue. We were created to be a proper slave of Allah not to talk about that issue. That is, our religion calls us to fulfill our duties not to analyze the disagreements among the Companions.  

The Companions, from the Caliphs to the ordinary ones, received the same sustenance and shared the same excitement. They worked very hard, day and night, secretly and openly, for the development and spread of Islam. They made jihad and sacrificed their blood and lives. They opposed their tribes for the sake of the Quran and the Prophet; they sacrificed their wives, children and property. They preferred the Prophet to their own selves, wives, children and parents. They shed their blood for the foundation of Islam.

They contributed to the worldly and otherworldly bliss of the Muslims from their age to the Day of Judgment. It is a debt of justice and conscience for us to feel grateful to them, to pray and to praise them.

6 Who are the first five people to embrace Islam?

The first Muslims, each of whom was like the representative of a class, who were honored with the bounties of belief and Islam, were as follows:

Among women, Hazrat Khadija, among children Hazrat Ali, among free men Hazrat Abu Bakr, among slaves who were freed Hazrat Zayd bin Kharisa, among slaves Hazrat Bilal Habashi (may Allah be pleased with them).

7 Could you please give information on the Battle of Badr,Uhud and Khandaq?

BATTLE OF BADR

      Before Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) got permission from Allah to fight his enemies, Quraish had been in the battlefield. The Messenger of Allah, who had never used a weapon before, who always felt sorrow for the humanity that was dragged to misfortunes, who cried when his children or friends died, had to act in accordance with the circumstances.

The allies of Makkan people started to attack the places around Madinah, to destroy the fruit trees of Muslims and to take away the herds of Muslims. An armed and fully equipped army, under the commandment of Abu Jahl set out in order to eliminate Muslims and to protect a convoy that brought weapons and equipment. Muslims were informed about the act of polytheists. About 300 Muslims went to the valley of Badr, which was the destination of Abu Jahl and aimed to invade a vantage point that would overlook the army of the polytheists.   When Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) saw the army of unbelievers proceeded towards the valley, he raised his hands towards the sky and made a very emotional prayer.

"O Lord!" he said, "We expect to be victorious. O Lord! If this small congregation is destroyed, there will remain nobody on earth to pray you."

The angels in the sky had come down to help Muslims. Muslims, who witnessed the power of Allah in every stage of life, saw the angels that ran in the waves of wind to help them and that brought them the victory of Allah. In fact, Makkans were driven back suffering great losses. Several leaders of them were killed. Abu Jahl was one of those that were killed.

Seventy people from the enemy were killed, and about seventy people were taken prisoners. Fourteen Muslims were martyred. Some of the prisoners that were taken were released in return for money and some freely, without any money. Some of them were freed on condition that they would teach ten children of Ansar to write. Our Prophet did not give consent to killing the prisoners.

BATTLE OF UHUD

That battle took place in the third year of hijrah. Makkan polytheists started to prepare in order to take revenge for the defeat of Badr. In a short time, they collected 3000 armed and fully equipped warriors. 700 of them had armors and their aim was to take revenge for the defeat of Badr. In addition, they received support from the tribes around Makkah.

The army, under the commandment of Abu Sufyan, established headquarters in the Northeast of Madinah. Meanwhile, they started to destroy the vineyards and orchards of Madinah people.

Meanwhile, our Prophet had a dream. He saw in his dream that a cow was slaughtered, a hole was opened in his sword called Zulfiqar, he put on a sound armor and he put his hand in the collar of that armor. He interpreted that dream as: "The slaughtered cow denotes that some of my companions will be martyred; the whole in my sword denotes that someone from my family will be martyred; and the sound armor denotes Madinah." He added, "Therefore, we should not leave Madinah. If the enemy attacks, we will defend."
    Since Madinah was like a castle with the buildings and walls surrounding it, that strategy would be appropriate. However, some young people who were not present in the Battle of Badr wanted to fight the enemy and take part in the jihad. Hazrat Hamza, the lion of Allah, did not want to be remain closed in Madinah. Therefore, our Prophet decided to go out of Madinah and put on two armors, one over the other. He also took his sword.
   Those who put forward ideas that were contrary to the Prophet’s regretted doing so and said:

-          "O Messenger of Allah! We are subject to you. We will do whatever you order." However, Hazrat Prophet said:

-          "It is not appropriate for a prophet to return without fighting after putting on his armor and being equipped with weapons.” Then, he went out of the city with a force of one thousand people.

300 munafiqs (hypocrites) from the Jews lead by Abdullah bin Ubayy returned. Thus, the number of people under the commandment of Hazrat Prophet decreased to 700. There were only two cavalrymen in the army.

However, that mujahid group proceeded despite everything. They arrived at the foot of Mount Uhud. They spent the night there. In the morning, after the prayer, they put on their weapons and went down to the plain. Hazrat Prophet invaded the region under Mount Uhud. He placed a group of archers (about 50) in the mouth of a river in a high place behind the soldiers and told them not to leave that place, to shoot the cavalrymen of the enemy and protect the back side of the Muslims.

At the end of the battle, the enemy was defeated and started to run away. The soldiers under the commandment of Abdullah thought the enemy was defeated completely and wanted to follow the enemy and to collect booty. They did not obey their commander and left their place. When the enemy saw it, they attacked the left side of the Muslim army from that stream. Suddenly Muslim army was defeated. Meanwhile a lot of sahaba including Hazrat Hamza were martyred. Hazrat Ali, Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Umar were seriously injured. However, all of the attempts of the polytheists concentrated on Hazrat Prophet (PBUH). Hazrat Prophet had been separated from the main block of the army and became the primary target of the attackers.

Sahaba started to become martyrs one by one. Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) was injured. Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) saw that an affection flowing from the belief of Muslims surrounded him while blood was flowing from his wounds. Therefore, Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) congratulated the hands that forgot about their own wounds and tried to stop the bleeding in his forehead. The mujahids who fought hopelessly in the center under the commandment of Hazrat Ali managed to reach a point on the mountain and escaped the attack of the enemy.

 Since Quraishis were very tired, they could neither attack Madinah nor follow the mujahids on top of Mount Uhud. Polytheists left Madinah after they destroyed the bodies of the Muslims who were martyred. Abu Sufyan’s wife Hind and other Quraishi women broke the heart of Hazrat Hamza into pieces and bit it; they also made earrings and bracelets from the ears and noses of the other martyrs, presenting the ugliest way of barbarity. Doubtlessly, the barbarity that Quraishis carried out on the martyrs of Muslims distressed Muslims extremely. However, the tender heart of Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) surpassed the ache in his heart and said, "Put up with the evils they committed. Patience is the best way." The tradition of destroying the bodies of the death people that dated back to former times was absolutely banned by Islam from then on.

Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) appointed a group of mujahids to follow the army of the polytheists after he returned to Madinah. His aim was to inform them that Muslims, who did not win the battle, were not psychologically defeated. When Abu Sufyan understood that they were being followed, he killed two people from Madinah that he met on the way and ran quickly towards Makkah. Abu Sufyan informed Allah’s Messenger that he would return to Madinah soon in order to kill Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) and his companions. The answer of the Messenger of Allah to that news was:

"For us Allah suffices. He is the best guardian."

The moral and spiritual effects of the Battle of Uhud on the enemy groups caused the bedouins around to attack the lands of Madinah. However, thanks to the measures taken by Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) most of those attacks were repulsed.

BATTLE OF KHANDAQ

Battle of Khandaq took place in the fifth year of hijrah. Quraishis, along with some other tribes, formed an army of more than ten thousand people and proceeded to Madinah.

    Hazrat Prophet (PBUH) held a consultation with sahabas. Upon the advice of Salman Farisi, they dug a ditch around the city of Madinah in the direction that the enemy would come and assumed a position of defense. Our Prophet (PBUH) worked together with his friends to dig the ditch.

They finished digging the ditch in two weeks. Then, the enemy started to appear. However, they were astonished to see the ditch in front of them. They had never seen that kind of defense in Arabia before. Those who wanted to cross the ditch were prevented by arrows and stones. An enemy soldier, Amr Ibn Abdi Wud, who managed to cross the ditch and who was regarded to be equal to a division of soldiers, started to challenge Muslims. He asked somebody to challenge him and fight him. (Hazrat Ali May Allah grant him honor) challenged him and killed him.

    The siege lasted for fifteen days. It was very cold. The enemy started to be frustrated. One night, during a storm, their tents were overturned. The next day, they went away. Muslims took the food and the camels that they left and got rid of the dearth of food. During the Battle of Khandaq, five Muslims were martyred, and four enemy soldiers were killed.

8 History of Muharram

The important event behind muharram is Karbala in which Hadrath Hussein and his followers were murdered. Such heartbreaking event happened on the 10th day of muharram. The main reason for the mourning of shia is this event.

The right way to celebrate this month is to worship and to pray Allah for the unity of Muslims, and it is narrated that to fast during the first ten days of this month is very meritorious.

In this connection, A QUESTION may be asked: Although Ali, with his extraordinary bravery and profound knowledge in addition to his kinship to Allah's Messenger, greatly deserved to be Caliph, why did he not precede others in holding the Caliphate, and why did Islam experience such disorder during his caliphate?
ANSWER:
A great saint from the Prophet's Family is reported as saying, "Allah's Messenger had desired the caliphate of Ali, but it was made known to him from the Unseen that the will of Allah Almighty was different. He then abandoned his desire, submitting himself to Allah's will." One of the reasons why Allah's will was different could have been that after the demise of Allah's Messenger, when the Companions were more than ever in need of alliance and unity, if Ali had taken the leadership, this would most probably have aroused in many persons and tribes a tendency to compete, because of his pious, fearless, dignified, heroic and independent personality and his widely known courage -as was indeed the case during his caliphate- and divisions among the believers would have resulted. Another reason for the delay of Ali's caliphate is the following: at the time of his caliphate, the Muslim community, which had rapidly developing through the intermingling of many tribes and peoples, possessed such traits as reflected the opinions of the seventy-three sects that Allah's Messenger had predicted would evolve in due time.
Therefore, in the face of such disturbances, someone was needed with the wondrous strength, courage, respectability and sagacity of Ali, someone having the force of the respected Hashimites and the Prophet's Family, so that he could resist such hardships. And indeed he did so, in a fashion conformable to the prediction of the Prophet, who had said to him, "I have fought for the revelation of the Qur'an; you will fight for its explanation. " A further reason for this delay is that without Ali, the magnificence of sovereignty would most probably have caused the Umayyad dynasty to go completely astray. However, having to cater to the opposition of Ali and the Prophet's Family, and to preserve their prestige before the Muslims, the leaders of the Umayyad dynasty, willingly or unwillingly but in any case with full vigor, worked for at least encouraged their subjects and followers to do so- for the protection and propagation of the truths of faith and Islam and the Qur'anic order. Thus, thousands of punctilious expounders of the Islamic law, distinguished traditionists, saints and men of purity emerged during their reign. Had it not faced the strong religiosity, sainthood and virtuousness of Ali and of the Prophet's Family, the Umayyad dynasty would from the very beginning have pursued its own course, as happened at the end of its rule and that of the Abbasid dynasty.
It might also be asked, 'Why did the Islamic Caliphate not remain in the Prophet's Family, since they were the most deserving and fitted for it?"
ANSWER:

Worldly sovereignty is deceptive, and the Prophet's Family had been appointed to protect the Qur'anic order and the truths of Islam. Not to be deceived by the magnificence of sovereignty or the Caliphate, one should be as sinless as a prophet, or as pious and purehearted as the Four Caliphs, Omar b. Abdul-Aziz or the Mahdi of the Abbasids. In fact, the Fatimid dynasty that was established in Egypt in the name of the Prophet's Family, the rule of the Almohads in Africa and that of the Safavids in Persia, all show that worldly sovereignty is not suitable for the Prophet's Family, for it causes them to neglect their primary duty, the protection of religion and the service of Islam. When, on the other hand, they refrained from sovereignty, they brilliantly and most succesfully served Islam and the Qur'an. Now see: of the poles of sainthood decsending from Hasan -especially the Four Poles [*] and above all
[*] The four poles of sainthood, namely, Abdul Qadir Gilani, Ahmad Rufa'i, Ahmad Badawi and Ibrahim Dasuqi.
Abdul Qadir Gilani- and those imams from the lineage of Husain especially Zayn al Abidin and Jafar as Siddiq- each became a revivalist in his own right, dispelled the darkness of wrongdoing, spread the light of the Qur'an and the truths of faith, and in so doing that he was a true heir of his noble ancestor.
It may be asked, "What was the Divine Wisdom lying behind the awesome and bloody disturbances that befell the blessed Companions and sacred Islam, for they did not deserve such deep sorrow and losses?"
ANSWER:

Just as a heavy spring rainstorm activates and improves the various dispositions inherent in various vegetables, seeds and trees, making them bloom and flourish each in its own fashion, so to the disturbances that befell the Companions and their successors activated their various talents. It gave every group of them the fear that Islam was in danger, made them hurry to the protection of Islam, so that everyone within his means shouldered a function from among the various duties in the Muslim community and strove in atmost earnest. Each group fullfilled a different function, some working for the preservation of the prophetic traditions, some for the maintanence of the Qur'an and the truths of faith, and so on. Thus did they strive fervently in performing Islamic duties, thus did the flowers of different colors blossom forth, and thus were the seeds planted in the vast regions of the Muslim world and half of the globe changed into rose gardens. Sadly, with those roses, came the thorns of the deviant sects.
It was as if the Hand of Power had shaken that era with wrath, rotated it with intense vigor, electrified the men of zeal. And electrified by the centrifugal force of that movement, a great many enlightened expounders, luminous traditionists, gifted scholars, men of purity and poles of sainthood emigrated to the remote corners of the Muslim World. By causing this to come about, the Hand of Power inspires all the Muslims, from the East to the West, with enthusiasm, and awakened them to the treasures of the Qur'an.

9 Was it Prophet Muhammad’s Will to Make Hazrat Abu Bakr the First Caliph of Islam?

The Prophet did not directly appoint Hazrat Abu Bakr to caliphate. However, we can deduce from some of his words and practices that he wanted Hazrat Abu Bakr to be the first caliph.

The Status of Four Caliphs amongst Other Companions

It is stated that the most virtuous of all ummah are the companions and that Hazrat Abu Bakr deserved the title of “siddiq” (trustworthy, loyal) because of affirming Hazrat Muhammad’s prophethood and Miraj without any hesitation. (1) Although this explanation is short and not clear, we deduce a reason why Abu Bakr was the most virtuous of all companions from it. This reason is the fact that he was very faithful and submissive. His loyalty to Allah and His Messenger was unwavering. There are some other reasons which make him the most virtuous of all companions in addition to these. Factors such as being a leader in faith paved way to the good and he played a significant role in the belief of generations after him; he supported the Messenger of Allah both physically and financially in the riskiest times, his understanding of Islam and his worshipping elevate him to the highest degree amongst ummah and companions.

At-Taftazani stated that Hazrat Omar was given the title of “Faruq” (discerning truth from falsehood) because he distinguished truth from falsehood in his judgments and causes. (2) This points out to the fact that he deemed truth, Islam which is the truth more important than anything, and that he submitted himself to the truth. When he converted to Islam, he challenged Quraish and the whole world fearlessly (3). It is understood how he sided with the truth and how strongly he believed in truth. It indicates that this was one of his superiorities. (4) 

Then he stated that Hazrat Uthman firstly married Ruqiyya, a daughter of the Messenger of Allah, and when she died, he married his other daughter Ummu Kulthum and thus, he was named “Dhinnurayn” (having two lights), and that the Prophet said “If I had one more daughter, I would marry her to you again”. (5) We deduce from it that the Prophet was very pleased with Hazrat Uthman; he loved him a lot, and appreciated him. Of course, he would not love anyone because of his personal interests. Hazrat Muhammad’s dearest friends were true believers and people with taqwa. If he loved Hazrat Uthman, appreciated him and stated that he was pleased with him, we need to follow the Messenger of Allah and appreciate Hazrat Uthman, love him and have high opinions of him, and we should not criticize him. If the Prophet loved him that much and married his daughters to him, it shows that he was a true believer and he had taqwa; because Muslims do not marry their daughters to unbelievers. It means he was a believer. He was a muttaqi (one with taqwa; God-conscious) as the Messenger of Allah put it. And angels respected him (6). 

At-Taftazani then stated that Hazrat Ali al-Murtaza was one of the good servants of Allah and proved his sincerity. (7) Nasafi and other ahl as-sunnah interpreters of the Quran named Hazrat Ali as Murtaza in order to stress that Allah and His Messenger were pleased with him (8). Allah and His Messenger love Hazrat Ali a lot. Ali loves them both a lot, too and pleased them. It was mentioned in hadiths, too (9). Taftazani states that Hazrat Ali was outstanding in his worshipping, sincerity and asceticism. One who is loved by Allah and His Messenger, one with whom they were pleased, and one who was the son-in-law of the Messenger of Allah was of course a true believer, God-conscious and worthy of praise and love. Moreover, Allah the Glorious stated that he was a friend of the Messenger of Allah (10). 

According to at-Taftazani, the companions put four caliphs in superiority order according to their caliphate order. At-Taftazani says “It is clear that they would not have decided it if they had not had proofs.” (11) 

2) Some hadiths point out to caliphs’ order of virtuousness: 

If hadiths are examined having the issue of superiority, it will be seen that they have got signs pointing out to the degrees and the order of the caliphate of four caliphs: 

Hazrat Ali, the father of Muhammad bin Hanafiyya, was asked: “Who is the most virtuous person after the Messenger of Allah?” Hazrat Ali answered clearly by listing in order “Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman.” (12) The hadith related to the ones given the tidings of deserving Heaven states that the first to arrive at Aris Well was Abu Bakr, then Umar and then Uthman. (13) It may be an indication of their order of virtuousness. Moreover, one day the Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman climbed up Uhud Mountain. Then when the mountains started to tremble, the Messenger called to the mountain: “Stop O Uhud! There is the Prophet, Siddiq and two martyrs on you!” (14) 

Bukhari mentioned the names of the companions in the hadith above in this order: “Abu Bakr,  Umar, and Uthman.” Also, the Messenger of Allah mentioned Abu Bakr after himself in the hadith above, and after Abu Bakr, mentioned Umar and Uthman. Is it not a sign of Abu Bakr’s superiority that the Prophet mentioned him right after himself? Moreover, this hadith harbingered that Hazrat Umar and Hazrat Uthman were going to be martyred. 

In another hadith narrated from Hazrat Ali, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said: “I became one with Abu Bakr and Umar. I worked with Abu Bakr and Umar. I walked with Abu Bakr and Umar…” (15) It indicates that Abu Bakr ranks in first place in terms of superiority and then comes Umar amongst other companions and the ummah. 

Again in another hadith in Bukhari’s book, Abdullah bin Umar narrated: “He said: ‘We would not deem anyone equal to Abu Bakr, and then to Umar and then to Uthman in the time of the Prophet (pbuh). After that, we quit comparing the companions of The Messenger of Allah according to their superiority.” (16) 

When this hadith is taken into consideration, there are several aspects that come into one’s mind: 

First: Abdullah bin Abbas (death H. 68), as a knowledgeable and wise companion, speaks of a matter which was agreed upon and known by everyone in the time of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). It is the fact that none of the companions were deemed equal in virtuousness to the four caliphs, especially to Hazrat Abu Bakr. (17) Of course, the Messenger of Allah knew that his companions thought like that. He thought the same, too. If he had not thought like that, he would have corrected their opinions. 

Second: while narrating the hadith, Abdullah bin Abbas firstly mentions Hazrat Abu Bakr, and then the caliphs in order. It can be deduced from it that Hazrat Abu Bakr was the leading one in virtuousness and also that Abdullah bin Abbas agreed with it. 

Third: According to that hadith, the four caliphs are superior to all companions. And the degree of superiority between them is based on that order. 

Fourth: The Companions of salaf deemed the companions in question superior to others according to the given order; however, they did not ever compare other companions in superiority. The problem of superiority emerged later. (18) 

The order of their caliphate, their works and services during their caliphates and events that occurred during their caliphates can also be considered to be signs of their virtuousness. 

After discussing this problem, at-Taftazani says: “Salaf (companions and tabiin) agreed on Uthman’s superiority over Ali and accepted their order of caliphate as it was.” (19) Then he explains how each of them was promoted to caliphate one by one. In his opinion, the caliphate of the four caliphs was the result of the consensus of Islamic scholars. Conflicts and wars which happened related to the caliphate of Hazrat Ali were not because of disagreement over his caliphate indeed, but because of the fault in deduction (of judgment; ijtihad).” (20) 

As it is seen, Taftazani considers wars during the time of Hazrat Ali as the result of deduction and faults in deduction, like other ahl as-Sunnah scholars. It is not meant to criticize and oppose the companion here; conversely, it is meant to exalt him. Taftazani blames them for hypocrisy and heedlessness. He states that Hazrat Ali was right on his judgment and Muawiya was faulty in his judgment. Muawiya, who was faulty in his judgment, is not criticized or blamed with straying and hypocrisy but commemorated nicely as a mujtahid, because mujtahids will earn thawabs even though they are faulty in their judgments. A mujtahid who made a mistake in his judgment cannot be blamed for straying or hypocrisy. (21) 

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi says that some Quranic verses point out to the four caliphs to come after the death of the Messenger of Allah, together with their order, and hints who they are by telling their most known features: 

“Muhammad is the Prophet of God, and those who are with him are strong against unbelievers, [but] compassionate among each other. You will see them bow and prostrate themselves....” (surah-al-Fath)

Through telling of the elevated qualities and characteristics which were the reason for the

Companions being the most elevated of humankind after the prophets, the start of this verse describes through its explicit meaning the excellent qualities which would mark the class of the Companions. And through its implied meaning, the verse alludes to the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, who would succeed to the office of the Prophet (PBUH) after his death through the institution of the Caliphate, and gives news of the fine attributes which were what most distinguished each of them and marked them out. It is as follows: 

“And those who are with him” alludes to Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, who was distinguished and famous for being among the Prophet’s special followers and party to his conversation, and again for entering among his special followers by being the first to die. 

“While are strong against the unbelievers” points to Umar, who in the future would cause the countries of the globe to tremble at his conquests, and with his justice would descend on tyrants like a thunderbolt. 

“And compassionate among each other” gives news of Uthman, who, in the future when the most serious dissension was being fomented, would sacrifice his own life and spirit out of perfect kindness and compassion so that the blood of Muslims should not be spilt, preferring to be martyred wrongfully while reading the Qur’an. 

And so too, “You will see them bow and prostrate themselves [in prayer], seeking grace from God and [His] good pleasure” tells that with his complete worthiness to undertake the Caliphate and government, and his heroism, and his choosing perfect asceticism, worship, poverty, and frugality, and whose bowing and prostrating in prayer was corroborated by everyone, Ali (May God be pleased with him) was not responsible for his position in the future and the wars and strife in which he was involved, and that his intention and wish was for Divine favur. 

The phrase, “This is their similitude in the Torah” makes predictions concerning the Unseen in two respects: It gives news of the qualities of the Companions mentioned in the Torah, which was as though the Unseen for an unlettered person like the Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace). 

The sentence, “and their similitude in the Gospel is: like a seed which sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, [filling] the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the unbelievers with rage at them”, gives news of the Unseen in two respects:

The First is the prediction concerning the Companions in the Gospel, which was like the Unseen for the unlettered Prophet (PBUH). 

At the start the Companions would appear to be few and weak, nevertheless they would burgeon like seeds, grow, thicken, and find strength. When they were about to be overwhelmed and smothered by the rage that this would cause the unbelievers, they would subjugate mankind with their swords and prove that the Prophet (PBUH), their leader, was the Ruler of the World. The verses express exactly the meaning of the above verses of Sura al-Fath. 

Second Aspect: These sentences predict the following: the Companions certainly accepted the Pact of Hudaybiya out of their weakness and small number, but within a short time they so grew and acquired such strength and loftiness that, planted by the Hand of Power in the field of the face of the earth, they multiplied in most elevated, powerful, fruitful, and plentiful fashion. Especially in relation to the shoots of mankind at that time, which were short, weak, defective, and scant due to neglect and heedlessness. They would grow strong and cause glorious states to rage at them in envy, jealousy, and anger. Yes, the future verified this prediction in most brilliant fashion. 

There is in this prediction the further following slight hint: it indicates through the word forgiveness that, although while praising the Companions’ excellent qualities they should have been promised the greatest rewards, in the future serious faults would arise among the Companions, due to strife. For forgiveness indicates the existence of faults. And at that time the thing most demanded by the Companions, the greatest bounty, would be forgiveness. (22) 

The Hint about the Four Caliphs 

In addition to this last verse of surah al-Fath which hints the caliphs to come after the Messenger of Allah, the verse “All who obey God and the Messenger are in the company of those on whom is the Grace of God, - of the prophets (who teach), the sincere (lovers of Truth), the witnesses (who testify), and the Righteous (who do good): Ah! What a beautiful fellowship!” (al-Nisa, 69) also indicates the same truth. 

This verse describes the people of the Straight Path and the groups of the Prophets, the caravan of the Veracious, the community of the Martyrs, the class of the Righteous, and those who follow them, who are those among mankind who truly receive the Divine bounties, and furthermore, explicitly pointing out the most perfect of those five groups in the World of Islam, it then indicates the leaders and chiefs of those five groups through mentioning their well-known attributes. In addition, with a flash of miraculousness giving news of the Unseen, it specifies in one respect those chiefs’ positions in the future.

Yes, of the Prophets looks explicitly to the Prophet Muhammad (Upon whom be blessings and peace), and the phrase the Veracious looks to Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (the Veracious). It also indicates that he would be second after the Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace), and first to succeed to his place, and be known with the special title of ‘Siddiq,’ and be seen at the head of all the veracious. 

Then the Witnesses [or Martyrs] mentions Umar, Uthman, and Ali (May God be pleased with all of them) together. It indicates indirectly that the three of them would succeed to the Caliphate of the Prophet after ‘al-Siddiq,’ that the three of them would be martyred, and the merits of martyrdom added to their other virtues. 

The Righteous alludes to distinguished persons like the Companions of the Bench, and of Badr and Ridwan. 

While the explicit meaning of “And how goodly a company are these!” encourages others to follow them, and its implicit meaning, through showing the generation that succeeded them to be honoured and illustrious, alludes to Hasan (May God be pleased with him), who as the fifth Caliph affirmed the Hadith “After me the Caliphate will last thirty years” (23) -in order to show its great value despite its brief duration. (24) 

And the word “goodly” in the Quranic verse which is translated as “And how goodly a company are these!” is “hasuna” in Arabic text. And in Arabic writing, Hassan and Hasuna are written in the same way. 

As it is seen, there are many signs and hints pointing out to the Unseen, stated either explicitly or implicitly in the Quranic verses. They also hint in which order the four caliphs will be promoted to the caliphate. 

Footnotes: 

(1) Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli p. 177-178.

(2) ibid., p. 178.

(3) History of Islam, p. 172 ff.

(4) The Messenger of Allah declares Hazrat Umar’s piety by means of a dream. Sahihu'l-Bukhari, IV, 201.

(5) Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli p. 178.

(6) For hadiths about him, see Sahihu'l-Bukhari IV, 196 (those who were given the good news of Heaven), IV, 202 ff.

(7) Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli p. 178.

(8) Sharhu'l-Akaid p. 322.

(9) Sahihu'l-Bukhari IV, 207 (This is explained in the hadith related to the war of Khyber) Moreover, while on the war expedition to Tabuk, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) stated that his position with him was like that of Moses with Aaron.

(10) See. Al-Maidah 5/55; at-Tabari, Muhibbuddin Ahmad b. Abdullah Zahairu'l-Uqba,

Cairo, 1357, p. 102 ff.

(11 Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli Ala Sharhi'l-Akaid p. 178.

(12) Sahihu'l-Bukhari IV, 195 (Fezai'l-Bab, 5).

(13) Sahihu'l-Bukhari IV, 196.

(14) Sahihu'l-Bukhari IV, 197; 204.

(15) Sahihu'l-Bukhari IV, 197.

(16) Sahihu'l-Bukhari IV, 203.

(17) For the word “adala”see al-Mu'jamu'l-Wasit p. 588; al-Mufradat p. 325.

(18) For the issue that Companions are more virtuous than all ummah and that four caliphs are more virtuous than the others, see al-Haytami, Ahmad b. Hajar, as-Sawaiqu'l-Muhriqa, p.

210, 213; Subulu's-Salam IV, 127 (witnesses/martyrs); Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli p.

(19) Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli , ala Sharhi'l-Aqaid p. 179.

(20) Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli 'ala Sharhu'l-Aqaid p. 180.

(21) See Sharhu'l-Aqaid p. 325, Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli 'ala Sharhu'l-Aqaid, p. 180-181. 

(22)See. Nursi, The Flashes, p. 29-32.

(23) Tirmidhi, Fitan, 48.

(24)See. Nursi, The Flashes, p. 33-34. 

Prof. Dr. Murat Sarıcık

10 What are the 5 heavenly books mentioned in the Quran?

It is stated in the Quran that some pages were sent down to Hazrat Ibrahim (Abraham) and some pages to Hazrat Musa (Moses) before he was sent down the Torah (an-Najm, 53/37-54; al-A'la, 87/19). It is also stated in the Quran that Moses was sent down the Torah (al-Isra, 17/2; al-Maida, 5/44), Hazrat Dawud (David) was sent down the Psalms (an-Nisa, 4/163) and Hazrat Eesa (Jesus) was sent down the Bible  (al-Maida, 5/46, 110). Hazrat Muhammad (pbuh), the last Prophet, was sent down the Quran.

11 Did Hazrath Mohammed (pbuh) participate in any battles?

The political and military campaigns that our Prophet himself took part in are called ghazwa; the political and military campaigns that our Prophet did not take part but gave the flag to someone from his companions and appointed him the leader of the campaign are called sariyya.
There were 27 ghazwas that the Prophet himself led. They are Abwa, Buwat, Badru’l-ula-Safawan, Zu’l-Ushayra, Badr, Bani Qaynuqa', Sawiq, Qarqaratul kudr, Ghatafan, Bani Sulaym, Uhud, Hamraulasad, Bani Nadir, Badru’l-Maw’id, Zatu’r-Riqa’, Dumatul jandal, Muraysi’ (Bani’l-Mustaliq), Khandaq, Bani Kurayza, Bani Lihyan, Ghaba, Hudaybiya, Khaybar, Conquest of Makkah, Hunayn, Taif and Tabuk. There were clashes only in nine of those ghazwas.

12 Begining Where?
One, who would like to study Islam, should start with the essentials of faith first. The essentials of faith are;

1- To believe in Allah
2- To believe in Prophets sent by Allah
3- To believe in Holy Books revealed to some Prophets by Allah
4- To believe in Angles
5- To beleive in hereafter
6- To believe in fate

These are all explained briefly in our site.

Would you briefly mention the pillars of faith?

Also, we recommend you The Risale-i Nur Collection written by Bediuzzaman Said Nursi. Such a collection explains and gives reasonable proofs about essentials of faith.
Then comes the practices of Islam which are commonly called the Five Pillars. They are:
1.  Testimony of Faith (Shahada)
2.  Ritual Prayer (Salah)
3.  Fasting in Ramadan (Sawm)
4.  Giving Alms (Zakat)
5.  Pilgrimage to Makkah (Hajj)

for mere information click on the links given below;

What are the pillars of Islam?

What are the Essentials of the religion-Islam? Can you explain?

What is the way to understand Islam truly?

Also, if you have any other questions concerning Islam you can ask your questions to us. We will try to answer your questions.

13 Could you please give information about Ibrahim an-Nahai?

Ibrahim an-Nahai is a hadith narrator. He is a well-known person who is considered to be trustworthy by well-known hadith authorities such as Ibn Main, Nasai, Daraqutni, Ijli and Ibn Hibban (Ibn Hajar, Tehzib, 1/126).
Ibrahim an-Nahai is also one of the well-known Islamic jurisprudents in Kufa. He is the teacher of Hammad b. Abi Sulaiman who is the teacher of Imam Azam. He lived in the time of tabiin (Muslims who met and took lessons from the companions of Prophet Muhammad). (compare: Ibn Hajar, ibid, III/16; al Fiqhu’l-Islami).

14 What is Hijri New Year´s Day?

Hijri (migrational) Calendar (Islamic lunar calendar) has started with the migration of Prophet Mohammad (pbup) from Mecca to Medina. This date corresponds to 16th July, 622. As the calendar is regulated based on the rotation of Moon, it has been called “Hijri Lunar” and “Year of Moon”. Hijri calendar was prepared as a result of the confusion on calculating the days, after the death of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh).

Hijri Calendar accepts the first night with crescent moon as the beginning of the New Year. The period of time until the crescent moon appears again is considered one month, and 12 months equal to one year. According to this calendar, rotation of Moon around Earth is accepted to be 29 and a half days. Thus, while one month is considered as 29 days, every other month is considered as 30 days. Therefore, Lunar calendar includes 364 days, while Solar calendar includes 365 days. For this reason, Hijri months arrive eleven days earlier than Gregorian months every year. As a result of this, Hijri months correspond to different seasons. Therefore; Ramadan, which is a month of Hijri calendar, sometimes arriving in Summer, sometimes in Winter and sometimes in other seasons, sees all the months, weeks and days of the year. A person, who fasts for 36 years, eventually fasts in every month and day of the year.

In Hijri Calendar, the New Year’s Day is the first of Muharram. Month of Muharram is followed by Safar, Rabi’al- awwal, Rabi’al-Akhir, Jumada al-awwal, Jumada al-akhir, Rajab, Sha’aban, Ramadan, Shawwal, Dhu al-Qi’dah and Dhu al-Hijjah.

We are all muslims, alhamdulillah (thanks to Allah), yet we all do not live as Islam requires us to live, unfortunately. We call living as a true Muslim “piety”. Whoever lives according to the requirements of the belief, we attribute the adjective “pious” to him, and call him “a pious man”. He already deserves to be called so.

You can also consider piety as an armor worn to be protected from era’s perversity and sedition. In fact, piety is a life style which not only leads the one who lives it to Heaven, but also brings peace and happiness on earthly life for him.

Thusly, you can see how the pious ones and the non-pious ones lead their lives on new year’s days corresponding to the birth of prophet Jesus and the migration of prophet Mohammad, the former of which is the beginning of Gregorian Calendar and the latter is that of Hijri Calendar.

The pious ones, while thinking on New Year’s eves, say, even though sub-consciously:

- The New Year’s Day means that another year of the life has come to an end, we are closer to the inevitable end called death, and days of elderliness are closer, while the days of youth are coming to the end. Thusly, more white hair is growing amongst dark hair every New Year, signaling that we are getting older.

Therefore, instead of being taken with more misery and profligacy on new year’s eves, it is necessary to lean more to the Hereafter and the Eternal Life. Forasmuch as this swift travel is towards the grave and the Hereafter, whether you admit it or deny it.

As piety makes one think more and behave carefully, pious people regret about their past years less. However, strayed people who do not consider themselves bound by the religious limits do not make a slight judgment or do not think even slightly about themselves. They are totally deprived of consciousness and perception. At the night which is an evidence to getting closer to death, they suffer the losses of their morality, spirituality and money, and continue to commit acts that they will regret later. What follow this entertainment and profligacy of a few hours are despair and regret that last for a lifetime.

What causes them to regret forever results from their lives which are not led according to the requirements of Islam, that’s to say, it is because of non-piety.

If they gained a strong belief to stay faithful to the requirements of the religion, an indication of piety, it would enable them to think vice-versa on every new year’s eves, would pull themselves together and eventually advance in belief and morality, and they would neither regret their past nor be taken with misery and profligacy.

It can be concluded that what causes some people to degenerate and some to sublime on new year’s eves is nothing but being pious or not.

It is clear that what makes one think, and lead him to happiness is piety, and it is a fact that what deprives one of self-judgement and leads to profligacy is levity with religion.

That’s to say, this is a world of examinations. It is open to both ways. Anyone can go this way or that way. Some cancel their consciousness on New Year’s eves and some elevate it.

We praise Allah for our piety, give thanks to Him, who makes us think and behave so.

15 Was it Prophet Muhammad’s Will to Make Hazrat Abu Bakr the First Caliph of Islam?

The Prophet did not directly appoint Hazrat Abu Bakr to caliphate. However, we can deduce from some of his words and practices that he wanted Hazrat Abu Bakr to be the first caliph.

The Status of Four Caliphs amongst Other Companions

It is stated that the most decent of all ummah are the companions and that Hazrat Abu Bakr deserved the title of “siddiq” (trustworthy, loyal) because of affirming Hazrat Muhammad’s prophethood and Miraj without any hesitation. (1) Although this explanation is short and not clear, we deduce a reason why Abu Bakr was the most decent of all companions from it. This reason is the fact that he was very faithful and submissive. His loyalty to Allah and His Messenger was unwavering. There are some other reasons which make him the most decent of all companions in addition to these. Factors such as that he was a leader in faith, paved way to the good and he played a significant role in the belief of generations after him, he supported the Messenger of Allah both physically and financially in the most risky times, his understanding of Islam and his worshipping elevate him to the highest degree amongst ummah and companions.

At-Taftazani stated that Hazrat Omar was given the title of “Faruq” (discerning truth from falsehood) because he distinguished truth from falsehood in his judgments and causes. (2) This points out to that he deemed truth, Islam which is the truth more important than anything and that he submitted himself to the truth. When he converted into Islam, he challenged fearlessly Kuraish and the whole world in the name of theirs (3). It is understood that how he sided with the truth and how strongly he believed in truth. This indicates that this was one of his superiorities. (4)

Then he stated that Hazrat Othman firstly married Ruqiyya, a daughter of the Messenger of Allah, and when she died, he married his other daughter Ummu Gulsum and thus he was named “Zinnurayn” (having two lights), and that the Prophet said “If I had one more daughter, I would marry her to you again”. (5) We deduce from this that the Prophet was very pleased with Hazrat Othman; he loved him a lot, and appreciated him. Of course, he would not love anyone because of his personal interests. Hazrat Muhammad’s dearest friends were true believes and people with taqwa. If he loved Hazrat Othman, appreciated him and stated that he was pleased with him, we need to follow the Messenger of Allah and appreciate Hazrat Othman, love him and have high opinions of him, and we should not criticize him. If the Prophet loved him that much and married his daughters to him, this shows that he was a true believer and he had taqwa; because Muslims do not marry their daughters to unbelievers. This means he was a believer. He was a muttaqi (one with taqwa; God-conscious) as the Messenger of Allah put it. And angels respected him (6).

At-Taftazani then stated that Hazrat Ali al-Murtaza was one of good servants to Allah and proved his sincerity. (7) Nasafi and other ahl-i sunnah interpreters of Quran named Hazrat Ali as Murtaza in order to stress that Allah and His Messenger were pleased with him (8). Allah and His Messenger love Hazrat Ali a lot. He loves them both a lot, too and pleased them. This was mentioned in hadiths, too (9). Taftazani states that Hazrat Ali was outstanding in his worship, sincerity and asceticism. One who is loved by Allah and His Messenger, one with whom they were pleased, and one who was son-in-law of the Messenger of Allah was of course a true believer, God-conscious and worthy of praise and love. Moreover, Allah the Glorious stated that he was friend to the Messenger of Allah (10).

According to at-Taftazani, the companions put four caliphs in superiority order according to their caliphate order. At-Taftazani says “It is clear that they would not have decided this if they had not had proofs.” (11)

2) Some hadiths point out to caliphs’ order of virtuousness:

If hadiths are examined for the purpose of this issue, it will be seen that they have got signs pointing out to the degrees and order of caliphate of four caliphs:

Hazrat Ali, the father of Muhammad bin Hanafiyya, was asked: “Who is the most virtuous person after the Messenger of Allah?” Hazrat Ali answered clearly by listing in order “Abu Bakr, Omar and Othman.” (12) The hadith related to the ones given the tidings of deserving Heaven states that the first to arrive at Eris Well was Abu Bakr, then Omar and then Othman. (13) This may be an indication of their order of virtuousness. Moreover, one day the Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr, Omar and Othman climbed up Uhud Mountain. Then when the mountains started to tremble, the Messenger called to the mountain: “Stop O Uhud! There are the Prophet, Siddiq and two martyrs on you!” (14)

Bukhari mentioned the names of companions in the hadith above in this order: “Abu Bakr, Omar, and Othman.” Also, the Messenger of Allah mentioned Abu Bakr after himself in the hadith above, and after Abu Bakr, mentioned Omar and Othman. Is it not a sing of Abu Bakr’s superiority that the Prophet mentioned him right after himself? Moreover, this hadith harbingered that Hazrat Omar and Hazrat Othman were going to be martyred.

In another hadith narrated from Hazrat Ali, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said: “I became one with Abu Bakr and Omar. I worked with Abu Bakr and Omar. I walked with Abu Bakr and Omar…” (15) This indicates that Abu Bakr ranks in first place in terms of superiority and then comes Omar amongst other companions and the ummah.

Again in another hadith from Bukhari’s book, Abdullah bin Omar narrated: “He said: ‘We would not deem anyone equal to Abu Bakr, and then to Omar and then to Othman in the time of the Prophet (pbuh). After that, we quit comparing the companions of The Messenger of Allah according to their superiority.” (16),

When this hadith is taken into consideration, there are several aspects one comes up with:

First: Abdullah bin Abbas (death H. 68), as a knowledgeable and wise companion, speaks of a matter which was agreed upon and known by everyone in the time of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). It is that none of the companions were deemed equal in virtuousness to the four caliphs, especially to Hazrat Abu Bakr. (17) Of course, the Messenger of Allah knew that his companions thought like that. He thought the same, too. If he had not thought like this, he would have corrected their opinions.

Second: Abdullah bin Abbas, while narrating the hadith, firstly mentions Hazrat Abu Bakr, and then caliphs in order. It can be deduced from this that Hazrat Abu Bakr was the leading one in virtuousness and also that Abdullah bin Abbas agreed with it.

Third: According to this hadith, the four caliphs are superior to all companions. And the degree of superiority between them is based on this order.

Fourth: Companions deemed the companions in question superior to others according to the given order; however, they did not ever compare other companions in superiority. This problem of superiority emerged later. (18)

The order of their caliphate, their works and services during their caliphates and events that occurred during their caliphates can also be considered to be signs of their virtuousness.

After discussing this problem, at-Taftazani says: “Salaf (companions and tabiin) agreed on Othman’s superiority over Ali and accepts their order of caliphate as it is. (19) Then he explains how each of them was promoted to caliphate one by one. In his opinion, the caliphate of the four caliphs was the result of consensus of Islamic scholars. Conflicts and wars which happened related to the caliphate of Hazrat Ali were not because of disagreement over his caliphate indeed, but because of the fault in deduction (of judgment; ijtihad).” (20)

As it is seen, Taftazani considers wars during the time of Hazrat Ali as the result of deduction and faults in deduction, like other ahl-i Sunnah scholars. It is not meant to criticize and oppose to the companion here; conversely, it is meant to exalt him. Taftazani blames them with hypocrisy and heedlessness. He states that Hazrat Ali was right on his judgment and Muawiya was faulty in his judgment. Muawiya, who was faulty in his judgment, is not criticized or blamed with straying and hypocrisy but commemorated nicely as a mujtahid, because mujtahids will earn sawabs even though they are faulty in their judgments. A mujtahid who made a mistake in his judgment cannot be blamed with straying or hypocrisy. (21)

Bediuzzaman Said Nursi says that some Quranic verses point out to the four caliphs to come after the death of the Messenger of Allah, together with their order, and hints who they are by telling their most known features:

“Muhammad is the Prophet of God, and those who are with him are strong against unbelievers, [but] compassionate among each other. You will see them bow and prostrate themselves....” (surah-al-Fath)
Through telling of the elevated qualities and characteristics which were the reason for the
Companions being the most elevated of human kind after the prophets, the start of this verse describes through its explicit meaning the excellent qualities which would mark the class of the Companions. And through its implied meaning, the verse alludes to the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, who would succeed to the office of the Prophet (PBUH) after his death through the institution of the Caliphate, and gives news of the fine attributes which were what most distinguished each of them and marked them out. It is as follows:

“And those who are with him” alludes to Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, who was distinguished and famous for being among the Prophet’s special followers and party to his conversation, and again for entering among his special followers by being the first to die.

“While are strong against the unbelievers” points to Umar, who in the future would cause the countries of the globe to tremble at his conquests, and with his justice would descend on tyrants like a thunderbolt.

“And compassionate among each other” gives news of Uthman, who, in the future when the most serious dissension was being fomented, would sacrifice his own life and spirit out of perfect kindness and compassion so that the blood of Muslims should not be spilt, preferring to be martyred wrongfully while reading the Qur’an.

And so too, “You will see them bow and prostrate themselves [in prayer], seeking grace from God and [His] good pleasure” tells that with his complete worthiness to undertake the Caliphate and government, and his heroism, and his choosing perfect asceticism, worship, poverty, and frugality, and whose bowing and prostrating in prayer was corroborated by everyone, Ali (May God be pleased with him) was not responsible for his position in the future and the wars and strife in which he was involved, and that his intention and wish was for Divine favour.

The phrase, “This is their similitude in the Torah” makes predictions concerning the Unseen in two respects: It gives news of the qualities of the Companions mentioned in the Torah, which was as though the Unseen for an unlettered person like the Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace).

The sentence, “and their similitude in the Gospel is: like a seed which sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, [filling] the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the unbelievers with rage at them”, gives news of the Unseen in two respects:
The First is the prediction concerning the Companions in the Gospel, which was like the Unseen for the unlettered Prophet (PBUH).

At the start the Companions would appear to be few and weak, nevertheless they would burgeon like seeds, grow, thicken, and find strength. When they were about to be overwhelmed and smothered by the rage that this would cause the unbelievers, they would subjugate mankind with their swords and prove that the Prophet (PBUH), their leader, was the Ruler of the World. The verses express exactly the meaning of the above verses of Sura al-Fath.

Second Aspect: These sentences predict the following: the Companions certainly accepted the Pact of Hudaybiya out of their weakness and small number, but within a short time they so grew and acquired such strength and loftiness that, planted by the Hand of Power in the field of the face of the earth, they multiplied in most elevated, powerful, fruitful, and plentiful fashion. Especially in relation to the shoots of mankind at that time, which were short, weak, defective, and scant due to neglect and heedlessness. They would grow strong and cause glorious states to rage at them in envy, jealousy, and anger. Yes, the future verified this prediction in most brilliant fashion.

There is in this prediction the further following slight hint: it indicates through the word forgiveness that, although while praising the Companions’ excellent qualities they should have been promised the greatest rewards, in the future serious faults would arise among the Companions, due to strife. For forgiveness indicates the existence of faults. And at that time the thing most demanded by the Companions, the greatest bounty, would be forgiveness. (22)

The Hint about the Four Caliphs

In addition to this last verse of surah al-Fath which hints the caliphs to come after the Messenger of Allah, the verse “All who obey God and the Messenger are in the company of those on whom is the Grace of God, - of the prophets (who teach), the sincere (lovers of Truth), the witnesses (who testify), and the Righteous (who do good): Ah! What a beautiful fellowship!” (al-Nisa, 69) also indicates the same truth.

This verse describes the people of the Straight Path and the groups of the Prophets, the caravan of the Veracious, the community of the Martyrs, the class of the Righteous, and those who follow them, who are those among mankind who truly receive the Divine bounties, and furthermore, explicitly pointing out the most perfect of those five groups in the World of Islam, it then indicates the leaders and chiefs of those five groups through mentioning their well-known attributes. In addition, with a flash of miraculousness giving news of the Unseen, it specifies in one respect those chiefs’ positions in the future.

Yes, of the Prophets looks explicitly to the Prophet Muhammad (Upon whom be blessings and peace), and the phrase the Veracious looks to Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (the Veracious). It also indicates that he would be second after the Prophet (Upon whom be blessings and peace), and first to succeed to his place, and be known with the special title of ‘Siddiq,’ and be seen at the head of all the veracious.

Then the Witnesses [or Martyrs] mentions Umar, Uthman, and Ali (May God be pleased with all of them) together. It indicates indirectly that the three of them would succeed to the Caliphate of the Prophet after ‘al-Siddiq,’ that the three of them would be martyred, and the merits of martyrdom added to their other virtues.

The Righteous alludes to distinguished persons like the Companions of the Bench, and of Badr and Ridwan.

While the explicit meaning of “And how goodly a company are these!” encourages others to follow them, and its implicit meaning, through showing the generation that succeeded them to be honoured and illustrious, alludes to Hasan (May God be pleased with him), who as the fifth Caliph affirmed the Hadith “After me the Caliphate will last thirty years” (23) -in order to show its great value despite its brief duration. (24)

And the word “goodly” in the Quranic verse which is translated as “And how goodly a company are these!” is “hasune” in Arabic text. And in Arabic writing, Hassan and Hasune are written in the same way.

As it is seen, there are many sings and hints pointing out to the Unseen, stated either explicitly or implicitly in Quranic verses. They also hint in which order the four caliphs will be promoted to the caliphate.

Footnotes:

(1) Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli p. 177-178.
(2) ibid., p. 178.
(3) History of Islam, p. 172 ff.
(4) The Messenger of Allah declares Hazrat Omar’s piety by means of a dream. Sahihu'l-Bukhari, IV, 201.
(5) Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli p. 178.
(6) For hadiths about him, see Sahîhu'l-Buhârî IV, 196 (those who were given the news of deserving Heaven), IV, 202 ff.
(7) Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli p. 178.
(8) Sherhu'l-Akaid p. 322.
(9) Sahîhu'l-Bukhârî IV, 207 (This is explained in the hadith related to the war of Haybar) Moreover, while on war expedition of Tebuk, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) stated that his position with him was like that of Moses’ with Aaron.
(10) See. Al-Maidah 5/55; at-Taberi, Muhibbuddîn Ahmad b. Abdullah Zehairu'l-Ukba,
Cairo, 1357, p. 102 ff.
(11 Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli Ala Sherhi'l-Akaid p. 178.
(12) Sahîhu'l-Bukhârî IV, 195 (Fezai'l-Bab, 5).
(13) Sahîhu'l-Bukhârî IV, 196.
(14) Sahîhu'l-Bukhârî IV, 197; 204.
(15) Sahîhu'l-Bukhârî IV, 197.
(16) Sahîhu'l-Bukhârî IV, 203.
(17) For the word “adala”see al-Mu'jemu'l-Wasît p. 588; al-Mufredat p. 325.
(18) For the issue of that Companions are more virtuous than all ummah and that four caliphs are more virtuous than the others, see  al-Haytami, Ahmad b. Hajar, as-Sawaiku'l-Muhrika, s.
210, 213; Subulu's-Selam IV, 127 (witnesses/martyrs); Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli p.
(19) Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli , alâ Sherhi'l-Akâid s. 179.
(20) Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli 'ala Sherhu'l-Akâid s. 180.
(21) Bk. Şerhu'l-Akâid s. 325, Hashiyatu'l-Kestelli 'alâ Şerhi'l-Akâid, s. 180-181.

(22)See. Nursi, The Flashes, p. 29-32.
(23) Tirmidhi, Fiten, 48.
(24)See. Nursi, The Flashes, p. 33-34.

Prof. Dr. Murat Sarıcık

16 Will you give information about the Karbala incident?

When Hazrat Husayn was in Makkah, people came to visit him and asked him how he was. They were the people from places around Makkah that had come for umrah. Ibn Zubayr, who performed prayers and circumambulated the Kaaba all day was also there and visited him. 

Ibn Zubayr was the most important person for Hazrat Husayn then because when Husayn was in Makkah, people of Hejaz would not give an oath of allegiance to Ibn Zubayr.  

On the other hand, when it was heard in Kufa that after the death of Muawiyah, people began to give allegiance to Yazid, people of Kufa began to talk against Yazid. Shiites gathered in the house of Sulayman b. Surad, one of the notables of Shiites, and evaluated the situation. In the meeting there, they decided to write letters to Hazrat Husayn to invite him to come to Kufa for their allegiance to him. They sent about one hundred and fifty letters. When Hazrat Husayn received the letters, he wrote the following answer to the people of Kufe: 

«I see what you want to do. I am sending my brother, my uncle’s son, Muslim b. Aqil, one of my relatives that I trust to you now. I told him to write me a letter after arriving there about your situation and your thoughts. If all of the people and the notables agree on the thoughts that you have written to me, I will go there soon. I swear that the Caliph cannot be a person other than someone who acts in accordance with the Quran, who never abandons justice and who practices the true religion.»

Then, Husayn sent for Muslim b. Aqil and told him to go to Kufa. He told Muslim not to deviate from the way of Allah and to keep the issue secret. He told Muslim to inform him about the situation as soon as possible if the people of Kufa agreed on it. Muslim set off for Kufa. Numan b. Bashir was the governor of Kufa then. When Muslim arrived in Kufa, Shiites started to come and see him. When Numan was informed about it, he made a short speech on the pulpit in the mosque. Numan, who was actually a mild and kind person, spoke as follows: 

«O Muslims! Do not compete with one another for mischief and separation because they will cause the elimination of people, shedding blood and plundering goods. Know it very well that I will fight those who fight against me and attack those that attack me. I will not awake those who sleep. I will not punish anyone without any evidence. However, if you express your situation openly and cancel your allegiance and rebel your Caliph, I swear that I will cut your head with my sword. No one can save you from me. I hope those who can see the truth are more than those with wrong ideas among you. »

When Numan made that speech, one of the Umayyad followers stood up and said, «Only a brave person can prevent this chaos. Only weak people put forward ideas like yours. » Numan said to the man, «It is better for me to be a weak man in the way of Allah than a strong man who opposes Allah. » and walked down the pulpit.

Then, that man wrote a letter to Yazid informing him that Muslim b. Aqil had come there and that people started to give allegiance to him. He added the following:

«If you are not prepared to sacrifice Kufa, send Kufa a strong man who will fulfill your commands and who can take measures that you take against your enemies. Numan is a weak person. »

Thereupon, Yazid unseated Numan and appointed Ubaydullah b. Ziyad, who was the governor of Basra instead of him. Ubaydullah, who came to Kufa with order of Yazid to catch Muslim and execute or banish him, addressed the people of Kufa as follows: 

«The Caliph appointed me as the governor of your city and to collect the taxes. He ordered me to treat the oppressed ones well, to feed the poor, to treat those who obey the state well and to treat those who rebel and cause chaos harshly. I will carry out his orders and fulfill his requests here. I will act like a compassionate father for those who are good and like a brother for those who obey. I will use my sword and whip against those who do not accept my orders and who oppose me. Now you can do as you wish. » While walking down the pulpit, the governor threatened them saying, «You must write down the names of the strangers, Shiites, Kharijites, mischievous people and separatists and inform me about them. Those who give me the list of them will be safe. Those who do not must guarantee me that there will be no opposition or rebellion from among the people in their families. I am not responsible for the people who do not fulfill one of those two alternatives. It means their immunity of property and lives will be canceled. If a dissident of the Caliph is caught in the house of any of you, the owner of that house will be executed at the gate of his house. »

When Muslim heard about the speech Ibn Ziyad made, he took shelter in the house of Hani b. Urwa. The landlord and Muslim did it unwillingly. Shiites began to go to the house of Hani. When Ibn Ziyad found out that Muslim stayed there, he summoned Hani and recited the following poem when Hani arrived: «I want him to stay alive, but he wants to kill me. Whoever was let from murad can forgive you only. » Hani asked him, «What is the matter? » Ibn Ziyad said, «O Hani! What is planned in your house for the Caliph and Muslims? You admit Muslim into your house and collect arms and soldiers for him. Do you think it will remain as a secret? » Hani could not object to his words. Thereupon, Ibn Ziyad wanted him to surrender Muslim to him. However, Hani did not accept it because he was afraid that people would blame him. Having been arrested by the men of Ibn Ziyad, Hani was imprisoned in the palace of the governor. Having been informed about Hani, Muslim shouted, «Fa Mansur!», which was a password among them,  to his men.

The number of people who gave allegiance to Muslim until then was eighteen thousand; four thousand of them were around the house where Muslim stayed, keeping watch. People gathered around Muslim. After making a speech that provoked people, Muslim headed for the palace of the governor. The mosques and the streets were full of people. At that time, there were only thirty guards and about twenty people from the notables of Kufa and their slaves with the governor. He consulted the notables and called Kathir b. Shihab. He told Kathir to take action and drive people away from around Muslim. He told Muhammad b. Ash'as to go out with the man subject to him and declare people that those who joined them would be safe. He asked the same things from some other notables. He kept a few people with him. The notables fulfilled what the governor wanted. Those who stayed in the palace addressed the people and told them that those who were loyal to the state would be protected. They threatened the rebels. Thereupon, people began to disperse. They dispersed so fast that only thirty people remained in the mosque with Muslim. Muslim was appalled; he ran away and hid somewhere. However, the governor found out where he had hidden. He sent Muhammed b. Ash'as and fetched Muslim. When Muslim was caught, he said to Muhammad,

«I see that you cannot protect me now. However, can you send a messenger to Husayn and tell him on my behalf to return and not to trust the people of Kufa because he knew what they did to his father? »

Muhammad fulfilled the request of Muslim. Muslim, who was brought to the presence of the governor, was killed there. Then, Hani was killed, too.

On the other hand, Husayn, who was in Makkah, had decided to go to Kufa. Amr b. Abdurrahman b. Harith came to him and said,

«I hear that you are going to Iraq. I find it risky for you to go to a city where the governor, officials and treasures of the Caliph are. Today, people worship money. I fear that those who promise to help you will kill you. »

Husayn only thanked Amr. Then Ibn Abbas came. He said, «People say you are going to Iraq. Will you explain me what you are doing? » Husayn said, «I will set off in one or two days. » Ibn Abbas said, «May Allah not let you do such a thing. Tell me, are you going to a nation that killed their governor that owned their state and that discarded their enemies? If you think that they did not do something like that, then go. However, if they call you to a war, I fear that they will deceive you, they will give up and oppose you, that they will leave you alone and that they will rebel you and do the worst thing to you. »

Hazrat Husayn said, «I will think about it and see what will happen. » Ibn Abbas came again the next day and said,  

«O my uncle’s son! I force myself to show patience but I cannot be patient. If you do what you are thinking about, I fear that you will suffer a misfortune. Iraqi people are fickle people. Never approach them. Stay here. You are the master of Hejaz people. If Iraqis really want you as they wrote to you, write to them and tell them to discard their governor and your enemies, and then you can go. If you definitely want to go, go to Yemen. There are different groups in Yemen. Yemen is a large country. There are the followers of your father, there. You can settle somewhere there, write letters, send them to people, send your messengers and propagators. Then, the atmosphere that you want may appear. »

Hazrat Husayn did not agree with what Ibn Abbas said. Ibn Abbas added, «If you do not give up the thought of going there, I fear that you will be martyred in front of your women and children. The cautionary words of Ibn Abbas did not affect Husayn at all.

Then, he set off with his women and children. He met Farazdaq, the poet, on the way. He asked Farazdaq about the situation of the people in the place where he was coming from. Farazdaq said, «People’s hearts are with you but their swords support Umayyad. The destiny comes from the sky. Allah is doing what He wishes. »

In addition, on the way, he received a letter from Abdullah b. Jafar, who swore in the name of Allah and asked him to return; he also received a letter from Amr b. Said, the governor of Madinah, who asked him to return and declared that he would protect them. Having rejected the requests in both letters, Husayn continued to go. On the way, he met Abdullah b. Muti'. Abdullah reminded him the risky situation, swearing by Allah and said, «If you want to acquire the Caliphate that Umayyad have now, they will kill you and then there will be left no one that they will fear. Please, do not go there for the sake of Islam, Quraysh and Arabs. Do not go to Kufa; do not meet Umayyad! »

However, Hazrat Husayn did not agree on any idea except continuing. When they reached Sa'labiya, they heard that Muslim b. Aqil had been killed. Some people around him said, «Return now for the sake of Allah. You have no helpers and followers in Kufa. We even fear that they will be against you. » Muslim’s children leapt forward and said, «We will take our father’s revenge or will be martyred like our father. We shall never return. »

They continued until they reached Aqaba. There, an Arab that they met said, «Return for the sake of Allah. You are going toward the swords and spears. If those that called you had prevented the war and arranged the things before you arrived, I would not have said anything to you. However, now, there is only one thing to do: to return. »

As soon as Hazrat Husayn and those with him left Shiraf, they met a troop of about one thousand cavalrymen led by Hurr b. Yazid. Husayn said to them,

«O people! Allah knows and you also know that I came here because of the letters and messengers you sent to me. You wrote to me that you did not have a Caliph and that your situation would be improved with my coming. If you intend to keep your promise, I will enter your city. Otherwise, if you do not keep your promise and feel disturbed by my coming, I will return to the place where I have come from. »

When nobody answered, Hurr spoke, «we were ordered to catch you as soon as we met you and take you to Ubaydullah b. Ziyad in Kufa.» Hazrat Husayn murmured, «Death is better than this situation» and told his men to mount and that they would return. However, Hurr did not let them go. When Husayn shouted to Hurr, «May your mother lose you! What do you want? », Hurr answered, «If anyone other than you had said it, I would have answered him back in the same way. However, I cannot mention your mother’s name using bad words. I can mention her name only in the best way. »

Then, he started to follow Husayn in order to prevent him from returning to Madinah. Husayn headed toward the north and reached Ninawa. There, he met another troop led by Umar b. Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas that Ibn Ziyad had sent to fight him. Umar sent a messenger to Husayn and asked him why he had come there. Husayn said, «Your citizens sent me letters to go to them. That is why I came. If they do not want me now, I will return. » When Ziyad received a letter from Umar informing him about the situation, Ibn Ziyad recited the following poem, «Does he want to be saved from us now, when we have reached out our claws? It is not the time for being saved now. » He sent Umar a letter and ordered him to take allegiance from Husayn for Yazid. He wrote, «If Husayn accepts this offer, the issue is over. Otherwise, surround them and cut their connection with the only water source there, leaving them without water. » Hazrat Husayn said that he would return to the place where he had come from if they let them. The narrations that he accepted to swear allegiance to Yazid are not true. Although Hazrat Husayn told them that he wanted to return to Madinah, they did not accept it and asked him to consent to the judgment that Ibn Ziyad would give about them. It was something that Husayn could not accept under any conditions. There was nothing left but to fight.  

On Muharram 10 of the Hegirah year 61 (10 October 680) they started to fight. The Iraqi army, in which there was not even one Syrian, fought against a small group that consisted of at most eighty people. Soon, Husayn and his men were martyred. Seventy people died from Husayn’s men. Eighty people died from Umar’s army.   

They took the head of Husayn, his daughters, siblings and little son Ali, who was ill, to Ibn Ziyad. Ibn Ziyad sent them to Yazid. When they arrived in Damascus and Yazid was informed about what had happened, he started to cry and said,

«I asked you to make Husayn swear allegiance to me without killing him. May Allah damn Ibn Sumayya (Ziyad). If I had met Husayn, I would have forgiven him. Do you know why these things happened? Husayn said, 'My father is superior to his father; my mother is superior to his mother, my grandfather is superior to his grandfather. I am superior to him. I deserve Caliphate more than him.' Allah knows whose father is superior. Both of them went to the presence of Allah. Besides, people know whom the arbitrators regarded superior. 

Doubtlessly, his mother Fatima, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah, is superior to my mother. His grandfather is superior to my grandfather. A person who has belief in Allah cannot think that there is anyone similar to him. However, Husayn uttered the last word based on his own ijtihad. He did not read this verse:  'Say: "O Allah! Lord of Power (and Rule) Thou givest Power to whom Thou pleasest and Thou strippest off power from whom Thou pleasest”'(Aal-i-Imran, 26). »

Then, he ordered the women of Husayn to be taken to his home. All women from Yazid’s family came one by one to pay their condolences to them. They paid the equivalents of the property and jewels that were lost to them.  Yazid called Ali b. Husayn and arranged the necessary things for them to go to Madinah and told him to write to him if they needed anything in Madinah. Thus, that deplorable event ended leaving scars that could not be covered.

17 Prophecy fulfilled?

We will try to explain the expressions in the question in two categories: The first one is what Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), said to our Mother Fatima and the second is that the Prophet’s knowing the Ghaib (the unknown).
1- What the Prophet said to Fatima
Fatima was the only living daughter of the Prophet. She was the sole daughter with whom the Prophet satisfied the love of offspring.
Fatimatu'z-Zahra was the most similar one to the Prophet among his offspring in high ethics, and in manners.
On the last day of his illness, the Prophet summoned Fatima, his beloved daughter, who is a symbol of high ethics and refinement.
When Fatima came, he made her sit on his right side. He secretly said something to her.
Suddenly an air of sadness settled on Fatima. Then tears rolled down her eyes.
The Prophet said something else secretly to the distinguished daughter of his. This time, Fatima, who burst into tears a while ago, smiled and rejoiced.
The Prophet's wife, our Mother Aisha, who was present at that time, asked her the reason for this. Fatima said:
“Firstly, he said to me that he would leave this world and me very soon. Therefore, I cried.
After that, he said “In my family you will be the first to reach me”, which made me rejoice.” 1
Reference: Salih Suruç, Peygamberimiz'in Hayatı (The Life of Our Prophet)
2- Ghaib means the unknown. The verse which says that no one except Allah can know the Ghaib reminds us this truth.
In Surah the Jinn (Al-Jinn), in the 26th verse, it is expressed that Allah alone is the Knower of the unknown (what lies beyond human sense-perception). However, in the following verse, we are informed that He discloses this unknown (information about the future and the past) to His servants with whom He is well-pleased. Therefore, if Allah informs them, the beloved servants of Allah (awliya) can also know the unknown.
Thus, the expression “Allah alone knows the unknown” should be understood as “If Allah does not inform, no one can know the unknown.” Indeed, the Prophet informed certain events that would occur after him and that had occurred before him with the permission and will of Allah.
Allah may inform one of His beloved servants (prophet or awliya) of the unknown, as He wills. Then, those esteemed people can inform us about an event before it happens. In other words,  before an event takes place, Allah may also inform people of it. This is also an evidence for the free will of Allah. If we claimed that prophets and awliya could not know of the unknown by saying that no one but Allah knows it, we would then be both marring the health of the verse and accepting a view in advance, which put limits to the will of Allah. This is against our beliefs.
Revelation comes only to prophets. Inspiration (Allah's inspiring truthful meanings into hearts), though, can be experienced by any of the awliya (those loved by Allah).
“He, my Lord knows all the unknown. He knows both the relative and the absolute unknown.”
1. Tabaqât, 2:247; Bukharî, 3:92; Muslim, 4:1904.

18 Will you give information about the First Pledge of Aqaba and the names of the Companions that took part in it?

Asad b. Zurara met the Prophet (pbuh) for the first time in the 11th year of the prophethood during the season of hajj. He and five people of Khazraj met the Prophet (pbuh) at Aqaba. When the Prophet (pbuh) found out who they were, he said he wanted to talk to them a bit. They agreed and sat down.

Hz. Prophet (pbuh) introduced himself to them. Then, he read some verses of the Quran (Ibrahim, 14/35, 52). They realized immediately that he was the Prophet that was expected. They said to one another, "By Allah, he is the prophet that Jews intimidate us with. Jews should not believe in him and follow him before us." Thus, they accepted Islam.

The people that became Muslims with Asad bin Zurara are as follows:

- Rafi b. Malik b. Ajlan,
- Awf b. Harith b. Rifa'a,
- Qutba b. Amir b. Hadida,
- Uqba b. Amir b. Nabi,
- Jabir b. Abdullah b. Ri'ab.

They were aware of the importance of Islam for the people of Madinah. They told it to the Prophet (pbuh) as follows: "We have outstripped both our tribe and a tribe (Jews) other than our tribe who have enmity and evil between them. We hope Allah will bring them together thanks to you."

They promised to meet the Prophet (pbuh) again next year and try to spread Islam in Madinah.

Will you please click on the link given below;

How did the first and second Pledges of Aqaba known as Pledges of Aqaba in the history of Islam take place? What happened in this process?

19 Will you give information about the people killed with Hz. Husayn in Karbala?

It is reported that Muhammad b. Hanafiya said,

"Along with Husayn, seventeen males were killed. They were all children of Fatima."

According to a narration, Hasan al-Basri said,

"Along with Husayn, sixteen males were killed. They were all from his family; there were no people like them on the earth on that day."

Other said,

"Along with Husayn, twenty-three males, among whom were his children, brothers and family, were killed.

The following children of Hz. Ali were killed: Jafar, Husayn, Abbas, Muhammad, Uthman and Abu Bakr.

The following children of Hz. Husayn were killed: Aliyyul-Akbar, Ab­dullah.

The following children of Hz. Husayn's brother Hz. Hasan were killed: Abdullah, Qasim and Abu Bakr.

The following children of Abu Bakr Abdullah b. Jafar were killed: Awn and Muhammad.

The following children of Uqayl were killed: Jafar, Abdullah and Abdurrahman."

Uqayl's child Muslim had been killed in Kufa beforehand. They were Uqayl's children. Two of his grandchildren had also been killed: Abdullah b. Muslim b. Uqayl and Muham­mad b. Abi Said b. Uqayl. Thus, the number of Uqayl's offspring that were killed was six. A poet wrote the following about them:

"Cry for Ali's nine children that were killed and Uqayl's six children that were killed.

The Prophet said they would be killed in Ghawdar. The enemy attacked with bright and sharp swords."

Among those who were killed along with Hz. Husayn in Karbala was his foster brother Abdullah b. Baqtar. According to another narration, he had been killed beforehand. When Hz. Husayn sent him to the people of Kufa with a letter, Ibn Ziyad attacked and killed him.

Seventy-two of Hz. Husayn's men were killed. The people of Ghadiriyya buried them the next day. They were from the tribe of Banu Asad.

(see Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa'n-Nihaya, Çağrı Publications: 8/286-327)

20 Will you give information about the life and caliphate of Hz. Hasan, the grandson of the Prophet?

Al-Hasan b. Ali b. Abi Talib al-Hashimi al-Qurashi is the oldest son of Hz. Ali and Hz. Fatima; he is one of the beloved grandsons of the Prophet (pbuh) and his “Rayhana” (pleasant-smelling plant). He is regarded as the fifth of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs. He is the second of the twelve imams according to Imamiyya.

He was born in Madinah in the middle of the month of Ramadan in the third year of the Migration. There are also some narrations stating that he was born in the month of Shaban in the fourth or fifth year of the Migration but the soundest one is that he was born in the third year of the Migration. (Ibnul-Athir, Usdul-Ghaba, II, 10; Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Tahdhibut-Tahdhib, Hyderabad 1325, II, 296). When Hz. Hasan was born and Hz. Prophet (pbuh) heard that he had a grandchild, he went to Hz. Ali's house at once and said, "Bring me my son. What did you name him?" When he heard that they named him"Harb", he did not like this name. He gave the child the name "Hasan", which was not known during the Era of Jahiliyya. He also gave the child the nickname "Abu Muhammad". Then, he read a supplication and called adhan into his ear. (Ibnul-Jawzi, Abul-Faraj, Sifatus-Saffa, Aleppo (nd), I, 759; Usdul-Ghaba, II, 10; Tahdhibut-Tahdhib, II, 296). When Hz. Hasan became seven days old, the Messenger of Allah ordered an animal to be sacrificed (aqiqa), his hair to be cut and silver as much as the weight of hair to be given to the poor. (adh-Dhahabi, Siyar A'lamin-Nubala, Beirut 1406/1986, III, 246)

Hz. Hasan was educated and trained by Hz. Prophet. The narrations in many Islamic books including sound hadith books stating that the Prophet (pbuh) took care of his grandson so much and that he loved him so much show this fact. The hadiths stating that he took care of his grandson all the time, that he was almost always with him, that he climbed up his back in prayers and that the Prophet lengthened the prostration so as not to hurt him express the love between the grandfather, who received revelation, and his "rayhana".(Ahmad b. Hanbal, III, 493, 494; Nasai, Tatbiq, 82). When the Prophet (pbuh) was in ruku’, his grandson would pass through his legs. (al-Haysami, Majmauz-Zawaid, Beirut 1967, IX, 175; Tahdhibut-Tahdhib, II, 296) The Prophet did not react to this. He sometimes put him down slowly when he was on his back in prostration. Once, the Prophet was reciting a sermon on the pulpit when he saw Hasan and Husayn enter the mosque slithering, wearing long red clothes. He stopped the sermon, went down, held them and hugged them. He said, God Almighty said, "Your possessions and your progeny are but a trial.' (at-Taghabun, 64/15) It is so true. I could not stand seeing them on the ground." This incident is narrated in hadith books. (Ahmad b. Hanbal, V, 254; Abu Dawud, Salat, 233; Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 31; Ibn Majah, Libas, 20; Nasai, Salatul-Ideyn, 27; Dhahabi, ibid, III, 256).

Many hadiths stating that Hz. Prophet (pbuh) went to the mosque with his two grandsons on his shoulders (Ahmad b. Hanbal, III, 493) and that he walked outside with Hz. Hasan on his shoulders (Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 31) show that the Prophet (pbuh) took care of his grandsons and tried to meet their needs. That he got up and brought water to Hasan when he asked for water in bed during his visit to his daughter Hz. Fatima and gave water to Hasan and his brother (Ahmad b. Hanbal, I, 101; Tayalisi, II,129-130) and his similar acts are signs of the compassion and mercy of the grandfather. That Hz. Prophet loved his two grandsons and prayed for them by saying "O Allah! I love them; You love them too" (Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 31) showed this love and care with the expression of his tongue. (Bukhari, Adab, 18; Muslim, Fadailus-Sahaba, 56-60)

On the other hand, Hz. Prophet kissed his grandsons (Ahmad b. Hanbal, IV, 93 ; Tabarani, hadith no: 2658) and said that both of his grandsons were the masters of the youths of Paradise. (Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 31; Ahmad b. Hanbal, III, 3; al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikhu Baghdad, Beirut (nd), I,140) Furthermore, the supplications of the Prophet that he wanted Allah to love those who loved his grandsons are included among narrations. (Ahmad b. Hanbal, II, 249, 331; Tahdhibut-Tahdhib, II, 297 ff)

Hz. Hasan looked like his grandfather, the Prophet, physically.  (Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 31). Once, Hz. Abu Bakr was walking with Hz. Ali after the afternoon prayer; they saw Hz. Hasan playing with other children. Hz. Abu Bakr placed him on his shoulder and recited a line:  "May my father be sacrificed for you! O the boy who looks like the Prophet but who does not like Ali." (Bukhari, Fadailul-Ashab, 22) Hz. Ali smiled when he heard this.

Hz. Hasan was eight years old when Hz. Prophet died. Since he was very young then, the number of the hadiths he directly reported from his grandfather is very few. One of them narrated by Abul Hawra is the following,:

"I asked Hz. Hasan‘What hadith do you remember from Hz. Prophet?’ He narrated me the following incident:

‘I remember this incident: I took a date from the dates of zakah and put it in my mouth. Hz. Prophet removed it from my mouth along with the saliva accompanying it. The people who were there asked, ‘O Messenger of Allah! Why did you remove the single date this boy put in his mouth?" He said, ‘Sadaqah (zakah) is not halal for the family of Muhammad.’

Another hadith I remember is ‘Leave the things that do not interest you and take care of the things that interest you.’

My grandfather taught me the following prayer:

"O Allah! Guide me among those whom You have guided, give health to me among those You have given health, turn to me in friendship among those on whom You have turned in friendship. Bless me in what You have bestowed, and save me from the evil of what You have decreed. For, verily he is not humiliated whom You have befriended."(Ahmad b. Hanbal, I, 200; Abu Dawud, Salat, 340; Tirmidhi, Abwabus-Salât, 341 Nasai, Qiyamul-Layl, 50; Usdul-Ghaba, II, I1).

However, apart from those hadiths, there are many hadiths that Hz. Hasan narrated from his father Hz. Ali and from many Companions.

Hz. Aisha, his son Ali b. Husayn, his two sons Abdullah and al-Baqir, Ikrima, Ibn Sirin, Jubayr b. Nafir, Abul Hawra, Rabia b. Shayban, Abu Mijlaz, Hubayra b. Barim, Shayban b. al-Layl, Sha'bi, Shaqiq b. Salama, al-Musabbib b. Nuhba, Ishaq b. Bashshar and other narrators reported hadiths from Hz. Hasan. (Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, al-Isaba fi Tamyizis-Sahaba, Egypt 1358/ 1939, I, 327-330; Ibnul-Athir Usdul-Ghaba, II, 10; Tahdhibut-Tahdhib, II, 295-296).

Both tabaqat and hadith books include narrations about Hz. Hasan's childhood like the ones above but they do not include much information about the period of his life between the martyrdom of Hz. Ali and his caliphate. One of the few issues that is known about him is the information that when Hz. Umar established the institution of diwan, he allocated a share of five thousand dirhams to Hz. Hasan and Hz. Husayn by adding them to the share of their father. (Dhahabi, ibid, III, 259) Another incident is that Hz Hasan was among the people who defended Hz. Uthman against the people who rebelled against Hz. Uthman. (Dhahabi, ibid, III, 260)

Hz. Hasan appeared as a historical personality after Hz. Ali was martyred and after he was chosen as the caliph when the people of Kufa pay allegiance to him. (h. 40/660)

It is said that the first person who paid allegiance to Hz. Hasan (ra) when he was chosen as the caliph was Qays b. Sa'd. Hz. Ali had appointed him as the commander of the army that was sent to Azerbaijan and that was formed by Iraqis. He was also the commander of another army that was formed by Arabs and that consisted of forty thousand people. This army vowed that they would defend Hz. Ali until they died. Qays, who was one of the commanders that Hz. Ali had the greatest trust in, asked Hz. Hasan to give his hand and told Hasan that he would pay allegiance to him based on the Book of Allah and Sunnah His Messenger, and fighting the rebels.  Hz. Hasan objected to his words. He said that he couldpay allegiance to him based on the Book of Allah and Sunnah His Messenger and that they contained all of the conditions that he mentioned and did not.Thereupon, Qays paid allegiance without saying anything. After him, the other Iraqis paid allegiance. (Tabari, Tarikhur-Rusul wal-Muluk, Darul-Maarif 1963, IV, 158)

After the allegiance, Hz. Hasan delivered a long sermon in the mosque. Then, he summoned Abdurrahman b. Muljam, the murderer of his father. After questioning him, Hz. Hasan decreed death penalty for him. (Ya'qubi, Ahmad b. Abi Ya'qub, Tarikhu Ya'qubi, Beirut, nd. II, 214)

The people of Iraq reminded the caliph the murder of his father and encouraged him to attack Damascus in order to fight Muawiya b. Abi Sufyan, who was there. Hz. Hasan accepted their offer, prepared an army and set off in order to fight.  (Zirikli, ibid, II, 214); (For a different view, see Ibn Hibban, as-Siratun-Nabawiyya, Beirut 1407/ 1987, p. 554) Hz. Hasan was about 37 years old then. He reached Madain with his army of twelve thousand people. He appointed Qays b. Sa'd, who had paid allegiance to him first, as the commander of the army. According to another narration, he appointed Ubaydullah b. Abbas as the commander and Qays as his deputy and ordered Qays to obey all orders of the commander. (Ya’qubi, II, 214)

When Hz. Muawiya, who was one of the four geniuses of Arabs, heard that Hz. Hasan set off in order to fight him, he left Damascus and settled in Masikan, one of the towns of al-Anbar. (Tabari, V, 159) Only eighteen days after Hz. Ali was martyred, two armies confronted because of political concerns. (Ya’qubi, II, 214)

Muawiya analyzed the situation and resorted to various things in order to obtain a favorable result. His biggest trump was the inexperience of his enemy (Hz. Hasan) and his having a soft heart that did not like violence, fearing mischief, loving Muslims a lot and not wanting the blood of even only one Muslim to be shed. Therefore, the first thing Muawiya did was to cause a disorder among the army of Hz. Hasan under the command of Qays b. Sa'd. (Tahdhibut-Tahdhib, II, 299) A few people in the army of Hz. Hasan started to shout, "Qays b. Sa'd was killed!" According to another source, they said that Qays made an agreement with Muawiya and joined him, that Hz. Hasan offered Muawiya to make peace and that Muawiya accepted it. Thus, they spread rumors in the army. (Ya’qubi, p. 214-215) A disorder started in the army of Hz. Hasan. A big panic broke out. Then, this panic was transformed into plundering. The soldiers started to plunder everything. They even plundered the tent of Hz. Hasan including the mattress on the ground. This plundering spread everywhere. After this plundering, the army scattered. (al-Isaba, I. 327-328; Tabari, V.158-159)

A person called al-Jarrah b. Sinan al-Asadi wanted to benefit from this chaos and attacked Hz. Hasan, who wanted to leave the town at night. He stabbed Hz. Hasan on the calf. However, he defended himself and killed the attacker. (Ya’qubi, II, 228; al-Isaba, I, 327-328). After that, Hz. Hasan had nothing to do but to return to "al-Maqsuratul-Bayda" in Madain. At that time the governor of Madain was Sa'd b. Mas'ud. Al-Muhtar b. Abi Ubayd, who appointed this very young governor, made him an offer. He said he would make him a very rich and honorable person if he tied    Hz. Hasan and took him to Muawiya. The young governor rejected this offer and said, "May Allah damn you! You want me to grab and tie the son of the daughter of the Messenger of Allah? What a disgusting person you are!" (Tabari, V, 159-160)

Hz. Hasan analyzed the situation. He realized that he had an army that he could not trust and a powerful enemy. Besides, he was a person that hated mischief and shedding blood. Therefore, he could not find any solution but to waive the caliphate and leave it to Muawiya for the safety of himself and the ummah of Islam.  He started to find a way to make a treaty and a solution that both parties would agree. He called Amr b. Salama al-Arhabi and sent him to Muawiya with a letter that included an offer to make a treaty. (al-Isaba, I, 327-330) Muawiya accepted this offer, which he received and which he was expecting. He sent Abdullah b. Amir al-Kurayz and Abdurrahman b. Samura as messengers to Hz. Hasan. These two messengers arrived in Madain and said to Hz. Hasan that they would accept what he wanted and that they would undertake the responsibility of this treaty. (Ibn Hajar, Fathul-Bari fi Sharhi Sahihil-Bukhari, Egypt, 1959, VI. 235, Bukhari narration)

Meanwhile, Hz. Husayn was informed about the situation and opposed to the offer of making a treaty. He told his brother not to make this treaty because it would approve the rightness of Muawiya and deny the cause of Hz. Ali. Hz. Hasan silenced him and insisted on making a treaty by telling Hasan that he knew administration better than him. (Tabari, V. 160)

Meanwhile, Ubaydullah b. Abbas, one of the commanders of the army, understood that Hz. Hasan would leave the caliphate to Muawiya; he sent a letter to Muawiya to join him. He said he would surrender if his wealth was not touched and if he was not killed. Muawiya accepted his offer. Ubaydullah left his army and joined Muawiyah.  Then, Hz. Hasan's army paid allegiance to Qays b. Sa'd and vowed that they would fight Muawiya to the last drop of blood in order to protect the blood and wealth of followers of Hz. Ali. According to another view, Qays was already their commander; so it can be understood as renewing their allegiance. (Ibnul-Athir, al-Kamil fit-Tarikh, Beirut 1385/1965, III, 408)

Finally, the messengers of Muawiya made a treaty with Hz. Hasan. According to this treaty, Hz. Hasan would leave the caliphate to Muawiya on the condition that Hz. Hasan would be the caliph if Muawiya died first. In addition, five million dirhams would be given to Hz. Hasan. Muawiya would stop the custom of cursing Hz. Ali and his followers in the sermon. (Tabari, V, 158-159) They accepted these terms. When Muawiya's messengers, who accepted the treaty, left Hz. Hasan, they said, "Thanks to the grandson of the Messenger of Allah, shedding blood was prevented, mischief ended and peace was made." (Ya’qubi, II, 214-215)

Hz. Hasan, whose wounds got worse, stood up and delivered a long sermon to the people of Iraq. He reminded them that Allah made people find the right path through the Prophet (pbuh), his grandfather, and prevented blood from being shed through himself. He said that he had made a treaty with Muawiya. He asked them to pay allegiance to Muawiya.(Ya’qubi, II, 215) He also told them that he left them because they killed his father, attacked him and plundered his wealth. (Tabari, V. 158)

In accordance with the treaty, Muawiya went to Madain. He entered Kufa with Hz. Hasan. Hz. Hasan handed Kufa over to Muawiya at the end of the month of Rabi’ulawwal in 4 H. Thus, the following hadith of the Prophet (pbuh) became apparent:   

"There is no doubt that this son of mine is a chief, and Allah may make peace between two groups of Muslims through him." (Bukhari, Fitan, 20, Sulh, 9; Abu Dawud, Sunnah, 12...)

When Hz. Hasan entered into the presence of Muawiya, Muawiya said to him, "I will reward you in a way that I have never rewarded before and I will never reward in the future." Then, he gave Hz. Hasan 400.000 dirhams. (al-Isaba, I, 327-328) He also allocated one million dirhams to him every year. However, he limited most of it later and gave him very little money.

Imam Sha'bi, who witnessed this treaty between Hz. Hasan and Hz. Muawiya, narrates the incident as follows:

"Muawiya said,

'Stand up and tell people that you left and handed the caliphate over to me.'

Hasan stood up and spoke as follows after praising Allah:

'The cleverest one among the clever ones is the one who has taqwa; the most stupid one among the stupid ones is the one who is fajir (sinner). This issue, which is a disagreement between Muawiya and me is the right of somebody who deserves it more than me or my right. I left the caliphate to him so that the ummah will be in peace, the unity will not be broken and blood will not be shed.' Then, heread the following verse:  ‘I know not but that it may be a trial for you, and a grant of (worldly) livelihood (to you) for a time.' (al-Anbiya, 21 / I 11)

Thus, he finished his sermon." (Hilya, 11, 37)

There are different narrations in the resources about how long Hz. Hasan served as a caliph but the strongest view is 6 months 5 days. (Zirikli, II, 214-215)

After this handover ceremony, Hz. Hasan sent a letter to Qays b. Sa'd, the commander of his army, and asked him to work under the command of Muawiya. Qays consulted his army regarding the issue. He asked them if they wanted to obey an imam who is in deviation or fight without an imam. When he received the answer from them that "they preferred obeying an imam even if he is in deviation", he paid allegiance to Muawiya and worked under his command. (Tabari, V, 160)

According to Ya'qubi, Muawiya sent Qays b. Sa'd one million dirhams and some goods before the treaty and asked him to give up his cause and to join him. Sa'd did not fall into this trap by saying, "You are trying to deceive me about something related to my religion." (Ya’qubi, II, 215) According to another resource, when Hz. Hasan made a treaty with Muawiya, Muawiya wrote a letter to Qays and asked him to obey him. He also sent him a sealed and signed blank sheet of paper and told him to write anything he wanted on it; he said what he had written would be given to him.  Qays, who felt desperate, accepted to be under the command of Muawiya based on the safety of his life and wealth. (Ibnul-Athir, al-Kamil, III, 408. For the other view, see Tabari, V, 158-159)

After leaving the caliphate to Muawiya, Hz. Hasan set off toward Madinah and spent his remaining life (ten years) there. The people of Kufa started to cry when he was leaving but he told them that it was impossible to trust in them. He also reminded them about what they had done to Hz. Ali, telling them that their end would not be good and that he pitied them.

On the way, somebody insulted Hz. Hasan by shouting, "O black sheep of Muslims!" Hz. Hasan tried to remind him that Sons of Umayyad were destined to attain this rank by reporting a hadith from the Prophet (pbuh) (Ibnul-Athir, al-Kamil, III, 407) When another person shouted "O shame of the leader of the believers", he said to him, "Shame is better than fire." (al-Isaba, I, 327-330)

Hz. Hasan, who lived in Madinah for ten years (Dhahabi, ibid, III, 264), sent somebody to Hz. Aisha when his death approached to ask her to give permission to him to be buried near the Prophet (pbuh). Hz. Aisha accepted it. Thereupon, he told his will to his brother as follows:

"When I die, ask permission from Aisha to bury me near the Prophet. I received this permission from her. She did not object. Maybe she felt shy. If she allows, bury me there. I do not think Sons of Umayyad will object to it. However, if they do, do not discuss with them. Bury me in the cemetery of Baqi."

Hz. Hasan was ill for forty days. He died on 5 Rabiulawwal 50 H (2 April, 670). (Sifatus-Safwa, I, 762). (Some scholars say his year of death was 49, 50, 51, even 54 H. (al-Isaba, I, 330) It is said that he was poisoned. It is also narrated that the one who poisoned him was his wife Ja'da bint al-Ash'as b. Qays. When he was ill, his brother asked him who had poisoned him but he avoided answering him. He said he had been poisoned three times before and that he managed to get rid of them. He said to his brother that this poison was different and that he would probably die. (Ibnul-Athir, Usdul-Ghaba, II, 15).

When he died, Hz. Husayn went to Hz. Aisha and talked to her. Hz. Aisha said about Hz. Hasan's will, "I will gladly accept it." (According to Ya'qubi, Hz. Aisha opposed to it severely. (Ya’qubi, II. 225) However, nobody except Ya’qubi puts forward this claim. When Marwan and Sons of Umayyad were informed about it, they said, "By Allah! He can never be buried near the Prophet (pbuh)." Hz. Husayn was informed about it. He and the people near him took their weapons. Hz. Abu Hurayra saw the graveness of the situation and first said it would be cruelty to prevent Hz. Hasan from being buried there. Then, he went to Hz. Husayn and talked to him in order to dissuade him. He reminded Hz. Husayn about his brother’s will and that he said, "If you fear that mischief will occur, bury me in the cemetery of Baqi." Hz. Husayn feared that mischief would occur and buried his brother in the cemetery of Baqi, where many Companions were buried.

Nobody except Said b. al-Ass, who was the governor of Madinah, from Sons of Umayyad took part in the janazah prayer of Hz. Hasan. Hz. Husayn offered the governor to lead the janazah prayer. The governor accepted it and led the prayer. There were so many people in his janazah prayer that the place burst at seams. (Ibnul-Athir, Usdul-Ghaba, II. 15). When Hz. Hasan died, he was 47 years old. (Tahdhibut-Tahdhib, II, 301)

Hz. Hasan was very generous. He took after the Prophet (pbuh) physically and ethically.  He was very pious. It is known that he made hajj fifteen times by walking from Madinah to Makkah.

He liked charity a lot. He distributed all of his wealth to the poor twice; he did "qasama" with Allah three times. That is, if he had two pairs of shoes, he gave away one pair. It is written in resources that he gave one handful of his food to the poor and left one handful to himself, and that he distributed his things to the poor like that in a just way. He had several aphorisms about high ethics and treating food to others. For instance, when he was asked what the ethics of the Prophet was, he summarized it as follows: Telling the truth, giving to someone who wants, high ethics, visiting relatives, feeling ashamed about neighbors, observing the rights of friends, entertaining visitors and last but not least modesty (chastity). (Hilya, II, 37-38; Usdul-Ghaba, II. 13; Ya’qubi, II. 225 ff)

Hz. Hasan was famous for marrying and divorcing a lot. Once, Hz. Ali, his father, told the people of Kufa clearly not to give their daughters to Hasan fearing that the tribes of the women that married to him and were divorced would be enemies to his family. However, somebody stood up and said they would continue giving him their daughters by vowing. Then, he said, “We will give him our daughters; and he may retain whomever he wishes and may divorce whomever he dislikes." (Dhahabi, ibid, III, 267)

He had ten or twelve sons: 1. Hasan b. Hasan (his mother is Hawli bint Manzur al-Fazariyya), 2. Zayd (his mother is Umm Bashir bint Abi Mas'ud al-Ansari al-Khazraji), 3. Umar, 4. Qasim, 5. Abu Bakr, 6. Abdurrahman (their mothers are slaves) 7.Talha, 8. Ubaydullah. (Ya’qubi, II, 228). There are also narrations that she had one daughter. (Zirikli, II, 215)

The descendants of Hz. Prophet (pbuh) continued through his grandsons, Hz. Hasan and Hz. Husayn. Those who came from the descendants of Hz. Husayn are called "sayyid" and of Hz. Hasan are called "sharif" or "amir" by people.

21 Will you give information about the incident of Karbala?

When Hazrat Husayn was in Makkah, people came to visit him and asked him how he was. They were the people from places around Makkah that had come for umrah. Ibn Zubayr, who performed prayers and circumambulated the Kaaba all day was also there and visited him.

Ibn Zubayr was the most important person for Hazrat Husayn then because when Husayn was in Makkah, people of Hejaz would not give an oath of allegiance to Ibn Zubayr.

On the other hand, when it was heard in Kufa that after the death of Muawiyah, people began to give allegiance to Yazid, people of Kufa began to talk against Yazid. Shiites gathered in the house of Sulayman b. Surad, one of the notables of Shiites, and evaluated the situation. In the meeting there, they decided to write letters to Hazrat Husayn to invite him to come to Kufa for their allegiance to him. They sent about one hundred and fifty letters. When Hazrat Husayn received the letters, he wrote the following answer to the people of Kufe:

«I see what you want to do. I am sending my brother, my uncle’s son, Muslim b. Aqil, one of my relatives that I trust to you now. I told him to write me a letter after arriving there about your situation and your thoughts. If all of the people and the notables agree on the thoughts that you have written to me, I will go there soon. I swear that the Caliph cannot be a person other than someone who acts in accordance with the Quran, who never abandons justice and who practices the true religion.»

Then, Husayn sent for Muslim b. Aqil and told him to go to Kufa. He told Muslim not to deviate from the way of Allah and to keep the issue secret. He told Muslim to inform him about the situation as soon as possible if the people of Kufa agreed on it. Muslim set off for Kufa. Numan b. Bashir was the governor of Kufa then. When Muslim arrived in Kufa, Shiites started to come and see him. When Numan was informed about it, he made a short speech on the pulpit in the mosque. Numan, who was actually a mild and kind person, spoke as follows:

«O Muslims! Do not compete with one another for mischief and separation because they will cause the elimination of people, shedding blood and plundering goods. Know it very well that I will fight those who fight against me and attack those that attack me. I will not awake those who sleep. I will not punish anyone without any evidence. However, if you express your situation openly and cancel your allegiance and rebel your Caliph, I swear that I will cut your head with my sword. No one can save you from me. I hope those who can see the truth are more than those with wrong ideas among you.»

When Numan made that speech, one of the Umayyad followers stood up and said, «Only a brave person can prevent this chaos. Only weak people put forward ideas like yours. » Numan said to the man, «It is better for me to be a weak man in the way of Allah than a strong man who opposes Allah.» and walked down the pulpit.

Then, that man wrote a letter to Yazid informing him that Muslim b. Aqil had come there and that people started to give allegiance to him. He added the following:

«If you are not prepared to sacrifice Kufa, send Kufa a strong man who will fulfill your commands and who can take measures that you take against your enemies. Numan is a weak person.»

Thereupon, Yazid unseated Numan and appointed Ubaydullah b. Ziyad, who was the governor of Basra instead of him. Ubaydullah, who came to Kufa with order of Yazid to catch Muslim and execute or banish him, addressed the people of Kufa as follows:

«The Caliph appointed me as the governor of your city and to collect the taxes. He ordered me to treat the oppressed ones well, to feed the poor, to treat those who obey the state well and to treat those who rebel and cause chaos harshly. I will carry out his orders and fulfill his requests here. I will act like a compassionate father for those who are good and like a brother for those who obey. I will use my sword and whip against those who do not accept my orders and who oppose me. Now you can do as you wish. »

While walking down the pulpit, the governor threatened them saying,

«You must write down the names of the strangers, Shiites, Kharijites, mischievous people and separatists and inform me about them. Those who give me the list of them will be safe. Those who do not must guarantee me that there will be no opposition or rebellion from among the people in their families. I am not responsible for the people who do not fulfill one of those two alternatives. It means their immunity of property and lives will be canceled. If a dissident of the Caliph is caught in the house of any of you, the owner of that house will be executed at the gate of his house.»

When Muslim heard about the speech Ibn Ziyad made, he took shelter in the house of Hani b. Urwa. The landlord and Muslim did it unwillingly. Shiites began to go to the house of Hani. When Ibn Ziyad found out that Muslim stayed there, he summoned Hani and recited the following poem when Hani arrived:

«I want him to stay alive, but he wants to kill me. Whoever was let from murad can forgive you only.»

Hani asked him, «What is the matter?»Ibn Ziyad said,

«O Hani! What is planned in your house for the Caliph and Muslims? You admit Muslim into your house and collect arms and soldiers for him. Do you think it will remain as a secret?»

Hani could not object to his words. Thereupon, Ibn Ziyad wanted him to surrender Muslim to him. However, Hani did not accept it because he was afraid that people would blame him. Having been arrested by the men of Ibn Ziyad, Hani was imprisoned in the palace of the governor. Having been informed about Hani, Muslim shouted, «Fa Mansur!», which was a password among them,  to his men.

The number of people who gave allegiance to Muslim until then was eighteen thousand; four thousand of them were around the house where Muslim stayed, keeping watch. People gathered around Muslim. After making a speech that provoked people, Muslim headed for the palace of the governor. The mosques and the streets were full of people. At that time, there were only thirty guards and about twenty people from the notables of Kufa and their slaves with the governor. He consulted the notables and called Kathir b. Shihab. He told Kathir to take action and drive people away from around Muslim. He told Muhammad b. Ash'as to go out with the man subject to him and declare people that those who joined them would be safe. He asked the same things from some other notables. He kept a few people with him. The notables fulfilled what the governor wanted. Those who stayed in the palace addressed the people and told them that those who were loyal to the state would be protected. They threatened the rebels. Thereupon, people began to disperse. They dispersed so fast that only thirty people remained in the mosque with Muslim. Muslim was appalled; he ran away and hid somewhere. However, the governor found out where he had hidden. He sent Muhammed b. Ash'as and fetched Muslim. When Muslim was caught, he said to Muhammad,

«I see that you cannot protect me now. However, can you send a messenger to Husayn and tell him on my behalf to return and not to trust the people of Kufa because he knew what they did to his father?»

Muhammad fulfilled the request of Muslim. Muslim, who was brought to the presence of the governor, was killed there. Then, Hani was killed, too.

On the other hand, Husayn, who was in Makkah, had decided to go to Kufa. Amr b. Abdurrahman b. Harith came to him and said,

«I hear that you are going to Iraq. I find it risky for you to go to a city where the governor, officials and treasures of the Caliph are. Today, people worship money. I fear that those who promise to help you will kill you.»

Husayn only thanked Amr. Then Ibn Abbas came. He said, «People say you are going to Iraq. Will you explain me what you are doing?» Husayn said, «I will set off in one or two days.» Ibn Abbas said,

«May Allah not let you do such a thing. Tell me, are you going to a nation that killed their governor that owned their state and that discarded their enemies? If you think that they did not do something like that, then go. However, if they call you to a war, I fear that they will deceive you, they will give up and oppose you, that they will leave you alone and that they will rebel you and do the worst thing to you.»

Hazrat Husayn said, «I will think about it and see what will happen.» Ibn Abbas came again the next day and said,

«O my uncle’s son! I force myself to show patience but I cannot be patient. If you do what you are thinking about, I fear that you will suffer a misfortune. Iraqi people are fickle people. Never approach them. Stay here. You are the master of Hejaz people. If Iraqis really want you as they wrote to you, write to them and tell them to discard their governor and your enemies, and then you can go. If you definitely want to go, go to Yemen. There are different groups in Yemen. Yemen is a large country. There are the followers of your father, there. You can settle somewhere there, write letters, send them to people, send your messengers and propagators. Then, the atmosphere that you want may appear.»

Hazrat Husayn did not agree with what Ibn Abbas said. Ibn Abbas added, «If you do not give up the thought of going there, I fear that you will be martyred in front of your women and children.» The cautionary words of Ibn Abbas did not affect Husayn at all.

Then, he set off with his women and children. He met Farazdaq, the poet, on the way. He asked Farazdaq about the situation of the people in the place where he was coming from. Farazdaq said,

«People’s hearts are with you but their swords support Umayyad. The destiny comes from the sky. Allah is doing what He wishes.»

In addition, on the way, he received a letter from Abdullah b. Jafar, who swore in the name of Allah and asked him to return; he also received a letter from Amr b. Said, the governor of Madinah, who asked him to return and declared that he would protect them. Having rejected the requests in both letters, Husayn continued to go. On the way, he met Abdullah b. Muti'. Abdullah reminded him the risky situation, swearing by Allah and said,

«If you want to acquire the Caliphate that Umayyad have now, they will kill you and then there will be left no one that they will fear. Please, do not go there for the sake of Islam, Quraysh and Arabs. Do not go to Kufa; do not meet Umayyad!»

However, Hazrat Husayn did not agree on any idea except continuing. When they reached Sa'labiya, they heard that Muslim b. Aqil had been killed. Some people around him said, «Return now for the sake of Allah. You have no helpers and followers in Kufa. We even fear that they will be against you.»

Muslim’s children leapt forward and said,

«We will take our father’s revenge or will be martyred like our father. We shall never return.»

They continued until they reached Aqaba. There, an Arab that they met said,

«Return for the sake of Allah. You are going toward the swords and spears. If those that called you had prevented the war and arranged the things before you arrived, I would not have said anything to you. However, now, there is only one thing to do: to return.»

As soon as Hazrat Husayn and those with him left Shiraf, they met a troop of about one thousand cavalrymen led by Hurr b. Yazid. Husayn said to them,

«O people! Allah knows and you also know that I came here because of the letters and messengers you sent to me. You wrote to me that you did not have a Caliph and that your situation would be improved with my coming. If you intend to keep your promise, I will enter your city. Otherwise, if you do not keep your promise and feel disturbed by my coming, I will return to the place where I have come from.»

When nobody answered, Hurr spoke,

«We were ordered to catch you as soon as we met you and take you to Ubaydullah b. Ziyad in Kufa.»

Hazrat Husayn murmured, «Death is better than this situation» and told his men to mount and that they would return. However, Hurr did not let them go. When Husayn shouted to Hurr,

«May your mother lose you! What do you want?», Hurr answered,

«If anyone other than you had said it, I would have answered him back in the same way. However, I cannot mention your mother’s name using bad words. I can mention her name only in the best way.»

Then, he started to follow Husayn in order to prevent him from returning to Madinah. Husayn headed toward the north and reached Ninawa. There, he met another troop led by Umar b. Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas that Ibn Ziyad had sent to fight him. Umar sent a messenger to Husayn and asked him why he had come there.

Husayn said,

«Your citizens sent me letters to go to them. That is why I came. If they do not want me now, I will return.»

When Ziyad received a letter from Umar informing him about the situation, Ibn Ziyad recited the following poem,

«Does he want to be saved from us now, when we have reached out our claws? It is not the time for being saved now.»

He sent Umar a letter and ordered him to take allegiance from Husayn for Yazid. He wrote,

«If Husayn accepts this offer, the issue is over. Otherwise, surround them and cut their connection with the only water source there, leaving them without water.»

Hazrat Husayn said that he would return to the place where he had come from if they let them. The narrations that he accepted to swear allegiance to Yazid are not true. Although Hazrat Husayn told them that he wanted to return to Madinah, they did not accept it and asked him to consent to the judgment that Ibn Ziyad would give about them. It was something that Husayn could not accept under any conditions. There was nothing left but to fight.

On Muharram 10 of the Hegirah year 61 (10 October 680) they started to fight. The Iraqi army, in which there was not even one Syrian, fought against a small group that consisted of at most eighty people. Soon, Husayn and his men were martyred. Seventy people died from Husayn’s men. Eighty people died from Umar’s army.   

They took the head of Husayn, his daughters, siblings and little son Ali, who was ill, to Ibn Ziyad.Ibn Ziyad sent them to Yazid. When they arrived in Damascus and Yazid was informed about what had happened, he started to cry and said,

«I asked you to make Husayn swear allegiance to me without killing him. May Allah damn Ibn Sumayya (Ziyad). If I had met Husayn, I would have forgiven him. Do you know why these things happened? Husayn said, 'My father is superior to his father; my mother is superior to his mother, my grandfather is superior to his grandfather. I am superior to him. I deserve Caliphate more than him.' Allah knows whose father is superior. Both of them went to the presence of Allah. Besides, people know whom the arbitrators regarded superior.

Doubtlessly, his mother Fatima, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah, is superior to my mother. His grandfather is superior to my grandfather. A person who has belief in Allah cannot think that there is anyone similar to him. However, Husayn uttered the last word based on his own ijtihad. He did not read this verse:  'Say: "O Allah! Lord of Power (and Rule) Thou givest Power to whom Thou pleasest and Thou strippest off power from whom Thou pleasest”'(Aal-i-Imran, 26).»

Then, he ordered the women of Husayn to be taken to his home. All women from Yazid’s family came one by one to pay their condolences to them. They paid the equivalents of the property and jewels that were lost to them.  Yazid called Ali b. Husayn and arranged the necessary things for them to go to Madinah and told him to write to him if they needed anything in Madinah. Thus, that deplorable event ended leaving scars that could not be covered.

(For detailed information and sources; see Asım Köksal İslam Tarihi, volume XI. read pages between 167-212.)

22 How was Hz. Abu Bakr chosen as the caliph?

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh), who became ill in the eleventh year of the Migration, passed away on Monday, the 13th of the month of Rabiul-Awwal (June 8, 632). The Muslims who heard his death became very sorry and they did not know what to do a first. However, he was also an ephemeral human being.

Hz. Umar said the Prophet (pbuh) went to meet his Lord like Hz. Musa (Moses) and added that he would cut off the hands of anyone who said, "he died". When the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) felt well, Hz. Abu Bakr took permission from him and went to see his daughter. As soon as he heard that the Messenger of Allah had died, he returned and kissed the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) on his forehead. He said,

"O Messenger of Allah! May my father and mother be sacrificed for you! You are as beautiful as you were alive. The institution of prophethood ended with your death. Your fame and honor is so great that you are free from crying over it. O Muhammad! Do not forget us near your Lord! Remember us!"

Then, he went out and silenced Hz. Umar. He said,

"O people! Allah is one; there is no god but Him. Muhammad is His slave and messenger. Allah is the clear truth. Whoever worshipped Muhammad should know that Muhammad is dead, but whoever worshipped Allah, should know that Allah is alive and eternal. I want to remind you the following order of Allah:

'Muhammad is no more than an Messenger: many were the Messengers that passed away before Him. If he died or was slain, will ye then turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve him) with gratitude.' (Aal-i Imran, 3/144)

"He who holds fast the book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah finds the truth; he who separates them goes astray. Do not let Satan deceive you with the death of the Prophet and make you deviate from your religion! Do not allow Satan to approach you!" (Ibn Hisham, as-Sirah, IV/335; Tabari, Tarikh, III/197,198).

With this talk, Hz. Abu Bakr calmed down the people there and started to prepare the body of the Prophet for burial. Meanwhile, Ansar gathered in the shed of Banu Sa'idah; they wanted to choose Sa'd b Ubada, the leader of the tribe of Khazraj, the caliph. Hz. Abu Bakr, Hz. Umar, Abu Ubayda and a group of Muhajirs went to Banu Sa'idah at once. After talking to Ansar and negotiating about the caliphate, Hz. Abu Bakr stood between Umar and Abu Ubayda and asked people to pay allegiance to one of them. He did not put himself forward as the caliph. After Hz. Abu Bakr's speech, Hz. Umar rushed forward and paid allegiance to Hz. Abu Bakr. He said,

"O Abu Bakr! You led the prayer to the Muslims upon the order of the Messenger of Allah. You are his caliph and we pay allegiance to you. We pay allegiance to you, who are more beloved to the Messenger of Allah than all of us."

Upon this, sudden act of Hz. Umar, all of the people there paid allegiance to Hz. Abu Bakr.

After this initial allegiance, Hz. Abu Bakr delivered a sermon to the people in Masjid an-Nabawi the next day and people paid allegiance to him formally. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was buried on Tuesday. When a disagreement occurred about where to bury him, Hz. Abu Bakr showed his prudence and reminded the people the following hadith: 

"Every prophet is buried in the place where he dies."

The janazah prayer of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) was performed in groups without an imam. It is reported that Hz. Ali came together with Banu Hashim and his supporters in the house of Hz. Fatima and that he did not pay allegiance at first. According to some narrations, when Hz. Ali heard that the big allegiance took place, he put on his clothes hurriedly and rushed in order to pay allegiance to Hz. Abu Bakr. (Tabari, Tarikh, III/207). The news that he did not pay allegiance to Hz. Abu Bakr for months is probably contrary to the truth. For, the fact that he knew the superiority of Abu Bakr, the speeches he made and the course of history are contrary to the other narrations.

Disagreements and differences of opinions sometimes occurred among the closest Companions of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) - even between Abu Bakr and Umar - , but they acted together as it is seen during the time of the first two caliphs. Differences of traits and characteristics played an important role in most of the incidents that seemed to be disagreements. For instance, Abu Bakr acted mildly but Umar was a hardliner. However, they always acted together. Hz. Ali and Zubayr b. Awwam were among those who made decisions about the wars of Riddah under the leadership of Hz. Abu Bakr and they performed prayers behind Hz. Abu Bakr. (Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wan-Nihaya, V/249)

Hz. Ali said if the Messenger of Allah had had a will, he would have fulfilled it before his death (Tabari, ibid, IV/236) but he rejected Ibn Abbas when he wanted to go to the Messenger of Allah and ask him about the caliphate. That is, nobody opposed the caliphate of Hz. Abu Bakr. Besides, what was natural, reasonable and practical was the caliphate of Hz. Abu Bakr.

Hz. Prophet (pbuh) did not leave a written will but he spoke about the virtue of Hz. Abu Bakr in the mosque, called him to his bed when he was ill and appointed him as the imam on behalf of him.

23 How should we think about Yazid, Hz. Muawiya's son? How did Yazid become the caliph?

Yazid (646-683) is the second caliph of the Umayyads. The caliphate turned into a sultanate with him. Because he was held responsible for the martyrdom of Hz. Husayn and the Karbala Incidence, he led to a great reaction in the Islamic world. He was cursed by some scholars but others acted cautiously regarding the issue considering the possibility of his regret and repentance afterwards.  In Risale-i Nur, his name is mentioned in the context of the debate whether it is permissible to curse him; attention is drawn to the fact that cursing him will not gain a person anything and that there are disadvantages of it.

Yazid was born in Damascus in 646. His childhood and youth passed in Damascus due to the governorship of his father. He was well educated during his childhood. He was interested in art afterwards. He joined the army that was sent against Byzantium before he was appointed as the heir to the throne. This expedition was organized in order to help the Armenians who rebelled against the Byzantine Empire and who asked help from the Umayyads.

The Islamic army that was established against Byzantium took action in 668. When they arrived at Kadıköy, they asked for help. Thereupon, the auxiliary forces prepared under the command of Yazid crossed the Bosphorus and besieged Istanbul (669). The siege that  continued over the summer was lifted when winter approached. During this siege, some of the Companions including Abu Ayyub al-Ansari were martyred. As a result of the siege, a peace treaty was signed on the condition that Byzantium would pay tax.

After establishing the order and civil peace in the country, Hz. Muawiya, the Umayyad caliph, appointed his son, Yazid, as the heir to the throne upon the encouragement and suggestion of Mughira bin Shu'ba, the governor of Kufa. Muawiya wanted to learn the thoughts of the Islamic elderly in Madinah about this decision. However, Hz. Husayn, Abdullah bin Umar and Abdullah bin Zubayr opposed it. Despite this opposition, Muawiya summoned the administrators from different lands of the country and asked them to pay allegiance to Yazid as the heir to the throne.

In 679, Yazid became the Caliph when Muawiya, his father, died. With this, the caliphate was transformed into sultanate. Those who opposed him as the heir to the throne did not pay allegiance to him. He wrote a letter to Walid bin Utba, the governor of Madinah so that those people would accept his caliphate.  However, the governor of Madinah did not succeed in this attempt. Meanwhile, the people of Kufa sent envoys to Hz. Husayn and stated that they would recognize him as the caliph. Thereupon, Muslim, his paternal uncle's son, went to Kufa and accepted their allegiance on behalf of Husayn. The governor of Basra, who was also appointed as the governor of Kufa, took action and killed Muslim.

Unaware of his latest incident, Hz. Husayn set off to Kufa. On the way, he learned that Muslim had been killed. However, he did not return. An army of four thousand men was sent against Husayn, who reached Karbala. Seeing that there were not enough people with him and that he would not receive help from Kufa, Hz. Husayn wanted to return but, the governor, Ubaydullah bin Ziyad, told him to pay allegiance to Yazid and that he would allow him to return after that. Hz. Husayn did not accept his offer and was martyred in 680 (61 H, Muharram10) along with seventy people with him.

This event, which was known as the "Tragedy of Karbala" in the Islamic history, was a black mark for the Umayyads, especially Yazid. Before his death, Hz. Muawiya had asked, his son, Yazid, to treat Hz. Husayn and his family well. It is reported that when Yazid heard that Husayn was martyred, he was very distressed; he cursed the governor Ubaydullah, who had martyred Husayn and cried. There are some people who say that Yazid did not order Hz. Husayn to be killed but there are also some people who state that Yazid supported his governor fully. It is reported that Yazid took Hz. Husayn's his children to Damascus and that he treated them very well. However, all this could not prevent the reaction against him in the Islamic world.

This tragic incident that took place during the reign of Yazid caused great sadness among Muslims and in the world of scholars. Not only Shiites, but also Sunnis avoided the name Yazid.  Although they gave the names Ali, Hasan and Husayn to their children a lot, they avoided giving the name Yazid.  Among the scholars, there was a debate over this name. There were some scholars who cursed him but others acted cautiously regarding the issue considering the possibility of his regret and repentance afterwards.

His name and discussions about him are mentioned in Risale-i Nur.

“…no bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another…” (al-An’am, 6/164)

The following is pointed out in the interpretation of the verse above: Despite the divine warning, people act contrarily in social and political life and it causes big murders:

“A person is not regarded as an accomplice in a murder even if the murderer is his brother, tribe or party. He can only be held responsible in the hereafter, not in the world, if he agrees with it, becoming a spiritual sinner…”

After it is explained, it is stated that the students of the Quran try to prevent this big crime but those who accuse these people, who work altruistically, of being retrogressive reactionaries and act by

“… preferring the oppression of cursed Yazid to the justice of Umar…” (Emirdağ Lahikası, 1997, p. 319-320),

stating that they prefer the law of the jungle to the just decree of the Quran.

The word “cursed” is used for Yazid and some warnings are made regarding the issue:

“Sadaddin Taftazani, the great kalam scholar, said for people like Hajjaj az-Zalim, Yazid and Walid, 'It is permissible to curse (damn) Yazid' but he did not say 'cursing is wajib (necessary)'. He did not say, 'It is a good thing and you gain thawabs'. For, there are so many people who deny the Quran, the Prophet, and all the blessed talks of the Companions. There are a lot of people like that around. If a person does not mention and curse those cursed people, he will not be harmed religiously.” (Emirdağ Lahikası, p. 178)

For cursing is not like praising. Love is included among righteous deeds but cursing gains man no thawabs and rewards. What is more, cursing and defaming people wrongly and incorrectly can cause enormous harm.

Only Hz. Abdullah bin Zubayr was left to oppose Yazid after Hz. Husayn was martyred. The forces sent against Abdullah in Makkah could not be successful. Makkah was besieged in 683. As the siege was going on, the death of Yazid was heard. Thereupon, the siege was lifted without any success. At that time, forces were sent against the people of Madinah , who did not accept to pay allegiance to Yazid. First, they were given three days to pay allegiance. When this time expired and they did not pay allegiance, the soldiers entered Madinah and made those who did not pay allegiance pay allegiance by force.

Yazid died in 683 and at the age of thirty-seven in the Hawran village of Damascus. After his death, he was succeeded by his son. During the caliphate of Yazid, all of North Africa was conquered by the Islamic army under the command of Uqba bin Nafi. He has been mentioned badly among the Muslims because of the terrible incidents that took place during his sultanate. The appointment of him as the heir to the throne and his becoming the caliph after his father caused caliphate to be transformed into sultanate, ending the system of being the caliph through election.

24 What are the reasons for the wars among Ashara al-Mubashshara (Companions)?

The murderer of Hz. Uthman was al-Ghafiqi, a Yemeni Jew. With the martyrdom of Hz. Uthman, Ibn Saba made a great achievement in his cause. The seeds of mischief started to yield fruit. This saddening incident prevented Muslims from spreading the religion of Islam to other countries. The period of conquests and proclamation ended; a period of stagnation and conflicts started.

After this stage, Ibn Saba prepared a new plan in order to make Hashimis confront Umayyads. Hz. Uthman was an Umayyad and Hz. Ali was a Hashimi. He agitated Umayyads by spreading a rumor that Hz. Ali had Hz Uthman killed and that he wanted to be the caliph after Hz. Uthman. On the one hand, Ibn Saba spread this ugly slander against Hz. Ali and on other hand, he worked openly to make Hz. Ali the caliph; thus, he wanted the people to believe in this slander.  

To this end, he chose a group of delegates headed by Ibn Maymun, a Jewish who came from Egypt with a caravan, and sent him to Hz. Ali. The delegates said to Hz. Ali,

"As you know, this ummah has been left without a leader. You are the one that deserves to be the caliph the most. We want you to undertake this duty."

Hz. Ali rejected this offer and dismissed them.

When Hz. Ali gave this answer, he sent a group of delegates from Kufa to Hz. Zubayr and a group of delegates from Basra to Hz. Talha. Hz. Zubayr and Hz. Talha rejected their offer of caliphate like Hz. Ali and dismissed them.

When Ibn Saba could not get what he wanted from them, gave Ghafiqi, the Jew who controlled and led the rebels, the following order:

"Gather the people of Madinah in the mosque and tell them to choose a caliph at once. Otherwise, threaten them with your swords."

Upon this order, the rebels under the command of Ghafiqi gathered the people ofMadinah in the mosque and said to them, 

"Choose yourselves a leader as soon as possible. If you do not do it now, we will put all of you including Ali, Zubayr and Talha to sword."

After hearing this threat, the people of Madinah went into the presence of Hz. Ali and asked him to accept the duty of caliphate. Hz. Ali had to accept the duty of caliphate though he did not want it due to the chaotic state.

After a while, Hz. Talha and Hz. Zubayr went to Hz. Ali and asked him to act in accordance with the Book and punish the murderers of Hz. Uthman. Hz. Ali said to them,

"You are right but the state has not suppressed the rebels fully yet. Therefore, it is necessary to wait for the state to control the situation."

Hz. Ali wanted the criminals to be determined one by one, to be questioned and to be punished. Hz. Aisha, Hz. Zubayr and Hz. Talha held the following view:  

"Mischief got bigger; it targeted the state; the caliph was martyred. The issue is not the issue of finding the murderer of Hz. Uthman only. It is necessary to kill the majority of those who took part in this movement of mischief. Therefore, the rebels should be punished at once."

Acting upon the verse of the Quran “No bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another”, Hz. Ali did not agree with them saying, "No one can be held responsible for the mistake of another person".

After finding out Hz. Ali's view, Hz. Zubayr and Hz. Talha met Hz. Aisha in Makkah and decided to go to Basra in order to find soldiers to suppress the rebels.

When Hz. Ali heard that Hz. Aisha, Hz. Talha and Hz. Zubayr went to Basra, he moved toward Basra with his army so that there will not be a breakdown and division in the unity of the state and settled in Dhiqar. Hz.Ali sent an envoy called Qa’qa’ to Hz. Aisha, Hz. Talha and Hz. Zubayr and told him to tell them about the evil of discord and the importance of unity that that everything would be settled better with peace. Upon this order, he went to Hz. Aisha, Hz. Talha and Hz. Zubayr and told them about Hz. Ali's views; he said that the cure for this problem was calmness, that all kinds of measures could be taken after people calmed down and that mischief and conflict would occur otherwise, which would bring about big problems for Muslims. They said, "If Ali holds this view, there is no disagreement between him and us."

Both parties were pleased of this unity. Thus, a state of calmness occurred. Everybody went to their tents feeling in safety and peace. 

Ibn Saba, the munafiq, who was very disturbed by this peace, gathered his followers and said to them,

"We definitely need to do something to start war and to make Muslims fight one another. If we cannot do it, all of our efforts will be fruitless; we will not be able to reach our target."

They prepared a new plan to start war. In accordance with this plan to be applied toward the morning, Ibn Saba placed his men around the tents of Hz. Ali, Hz. Zubayr and Hz. Talha. Then, they attacked the tents of both parties. When Hz. Zubayr and Hz. Talha woke up with the noise, they asked, "What is the matter? What is happening?" Ibn Saba’s men said, "Hz. Ali's men (the people of Kufa) attacked us at midnight."

Thereupon, Hz. Talha and Hz. Zubayr said, "It is understood that Hz. Ali was not sincere when he said he wanted peace." On the other hand, when Hz. Ali heard the noise, he asked, "What is happening?" Ibn Saba’s men said, "The other party attacked us at midnight and we repelled the attack." Hz. Ali said,"It is understood that Talha and Zubayr do not agree with us about peace." Thus, the Incidence of Camel, which claimed the lives of ten thousand people, took place. Hz. Talha and Zubayr were martyred. Thus, after the murder of Hz. Uthman, Ibn Saba realized an important stage of his target.

Question: How should Muslims view the disagreements that occurred among the Companions?

Answer: "Ismah (innocence)", that is, the attribute of being protected from sins with divine protection belongs to prophets only. Only prophets are without mistakes. Since the Companions do not have this attribute, it cannot be said that they are completely free of mistakes. However, when a Muslim makes a mistake, he does not exit Islam; similarly, when a Companion makes a mistake, he does not lose the honor of being a Companion. 

All mujtahids of the four true madhhabs hold the following view about the disagreements among the Companions:

"Each Companion is a mujtahid. It is their right before everyone else to make ijtihad related to the issues that are not clearly expressed in the Quran and hadiths. It is a definite rule of the science of fiqh that if a person is a mujtahid, he does not have to obey the ijtihad of another mujtahid. The disagreements, conflicts and battles that occurred among the Companions were due to ijtihad difference. Their wishes and desires have no share - God forbid - in these disagreements. For, they were purified from bad attributes like hatred, enmity and hostility thanks to listening to the talks of the Prophet. Their souls were free from such mean things and they became lofty."

Yes, each Companion is a mujtahid in Islam. As it is known, a person who makes an ijtihad gains two thawabs if he is right; he gains one thawab if he is wrong. The ijtihads of those distinguished people, who belonged to Islam with their lives and wealth and who had no other goal other than elevating and spreading Islam, aimed to elevate Islam. This love and determination was so high in them that they did not hesitate to express a view contrary to that of the Prophet (pbuh) at the Battle of Uhud. They clearly said, "We see the success of Islam in this." The Prophet (pbuh) had to act in accordance with the view of the Companions since the majority of the Companions made an ijtihad opposite to that of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). The incidents that occurred afterwards showed that the Prophet (pbuh) was right. Although the Quran was being sent down gradually at that time, Allah Almighty did not send down a verse to warn the Companions. He did not give them a warning; on the contrary, he ordered the Prophet (pbuh) to keep consulting them. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) did not blame them; he still loved them and continued asking their views. Only this incident is enough to show clearly that the Companions are valuable in the eye of Allah and His Messenger and that they had the right of ijtihad in the religion.   

Now let us think mercifully. Can we judge the Companions, who were not warned by Allah or the Messenger of Allah though they thought differently from the Prophet and made a different ijtihad, due to the disagreements among themselves? A person who has even very little conscience and foresight must not resort to this crime.

If a Muslim oversteps the limit and tries to judge that distinguished group, who shed their blood for Islam during the first years of Islam, and says that one of them was right and another one was wrong, he will not blemish those stars of guidance but will harm himself.

Besides, the people that he judges are the notables of the Companions. Some of them were given the glad tiding that they were the people of Paradise. The Quran and the Prophet (pbuh) praised those people whom he criticizes.

We should not forget this issue and should act very carefully about the disagreements among the Companions and avoid overstepping the limit. 

If the disagreement of the Companions had not been legitimate and reasonable in the eye of Allah Almighty, he would have sent down an order and prevented it. As a matter of fact, when the Companions talked loudly in the presence of the Prophet (pbuh), the following verse was sent down to warn them:

"O ye who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk, as ye may speak aloud to one another lest your deeds become vain and ye perceive not." (al-Hujurat, 49/2)

The believers are ordered to avoid having bad thoughts about their believing brothers:

"Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother?" (al-Hujurat, 49/12)

Allah Almighty informs us in this verse that backbiting is a deed that is as disgusting as eating the flesh of a dead person and that does not fit a believer. You can understand the danger of the issue if the person who is backbitten is a Companion and especially one of the notables of the Companions.

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) stated the following in a hadith:

"Backbiting eats up good deeds just as fire eats up wood."

Thus, he warns us severely.

It is necessary to listen to these facts in terms of our life in the hereafter and the future of Islam. Since a believer is prohibited from having bad thoughts about another believer, it is clearly understood how grave and dangerous it is to have bad thoughts about the Companions and the notables among them, who laid the foundations of Islam, who were the friends of the Prophet in daily life and wars and who were the means of the guidance of all of the Muslims of today. 

The safest way for clever people is to avoid speaking ill of them. It will be understood after thinking a little that people will not be sent to this world to analyze the problems among the Companions and to decide which party is right and which one is wrong. To have a view about this issue cannot be the purpose of the creation of a person. Man was not created to have an issue about it; he was created to worship Allah properly. That is, our religion calls us to fulfill or duties to worship Allah, not to analyze the disagreements among the Companions.

The great Companions, from the caliph to the ordinary ones lived with same sustenance and felt the same excitement. They worked openly and secretly, day and night, in the development, spread and elevation of Islam. They make jihad with their lives and blood and made unmatchable sacrifices. They opposed their tribe for the love of the Quran and the Prophet and they sacrificed their families, children, property and wealth. They preferred the Prophet to their own lives, children, family and parents. They shed their blood in order to lay the foundations of Islam.  

They became a means of the worldly and otherworldly happiness of all of the Muslims beginning from that day to the Day of Judgment. It is our duty in terms of justice and conscience to feel gratitude to them, to pray, praise and thank them.

25 Will you summarize the life of the four caliphs?

"The Era of the Four Caliphs", after the death of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) is a period when the religion of Islam spread by going beyond the Arabian Peninsula. This period, in which bright victories were gained and Muslims lived in peace and welfare, is a nice example of the Golden Age, which was informed by the Prophet (pbuh).

In this period, the boundaries of the Islamic state expanded to Tripoli in the west, Khorasan in the east and Caucasia in the north; thus, Islam, which spread beyond the Arabian Peninsula, was adopted by various nations in Asia and Africa. The political and legal foundations of the new Islamic state to be established were laid in this period. Hz. Abu Bakr, Hz. Umar, Hz. Uthman and Hz. Ali, who became caliphs in this order, followed the way of the Prophet (pbuh) and continued the just system in which the ethics of the Quran was dominant by spreading it to a vast area. Therefore, the period of the four caliphs is called "the Period of Khulafa ar-Rashidun" meaning "the Period of the Rightly Guided Caliphs". The same period is also called 'the Period of Republic' since the caliphs were chosen.

The Era of Hz. Abu Bakr (632-634)

Hz. Abu Bakr, who was a friend of the Prophet’s (pbuh) before his prophethood, was one of the first Muslims. Hz. Abu Bakr accepted Islam when the Prophet (pbuh) was alone and when he had not started to proclaim Islam openly. Hz. Abu Bakr, who was a close friend of Hz. Muhammad’s (pbuh) and a good representative of the Islamic ethics, became a means of guidance for many people like Hz. Uthman, Talha b. Ubaydullah, Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas, Zubayr b. Awwam, Abdurrahman b. Awf, and Abu Ubayda b. Jarrah.

When Hz. Muhammed (pbuh) became ill, he gave the duty of imamate (leading prayers) to Hz. Abu Bakr. After his death, upon the offer of Hz. Umar and his friends, Hz. Abu Bakr was chosen as the caliph. The following speech made by Hz. Abu Bakr after undertaking the duty of the caliphate to the people, which exists in historical resources, is quite significant:

"O people! I was elected as your administrator though I am not the best of you. If I do good deeds, help me. If I do bad deeds, show me the right way. Honesty is trust. Telling lies is treason. The weakest of you is strong near me; I will defend his right. The strongest of you is weak near me; I will take others’ rights from him."1

With these words, Hz. Abu Bakr summarizes the qualities that need to be present in an ideal administrator in the best way. Although his caliphate lasted for a short time (two years), this period is full of many achievements.

After the death of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh), Hz. Abu Bakr established the authority of the state by gathering the Muslims among whom conflicts occurred.He made great efforts regarding the compilation and protection of the Quran. He became a means of spreading Islam outside the Arabian Peninsula, in Syria, Palestine and Iraq, for the first time. He declared war against the movements that did not exist in the essence of the religion and liars who claimed to be prophets. Thus, he enabled the Quran and Islamic ethics to be practiced just like in the period of the Prophet (pbuh).

Hz. Abu Bakr is one of the distinguished names among the Companions with his good character, mercy, humble personality, and his meticulousness in practicing the Islamic ethics.  He was always loved and respected by the public due to these characteristics. He had a character that did not welcome people's arrogant attitudes and that helped the poor and the needy; he felt very happy when he entertained guests. He saved many Muslim slaves; he paid significant amounts of money to the masters of the slaves in order to set them free.

Hz. Abu Bakr, who was a rich person engaged in trade, spent all of his money to spread Islamic ethics. Therefore, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) stated the following about him:

"The person who is in the first place in sacrificing his wealth is Abu Bakr. What a nice friend Abu Bakr is. There is Islamic brotherhood and love between us." 2

In conclusion, Hz. Abu Bakr maintained the unity of Islam with his strong belief, genius and qualities of superior statesman, leaving a strong state to those coming after him. 

The Era of Hz. Umar (634-644)

Hz. Umar, who was one of the notables of the Qurayshi tribe, was affected by the resoluteness of the Muslims who made no concessions about their faith despite all kinds of oppressions, and became a Muslim. According to a narration, he was the first person to declare that he was a Muslim openly. As Abdullah Ibn Masud puts it, "Umar's acceptance of Islam was a conquest."3 After that day, he was with the Prophet (pbuh) and became one of the leading defenders of Islam with his strong personality and resoluteness. He spent what he had to spread Islam. He was chosen as the caliph after the death of Hz. Abu Bakr and set a good example to his successors with his just administration.

Hz. Umar is known for his efforts in applying the ethics of the Quran and justice. He treated everybody equally when he applied justice; he never allowed elements like nobility, richness, kinship and ranks to prevent justice. He took all kinds of measures in order to apply justice fully on the land under his administration. Social justice became fully dominant in his period. He always acted with a feeling of responsibility toward the people. According to historical resources, his statement, "If a camel dies by the Euphrates, I will feel responsibility for it" regarding the issue is famous.

The importance Hz Umar gave to consultation

As a necessity of the ethics of the Quran, Hz. Umar consulted the views of Muslims and discussed with them whenever an issue occurred before making a decision. Thus, the most accurate idea emerged and he would act accordingly. This attitude of his caused people to do their own affairs by discussing with one another. Thus, a large scale of a tradition of consultation was established regarding important issues.

Many innovations took place in the period of Hz. Umar. The country was divided into administrative units. Qadis who were subject to the Caliph and governors were appointed. Thus, with the appointment qadis in justice, the administrative and judicial affairs were separated. The establishment and application of Hijri calendar, the establishment of a parliament, in which important issues of the state were discussed, and state treasury took place in this period.

During his caliphate, great conquests outside Arabia took place; Iraq, Iran, Khorasan, Syria, Palestine and Egypt were included in the Islamic land. In this period, the spread of the state to a wide geographical area made it necessary to organize in administrative, political, economic, and military fields. Hz. Umar laid the foundations of an institutional Islamic state to meet this need.

According to the historical resources, the letter sent to the qadis of the period by Hz. Umar became a guide for all the administrators coming after him:

"Never allow haste, shouting and the deeds that will degrade the parties while trying a case. For, calm and seriousness are essential for justice to be served. When the truth becomes manifest, it gains divine justice reputation. If the intention of a Muslim is good, Allah improves his relations with people. However, if his inside is different from his appearance, Allah will give him misfortunes. Therefore, the duty of the judge is to distribute the treasures of Allah's providence and mercy among His slaves."3

With the ethics of the Quran he had, Hz. Umar ruled the Islamic community in a way that gained people’s hearts and contributed a lot to the spread of Islamic ethics – with the permission of Allah.  

The Era of Hz. Uthman (644-656)

Hz. Uthman, who had high ethical virtues, was one of the superior people who accepted Islam. He was chosen as the caliph after Hz. Umar. Nobody objected to his caliphate due to the thought in the Islamic community that he was worthy of this duty; everybody paid allegiance to him. Before, his caliphate, he was close to the Prophet (pbuh). He was one of the revelation scribes. He was outstanding with his high ethics and rhetoric. He was an orator. He had a good memory; he memorized the whole Quran. 

One of the greatest services of Hz. Uthman to the religion of Islam was the reproduction of the Quran.During his period, a committee was established and the only copy of the Quran was reproduced because some people pronounced the verses of the Quran differently due to the difference of dialects. One copy was kept in Madinah and the other copies were sent to the other provinces like Makkah, Damascus, Kufa, Basra and Egypt; thus, the original of the Quran reached today. 

Hz. Uthman was careful about appointing appropriate people to the posts in his period. He gave importance to zoning and agriculture in order to elevate the level of welfare of the people living in Islamic land. He tried to improve vineyards and orchards. Many people living in the Islamic land accepted Islam in his period. A remarkable development of this period is that the Muslims became rich and started to lead a better life.

Besides, during the period of Hz. Uthman conquests continued in Iran, Caucasia and Africa; and the first armada was established; Cyprus, which was an island with a great strategic significance in the Mediterranean, was conquered. Great victories were gained against the Byzantine Empire; law and order was established in the land that was conquered.

The Era of Hz. Ali (656-661)

Hz. Ali is the son of Abu Talib, the paternal uncle of the Prophet (pbuh). As it is stated in historical resources, he was brought up by Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) and educated by him.  

The most outstanding characteristics of Hz. Ali were courage, knowledge and rhetoric. It is accepted by everybody that he is one of the most knowledgeable people of the Islamic community. As the Prophet (pbuh) put it, Hz. Ali is "the door to the land of knowledge." He was with the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) since his childhood and was his scribe. He did not leave the Prophet (pbuh) until he died. Thus, he attained a high level of knowledge regarding religious issues. Therefore, he was one of the first people that Hz. Abu Bakr, Hz. Umar and Hz. Uthman consulted.

After he became the caliph, he established a school so that Muslims would learn knowledge and science. He gave great importance to education. The Era of the Four Caliphs, which was one of the brightest periods of Islam, ended when Hz. Ali was martyred.

Footnotes:

1. Hz. Muhammed ve Hayatı, DIB Yayınları, Ankara, 1996, p. 435.

2. Bukhari, Salat, 80, Fadailus-Sahaba, 3; Muslim, Fadailus-Sahaba, 1;Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 15.

3. Usdul-Ghaba, IV/151.

For detailed information,

- see Prof. Dr. Murat SARICAK, Dört Halife Dönemi.

26 I have recently heard that Spain was once an Islamic country; how did it become like this now? Will you give me information about the Andalusian State?

Andalusia is a name given by Muslims to Spain. Today it is the name of a province in the south of Spain. Andalusia, which was conquered by Muslims between 711 and 714 as a natural extension of early Islamic conquests, remained an Islamic country for eight centuries though its geographical boundaries narrowed over time.

The history of Andalusia is divided into six separate periods:

1. The Era of Governors (715-756)

In this period, Andalusia was administered as a province of the Umayyad State in the east. The most important development then was the military expeditions that the Muslim conquerors made over the Pyrenees to conquer Europe. During these expeditions, Muslims reached Paris in 732. Efforts were made in order to establish a new social order in Andalusia. A free religious environment was created by ending the oppression on the Jews and the Arianists applied with the provocation of the Catholic Church during the period of Visigoths. Thus, the old social order based on the principle of classes was abolished.

2. The Era of Andalusian Umayyads (756 - 1031)

Having made Andalusia an independent state in 756 based on the model of eastern state order, Andalusian Umayyads established an independent army to maintain their political entity on the one hand and sent a lot of students to the favorite centers of ilm (knowledge/science) like Cairo, Mecca, Madinah, Baghdad and Damascus, transferring the scientific developments in these centers to Andalusia on the other hand.

In this period, there were very few people who could read and write except for the priests in the churches in Europe but almost all of the people in Andalusia were literate. Along with the increase in the economic and public works activities, Qurtuba (Cordova), the capital city, became a diplomatic center. Thanks to the tolerant environment that was provided, mosques, churches and synagogues were able to remain side by side without any fighting.

As a result, Andalusia became the most powerful state in Europe during this period.

3. The Era of "Small Sultanates" (1031-1090)

When the Umayyad State declined due to internal disorders in 1031, Andalusia entered a process of division politically. In this process, almost every city was transformed into an independent state. Despite this political division, the rise in civilization continued in Andalusia. The most important indication of this was that almost every city turned into a Qurtuba. Significant developments took place in literature, astronomy, medicine and philosophy. However, the political disunity led to the fall of Tuleytula (Toledo), the second largest city of Spain in 1085. Thereupon, Andalusians had to ask for help from North Africa.

4. The Era of Murabits (Almoravids) and Muwahhids (Almohads) (1090 - 1228)

Murabits, who helped Andalusians in 1086 and who established a big state in North Africa, ruled Andalusia as a province subject to them until 1147. After this date, the administration of Andalusia was undertaken again by Muwahhids, who came from North Africa. In this period, the Christian Europe made Andalusia the target of crusade attacks with the direction of the Pope. For this reason, this period was spent mostly through defensive wars against the crusaders. However, the developments in the field of civilization did not stop. As a matter of fact, the upbringing of scholars and philosophers such as Ibn Rushd (Averros), Ibn Bajja (Avempace) andIbn Tufayl, who affected Europe deeply, took place in this period.

5. The Emirate of Granada (1231 -1492)

Upon the decline of the administrationof Muwahhids in 1228, Christian Spain began a rapid invasion movement on the Andalusian territory. Losing the power to defend themselves, the Andalusians lost all of the territories except Granada, Malaga and Almeira in the south. In 1231, the Nasri dynasty declared its independence in these remaining territories. This small Granada sultanate succeeded in surviving for two and a half centuries thanks to the politics it pursued. The Alhambra Palace, which is one of the most popular works of both Islamic architecture and the world architecture, belongs to this period. Granada, which was besieged by Christian armies in 1490, was delivered to Christians with an agreement made in 1492 on condition that the religious and civil rights of the Muslims would be guaranteed. Thus, the domination of Islam, which continued for eight centuries in Spain, came to an end.

6. Moriscos (1492 -1609)

Upon the decline of the Emirate of Grenada, a large number of Muslims remained under Christian domination in Spain. In 1497, the Catholic King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella decided to force Muslims to be Christianized, disregarding the agreement they made. They put Muslims in closed places and sprinkled baptized water on them; then, they were declared to be Christians. The Quran and other Arabic works were confiscated, libraries were emptied and traditional clothing was forbidden. They forbad the Muslims to teach Arabic to their children. The mosques were transformed into churches. Those who acted contrarily were sent to the inquisition courts.

According to some Spanish sources, the Inquisition decreed death penalty for more than three thousand Muslims; they were either impaled or burnt. Despite this oppression, Muslims were able to practice their religion secretly. In 1609, the Spanish kingdom made a decision with the church and decided to expel the Muslims living within the borders of Spain. Some of them were expelled to France and others to Africa. In these exiles, hundreds of thousands of Andalusian died. Although the Muslims were expelled from Spain, their influence continued afterwards.

That the Umayyads made Andalusia an independent state and ensured its political unity in 756 formed a serious obstacle to Christian progress. Thanks to it, a decline that could have happened much earlier was prevented.

The Umayyad dynasty, which successfully ensured and represented the political unity of Andalusia until 976, began to lose its power and influence after this date. The emergence of the Amiris as a rival power overturned all of the balances of the state and made the system impossible to produce solutions. This weakness of the central government eventually led to the strengthening of the local aristocracy and the division of the country.

Andalusia, has always been out of mind for Anatolian Muslims maybe because it was out of sight as it is now. Today, there are very few people who remember Spain with its Muslim identity. The "Western cultural imperialism", which imposes its own values ​​and assumptions, and makes people forget their freedoms that are contrary to it, becomes evident here. Once, I asked in a classroom with thirty students in the third grade of the Faculty of Theology, who really need to establish this relationship, what nationality the following scholars were and what they thought about them: Baqi Ibn Makhlad, Abu Bakr Ibn al-Arabi, Muhyiddin Ibn al-Arabi, Ibnu Mada, Abul Abbas al-Mursi, Abu Amr ad-Dani, Abu Hayyan, Ibn Atiyya. Unfortunately, nobody knew that these people were Andalusian.

The state of a huge country where Muslims dominated more than eight centuries, the tens of thousands of scholars who were brought up there, the tremendous civilization that was established there, and their present inheritors should not be like that. Yes, the Christian bigotry, which established sovereignty there by defeating the Muslims five centuries ago, which is not a distant past, may have done its best to erase the Islamic identity with a rarely seen savagery there. However, this persecution should have made the Muslims more sensitive to them. Intensive studies should have been made to search and to inform people about the end of the Muslims there, their laws, the properties of the great civilization established there, the works that remained from them and/or were destroyed. It was not possible to do these during the period of Inquisition and bigotry but it is possible to do it in the atmosphere of liberty of this century. I do not know how many people go there with this idea though we have so many possibilities and potentials.

However, Westerners have tried to find some traces belonging to two thousand years ago in Anatolia; and if they cannot find any, they make up some Christian elements such as Mother Mary's healing water in Kuşadası and the legend of Santa Claus in Demre and try to connect them with Turkey. They cherish the memory of the Christian domination of this land one thousand years ago, and write  and pronounce the Christian names of the cities and towns like  Constantinople (Istanbul), Smyrna (Izmir), Cappadocia (Kapadokya), Cilicia (Kilikya), Bithynia (Bitinya), Ephesus (Efes), Hierapolis, etc. They come here to repeat the travels of the disciples like Paul, Pierre, and Barnabas to spread Christianity and perform the sacred pilgrimage. The Muslims transform their cemeteries of thirty to forty years old into green space first, divide into plots after that and finally construct residences there but the cemeteries of Christians that are more than centuries old are not touched.   

According to a newspaper that I have read recently, there are seventy-five churches belonging to the Greek population of about five thousand in Istanbul. They are maintained though most of them are not used. However, Andalusia, which was a Muslim land until five or six centuries ago, is unprotected.  

At least the Qurtuba Mosque, which somehow survived the bigotry, should be given to Muslims and revived. I believe that Muslims will restore it, prepare it for prayers on their own and by spending their own money if they are allowed. (These restorations are sometimes carried out with the financial support of Muslim countries here.) Some other historical monuments can be repaired after it. Unfortunately, we saw some Muslim statesmen who tried to revive the sacred places of Christians under the pretext of tourism.  

Some Muslims celebrated the 500th anniversary of the end of Islam in Spain with Christians. Muslims, however, should have declared this 500th anniversary in 1992 as a call to search, worldwide, for the rights of the millions of Andalusian Muslims that were killed, deported or Christianized by force. Alas no. How can we, weak Muslims, who cannot do anything about the Middle East, which has become a blood bath and which is seen by the whole world through the means of media, search the rights of the Muslims five hundred years ago?

27 Why is the covering of the Kaaba black? What chapters and verses are written on this covering?

The cloth of the Kaaba is not made black at one time. First it is dyed in red, then green and then in black. There are black woven embossed embroideries on the covering. There are the 99 names of Allah, kalima at-tawhid and tasbihat in embroidery. There is a band of 47-meter long on the top one-third part of the covering. There are Quranic verses related to hajj on the band. Those verses are woven with silver threads dipped in gold water.

The Kaaba has always maintained its identity of a holy shrine that arouses religious enthusiasm and tranquility in the spirits of Muslims. Therefore, looking at the Kaaba is regarded as a kind of worshipping. The place of the Kaaba in the universe is resembled and compared to the place of the heart in the human body. In other words, the Kaaba is the heart of the universe. The Muslims that circumambulate around the Kaaba in waves express the beating of that heart. Each Muslim that circumambulates the Kaaba feels some, whether little or much, enthusiasm and grandeur. Al-Batanuni expresses his feelings about it in his book called ar-Rihla al-Hijaziyya as follows:

“The whole congregation gathered with a feeling of the deepest awe in front of the grandiose dominance and lofty splendor, in front of which the greatest spirits felt themselves as nothing. If we had not seen the movements of the bodies during the prayer (salah) and the raising of the hands during the supplication, had not heard whispering of the words uttered and the beating of the hearts in the presence of that endless grandeur, we would have thought that we had been transferred to another realm and life. In fact, we were in a different realm, then. We were in the house of Allah and in the presence of Allah.  Our heads were bent down; our tongues were tied. Our hands were turned upwards; our eyes were full of tears; our hearts were full of awe and our inner selves were full of good and clean feelings.”

In another place, he also said, “Makkah is the peak of His power and will and the place where His revelation was sent down; the Kaaba is His shrine and the place of His grandeur and help.”

The feeling of respect toward the Kaaba became manifest by putting the covering around it. There are different narrations about who put the first covering around the Kaaba. Although it is reported that Hazrat Ismail (Ishmael) (pbuh) put the first covering around the Kaaba, it is more widely accepted that As’ad Abu Karib, a Yemeni King, put the first covering around the Kaaba. According to a narration, once As’ad Abu Karib traveled to Makkah and stayed there for six days; he sacrificed animals and gave the meat away to the people of Makkah and to the poor.  While he was in Makkah, he saw in his dream that he put a covering around the Kaaba. In the morning, he realized what he saw in his dream and put a covering from the fabric that he saw in his dream around the Kaaba. On the second night, he saw in his dream that he put a covering from another fabric around the Kaaba and on the third night yet another covering. Every morning, he realized what he saw in his dream. Thus, he was known as the first person to put a covering around the Kaaba. Therefore, Our Prophet (pbuh) said, “Do not curse Tubba (As’ad Abu Karib) because he is from the People of Oneness.”

There are several narrations that Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) put a covering around the Kaaba. According to the narrations, the Kaaba was covered by woolen fabrics during the Era of Ignorance. Hazrat Prophet (pbuh) covered the Kaaba with a covering of Yemeni fabric. Hazrat Umar and Hazrat Uthman covered it with thin Egyptian fabric. The narrations agree that the Prophet covered the Kaaba but there are different narrations about the type of the fabric. However, the scholars explaining hadiths say that it is possible that the Messenger of Allah put coverings of different fabrics at different times around the Kaaba.

During the Era of Bliss and the Four Caliphs, the covering was changed every year. Hazrat Muawiyah changed it twice a year, and Mamun changed it three times a year.

He covered it with a red fabric on the day of Tarwiyah, one day before the day of Arafah, a fabric called Qabati on the first day of the month of Rajab and a white fabric on the twenty-seventh day of the month of Ramadan. During the Era of Fatimis, a white covering was put around the Kaaba. Sultan  Mahmud Sebuk Tekin put a yellow covering around the Kaaba. During the time of Abbasid Caliph Nasir, the Kaaba was covered with a green covering. Then, during the time of the same Caliph, it was changed to black.  From then on, the covering of the Kaaba is black.  During the history of Islam, the covering of the Kaaba was never ignored; in Hijri 750, Salih Ismail bin Nasir set up a foundation in a village near Cairo, and he allocated that village for the covering of the Kaaba; the covering of the Kaaba was renewed every year with the income of that foundation.

It is reported in narrations that the covering of the Kaaba was renewed every year during the time of Hazrat Umar and that the covering that was removed was divided among hajis. Those who go to Makkah from Jeddah using the old motorway today see separate buildings in an area of 100.000 square meters just before entering Makkah. In those building, about 300 workers and artisans work on a very blessed thing. They manufacture “Kiswa”, the great fabric that covers the Kaaba.

Until 1962, the covering of the Kaaba was manufactured in Egypt. Then, King Saud had a factory to produce Kiswa built in Makkah. Today, the covering of the Kaaba is woven and produced in that factory by skillful artisans, weavers, calligraphers and technical experts.  Every year, 24 million riyals (according to 1988) are allocated for Kiswa.  670 kilograms of pure white silk and 720 kilograms of dye and acid are used for the covering.  Kiswa consists of 47 parts. Each part is 14 meters long and 95 centimeters wide. The total are of the covering is 650 square meters. The chapter of al-Ikhlas is embroidered with gold on each corner. Other verses are woven on the panels under the band. 120 kilograms of gold and silver were used on the silk dyed black. The ratio of gold to silver is 1 to 4. The weaving, dyeing and embroidering process of Kiswa takes about 1 year. Kiswa is completed one month before Hajj and it is delivered to the family of ash-Shaibi. When the Kaaba is washed for the second time, the old covering is removed and the new one is placed. The old covering is cut into pieces and distributed to Muslims.

Note: We advise you to read the following article on the chapters and verses written on the covering of the Kaaba and in Masjid an-Nabawi.

THE VERSES IN MASJID AL-HARAM (THE KAABA) AND MASJID AN-NABAWI

Decorating various works of art especially historic buildings with verses is an important part of our Quranic culture. Verses, hadiths and aphorisms are quoted in both literature and works of art; it is thought that these phrases shine like a jewel on the building and add an artistic quality and value to it.

What things are taken into consideration when verses are quoted from the Quran and works of art and especially buildings are decorated with verses?We will seek answers to this question related to Masjid al-Haram and Masjid an-Nabawi.

Verses and chapters about whose virtues there are hadiths

Verses and chapters about whose virtues there are hadiths are seen on the buildings in the holy land as they are seen in almost all buildings; along with Bismillahirrahmanirrahim, which is seen at the beginning of chapters and verses as well as independently, ayat al-kursiyy, and the chapters of al-Ikhlas and al-Fatiha are seen almost everywhere.  

The chapters of al-An’am, al-Kahf, Maryam, al-Muzzammil, Muddaththir, Yasin, ad-Duha, al-Jumu’a, ar-Rahman, ash-Shams, al-Layl, al-Mulk, an-Naba’, al-Inshirah, at-Takathur, al-Fath, al-Qadr, al-‘Alaq, al-Ikhlas, al-Mu’awwizatayn, al-Fatiha, , the first five verses of al-Baqara and Amanar-Rasulu (verses 285 and 286 of al-Baqara) are written on the skirting of the dome of the old part of Masjid an-Nabawi.

The chapters of an-Nasr, al-Waqi’a, al-Jumu’a, al-Mulk, Muhammad, Yasin, ad-Duhan, al-Hujurat, al-Inshirah, al-Ikhlas and al-Mu’awwizatayn are written on the bands of the new part of Masjid an-Nabawi.

Some verses of the chapter of al-Fath, the chapters of al-Hujurat, al-Jumu’a, Yasin, al-Qadr and ar-Rahman, verse 34 of the chapter of Ibrahim, the chapters of an-Nasr, al-Asr and al-Kawthar are written on the skirting of the dome of Masjid Quba, and Ayat al-Kursiyy, the last three verses of the chapter of al-Hashr (Huwalluhulladhi) and the last two verses of the chapter of al-Baqara (Amanar-Rasulu) are written on its walls.   

These three mosques are interesting in that they include almost all of the verses and chapters about whose virtues there are hadiths. In the buildings in Turkey, let alone all of them, even only the whole chapter of al-Fath is rarely seen to be written because they cover a lot of space. 

The verses about the Quran can also be evaluated in this context; for instance, the verses starting with Dhalika min anbail-ghayb nuhiha ilayk… (Aal-i Imran, 3/44), Fa-idha qara’tal-Qur’ana... (an-Nahl, 16/98), La ya’tihil-batilu min bayni yadayhi wa la min khalfih… (Fussilat, 41/42) on the façade of Rawda al-Mutahhara.

Verses directly related to the building, the construction of the building or its function

The most beautiful examples of writing verses that aredirectly related to the building are as follows: the verses about the construction of the Kaaba, its being the first temple, its being the qiblah, the obligation of hajj and entering the Kaaba in safety and security are written on the covering (kiswa), lock and keys of the Kaaba; The verse Inna fatahna… (al-Fath, 48/1), in which the verb “to open” is mentioned, and the verse ‘Indahu mafatihul-ghayb… (al-An’am, 6/59) in which the word “key” is mentioned are written on thelock and keys of the Kaaba; the verse innas-Safa wal-Marwata…(al-Baqara, 2/158) is written on the Ottoman porticos and on the skirting of the new dome at the exit of Safa-Marwa; the verse wattakhidhu min maqami Ibrahima musalla… (al-Baqara, 2/125) is written on Maqam Ibrahim; the verse la-Masjidun ussisa ‘alat-taqwa…, which is related to Masjid Quba, (at-Tawba, 9/108) is written on the mihrab (niche) of this mosque and on a stone column outside; the verse Qad nara (al-Baqara, 2/144) written on the mihrab (niche) of Masjid Qiblatayn.

Verses directly or indirectly related to the person who caused the building to be constructed or a person who lived or was buried there

Examples: The verses related to Hz. Ibrahim’s calling people to the Kaaba and constructing the Kaaba with his son are written on the covering of the Kaaba; on the gates of Majid al-Haram –the ones remaining from the Ottoman period or previous periods -, the verses related to the people who had them made are written; on the wall of the qiblah of Masjid an-Nabawi and on the coverings of the Room and altar, etc., the verses related to the Prophet (pbuh) (about his prophethood, his being a model for the ummah, that it is necessary to show respect to him by uttering salawat, etc.) especially the verses including the words Muhammad and nabi are written; on the back door of the Room, the verse Wasiqalladhinattaqaw Rabbahum ilal-Jannati zumara (az-Zumar, 39/73) is written; on the front wall of Rawda, the verse Muhammadun rasulullah walladhina ma’ahu…, (al-Fath, 48/29), which is related to the Prophet and the Companions who laid the foundations of the Islamic state in this mosque, is written; on Qayitbay and Qanuni niches, the verse at-Taibunal-‘abiduna…, which mentions the properties of the Companions (at-Tawba, 9/112), is written; on the gate of women of Masjid an-Nabawi,  the verses Wa man yaqnut minkunna… (al-Ahzab, 33/31-34) are written,on the gate of Jibril, the verse Fa-innallaha huwa mawlahu wa Jibril… (at-Tahrim, 66/4) is written.

One of the most beautiful examples of it is the verse Innahu min Sulaymana wa innahu Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim written on the magnificent altar sent to the Kaaba as a present from Qanuni Sultan Sulayman. In fact, the phrase Innahu min Sulaymana … is related to the letter written by Hz. Sulayman to the queen of Sheba but the verse is quoted in the sense of “This altar is a present to the Kaaba from Qanuni Sultan Sulayman” by changing the reference of the pronoun hu (it). Asit is known, when a verse/hadith is written somewhere – like the quotations in literature –, the original meaning of the sentence does not have to be meant.

Verses related to the function of any unit of a building

Examples: The verse Qad nara… fa-walli wajhaka.. (al-Baqara, 2/144), which is the verse of the qiblah, is written on the three niches in Rawda al-Mutahhara; the verse Kullama dakhala alayha Zakariyyal-mihrab (Aal-i Imran, 3/37), which includes the word mihrab (niche) is written on Qanuni and Qayitbay niches there.

Secondly, it became a tradition to write kalima at-tawhid (La ilaha illalah), which reflects the basic creed of the state, on the doors of altars since altars have a political property because sermons are delivered on behalf of the sultan/caliph there. Kalima at-tawhid is written on the entrance of Murad III altar in Masjid an-Nabawi. The purpose of writing verses from the chapter of al-Jumua related to Friday (Jumua) prayer on altars is understood when the connection of altars with Friday prayer is considered; similarly, the purpose of writing the verse Innallaha wa malaikatahu yusalluna ‘alan-Nabiyy… (al-Ahzab, 33/56) on altars is understood when it is considered that salawat is uttered for the Prophet (pbuh) in the sermons delivered in altars.  

Verses/phrases reflecting the basic creed of Islam

Kalima at-Tawhid, which can be seen almost anywhere, emphasizes the Islamic character of the state; The names Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali, which we see on the covering of the Kaaba, porticos of Masjid al-haram, etc., and especially the phrase Radiyallahu ‘an Abi Bakr wa Umar wa Uthman wa Ali wa ‘anis-sahaba ajma’in (May Allah be pleased with Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali and all of the Companions) on the covering of the Kaaba, which embraces all Companions without excluding any of them, reflects the Sunni character of the state.  

It is stated by the verse Qul kullun ya’malu ‘ala shakilatih… (al-Isra, 17/84), which we see on the bands of the Kaaba among writings, that all religions have a qiblah, that everybody acts in accordance with their own value judgments and that only Allah knows who is on the right path. 

Verses mentioning the things that the building can be likened.

If the building is likened to something as a whole, and if there is a verse about it, this verse can be written on this building. Nice examples of this are as follows: The verse Wa saqahum Rabbuhum sharaban tahura (al-Insan, 76/21), which is related to Allah’s treating ‘a clean drink’ to the people of Paradise is written on Zamzam Well;  The verse Udkhuluha bi-salamin aminin (al-Hijr, 15/46), which asks the people of Paradise in Paradise, is written on all of the gates of the new part of Masjid an-Nabawi, which is likened to Paradise.

Another example is the verse Rabbi adkhilni… (al-Isra, 17/80), which can be read and written at the entrance of any place, and the verse Fi buyutin adhinallah... (an-Nur, 24/36-38), which is about mosques, written on the gate of Babussalam of Masjid an-Nabawi.

Firstly, if it is taken into consideration that the verse (prayer) Rabbi adkhilni … (al-Isra, 17/80) was advised upon the attempts of the polytheists to expel the Prophet (pbuh) from Makkah or to kill him (al-Isra, 17/76), it is clear that the places mentioned as “mukhraj sidq” and “mudkhal sidq” in the prayer is Makkah and Madinah respectively. Then, the secret of this prayer to be written on the first gate of the general headquarters in Madinah, that is, Masjid an-Nabawi is understood.

Secondly, the relationship between buyut (masjids) where Allah’s light shines brightly and Allah’s name is mentioned and rijal (men) who glorify him in the morning and evening and Masjid an-Nabawi and the Companions is clear.

Verses related to the construction and improvement of the building

For instance, it is understood that the verses Wa ma taf’alu min khayr… (al-Baqara, 2/197), Ulaika yusari’un… (a-Mu’minun, 23/61), Masalulladhina yunfiquna … (al-Baqara, 2/261-263), Inna la nudi’u ajra man ahsana ‘amala (al-Kahf, 18/30) and especially Innama ya’muru masajidallah… (at-Tawba, 9/18) are written on buildings indicating that the charity was done for the sake and consent of Allah.

Verses giving various messages to visitors

In fact, there is a certain message in all of the examples above but the message is more intense in the examples below:

The verses Ya ayyuhalladhina amanu la tarfa’u aswatakum… (al-Hujurat, 49/2-3) written on the Room of the Prophet (pbuh) asks believers “to be quiet”.

The verses Wa sari’u ila… wal-kazimina‘l-ghhayza wal-afina ‘ani’n-nas wallahu yuhibbul-muhsinin (Aal-i Imran, 3/133-35) on the Safa gate of Masjid al-Haram do not only remind people for whom Paradise is prepared but also include a very appropriate and befitting warning for a place  where furious, intolerant and unpleasant deeds can be committed.

Allah’s vast mercy is emphasized and despair is rejected by the verses Nabbi’ ‘ibadi… (al-Hijr, 15/49), Wa idha saalaka ‘ibadi… (al-Baqara, 2/186), Wa bashshiril-mu’minina… (al-Ahzab, 33/47), Man ya’mal suan… (an-Nisa, 4/110), Wa inni la-ghhaffar.. (TaHa, 20/82) on the covering of the Kaaba along with the verses Qul ya ‘ibadiyalladhina asrafu… (az-Zumar, 39/53), Ghafiridh-Dhanb, qabilit-tawb (Ghafir, 40/1-3), Kataba Rabbukum ‘ala nafsihir-rahma (al-An’am, 6/54) on the gate of the Kaaba.

On the gate of women of Masjid an-Nabawi, the verses Wa man yaqnut… (al-Ahzab 33/31-34) give some advice to the wives of the Prophet in particular and believing women in general and the verse Lir-rijali nasib... (an-Nisa, 4/33) in the same place advises women and men to act as women and men and not to resemble the opposite gender; On Masjid Quba, the verses Alif Lam Mim dhalikal-kitab… (al-Baqara, 2/1-5) indicates who will attain salvation and the verse Wa sari’u ila maghhfiratin min Rabbikum wa Jannatin (Aal-i Imran, 3/133) on the outer windows encourage people to worship; the verses at-Taibunal-‘abidun… (at-Tawba, 9/112), Qul sadaqallah… (Aal-i Imran, 3/95) and Inna awlan-nas... (Aal-i Imran, 3/68) on Qanuni and Qayitbay niches and the chapter of Quraysh on the covering of the Kaaba remind the visitors the characteristics that a believer needs to have and that they should worship Allah by following the way of Hz. Ibrahim.

In conclusion,

It is seen that in the tradition of quoting from the Quran in architecture, short, concise and impressive verses are preferred except for writings on the bands. These verses generally describe Allah concisely, summarize the Quran and reflect the basic faiths of Islam concisely.

In this tradition in which nice connections are established between a verse

1. and a building or the function of any unit in a building and

2. the person who caused the construction to be built or the people buried there, it is not necessary for the original meanings of the verses to be meant.

As for the verses and chapters written on Masjid al-Haram and Masjid an-Nabawi, theyare mostly on Masjid al-Haram, Hz. Prophet, the qiblah, hajj, prayers, Allah’s vast mercy and Hz. Ibrahim. Nice connections are established between the verses and the building; the people who come to the sacred places are taught certain things by reminding them that it is possible to repent of any sins.  

This tradition was continued by the authorities of Saudi Arabia, not in Masjid al-Haram, but in the other buildings. The phrases Bismillahirrahmanirrahim, La ilaha illallah and Muhammadun rasulullah are written in kufi form separately on the main gates of Masjid al-Haram like King Fahd and King Abdulaziz, which are among the 95 gates of Masjid al-Haram, an on any suitable places on the walls, especially in places where porticos meet.

Turkish calligraphers wrote verses and chapters on the walls of the new parts of Masjid an-Nabawi, on the walls and skirtings of domes of Masjid Quba.However, the writings to be written in the middle of the dome necessitates a more skilled/circular arrangement of the letters;  not all versesabout whose virtues there are hadiths have circular arrangements; forming those arrangements will be difficult; skirtings of domes will allow more verses to be written; therefore, the tradition of writing inside the dome and on the ceiling was not continued. It is seen that different verses were preferred for the gate, covering and key of the Kaaba from time to time.

It is known that the name of the Prophet, that is, “Muhammad” (in addition, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali) is written with the word Allah almost in all places. As a matter of fact, this is seen in the covering and porticos of the Kaaba, Masjid an-Nabawi, etc. However, in Masjid Quba, the verse Latifun bi-‘ibadih… (ash-Shura, 42/19) is written in smaller letters under the word “Allah”, which is written in big letters, and under the name "Muhammad", which is written in big letters,  the verse Rasulullah walladhina ma’ahu ashidda’u ‘alal-kuffari ruhamau baynahum (al-Fath, 48/29) is written with smaller letters so as not to regard the names of others as equal to Allah, who has a completely different ontological structure from them; thus, the impression that the words that are written side by side and with the same size are not the names of Allah and the Prophet but the verses in which these names are mentioned. The traces of the same faith can be seen in the transformation of the phrases Ya Allah Ya Muhammad into Ya Allah Ya Majid, which were written during the time of Sultan Ahmad, on the front wall of the room where the Prophet is buried.

(Assoc. Prof. Murat SÜLÜN, Haremeyn’deki Belli Başlı Mâbedlerde Yazılı Âyetlere Dâir Mülâhazalar - 1, MÜ.İlahiyfat Fakültesi Dergisi, 2003/1)

28 Will you give information about the present state of the Mosque of Qurtuba (Cordoba)? Are there any Muslims remaining from that time in Spain?

The Mosque of Qurtuba (Cordoba), which is by the river of Guadalquivir (Wadil-Kabir) passing through the middle of the city of Cordoba (Qurtuba), Spain, is one of the biggest and oldest mosques in the world.

The mosque, which was built by Abdurrahman I and started in 785, was completed in one year. When it was first built, it was 75 meters wide and 100 meters long. The sultans that came later enlarged the mosques with various additions. In 833, Abdurrahman II added a part to the east and west of the mosque, increasing the number of the parts to 11. In 961, Hakam II added 11 parts and 11 arches, increasing the length to 47.5 meters. These additions were made without deforming the first shape and style.

After these additions, the temple became a magnificent building with a length of 175 m and with a width of 134 m. There is a big wall with a height of 12.20 m around the mosque.  

The temple with the most columns in the world isthe Mosque of Qurtuba. 19 parallel ways consisting of columns intersect 36 alleys at right angles. Most of the 850 columns are made of granite and some of them are made of stone. Columns support the arches made of bricks and white stones.

The most beautiful parts ofthe Mosque of Qurtuba are its niche (mihrab) and pulpit (minbar). The mihrab is in the form of horseshoe. The columns that support the arch of the mihrab are magnificent.

The Arches ofthe Mosque of Qurtuba

The outer decorations of the mosque have been harmed a lot but the inner decorations are still dazzling. Another characteristic of the mosque is that its arches are double-tiered; this characteristic exists only in this mosque.

It is said that a congregation 100.000 people used to perform prayers at the same in this mosque.

The Mosque of Qurtuba was transformed into a cathedral when Fernando III captured the city in 1523. The Spanish king did not demolish the mosque completely but built a cathedral in the middle.

It can be useful to read the following article in order to get brief information about the present state of Islam in Spain:

The Revival of Islam in Spain

On November 10, 1992, the Islamic Commission of Spain was officially recognized in this country, which had expelled from Muslims and Jews and which introduced itself as a Catholic country for centuries. This meant a real cultural revolution. A strict, even bigoted, Catholic country recognized Islam for the first time and granted rights to the Muslims living in its own country.

They had to give this right because Spanish intellectuals had begun years ago to revive the memories of Andalusia and to mention the unjust persecution inflicted upon Muslims. As a matter of fact, under the influence of those intellectuals, San Carlos de la Rapita Municipality built a monument in 1990; and the following sentence was written on it:

"Between 15 June and 16 September 1610, 41.000 Spanish Muslims were expelled from Spain."

The number of the Muslims in Spain started to increase beginning from 1980s, with the increase of the Muslims coming from outside and the Spanish people accepting Islam. First, a mosque was built in Granada, where painful memories of the Islamic world are still kept. Not long after that, the cities of Sevilla (Ishbiliyya), Cordoba (Qurtuba), Malaga, Almeria and other cities followed. Spanish cities and towns began to have mosques.

Along with the increase of the Muslim population, slaughtering animals according to Islamic methods started. "Halal meat" chain stores were formed.

Later on, an Islamic University opened in the name of Ibn Rushd, who grew up in Andalusia and enlightened the West. Then, the Muslim Cultural Center in Madrid opened. In Costa del Sol, Marbella and Fuengirola, spectacular mosques were built.

According to Spanish official authorities, there are 600,000 people who formally declare that they are Muslims today in Spain. Those who conceal themselves due to various reasons are definitely not included this number. The two largest Muslim Federations in the country have about four hundred associations under their roofs.

The following is stated in the preamble to the law granting rights to Muslims in Spain: "The religion of Islam has a tradition of a few centuries old and a significant importance in the formation of the Spanish identity." Acting upon this, the rights and responsibilities of Muslims are listed one by one.

The worshipping places of Muslims are approved as inviolable and untouchable places. Certain sections are allocated for Muslims in cemeteries. The beliefs and lifestyles of Muslims based on the Quran and the Sunnah are guaranteed. The imams appointed by Muslim communities are included in the scope of social security. When Muslims are taken into military service, if they want, they are employed in missions that will not disrupt their worshipping.

The marriage of Muslims is accepted and recorded in front of two witnesses. Measures are taken in hospitals, barracks and prisons according to the religious needs of Muslims.

Like other religions, Muslims are guaranteed religious education and given religious education lessons in public schools. Religious education lessons are given by the teachers chosen by Muslim communities and their salaries are paid by the state.

Mosques and places used for religious needs of Muslims are exempted from tax.

Muslims who work for the state or in private enterprise are given permission for Friday prayers.

Muslims are officially allowed a holiday for eid al-fitr and eid al-adha. The tests and other duties that need to be done on those days are postponed to other days.

It is also stated in the law that it is necessary to have halal meat at schools, barracks and other public institutions and to observe the food needs of Muslims.

Today's Muslims in Spain, who obtained numerous rights, are regarded as a hope and a first step toward the revival of the Andalusian civilization lost by Spanish intellectuals.

The fact that these nice initiatives, which will be an example to other western countries, were started in a strict Catholic and very bigoted country like Spain indicates that the Andalusian spirit still lives in that land without losing its influence.

Four hundred years later, the beautiful land of Andalusia is waking up again with sounds of adhan. Sounds of adhan rise to the sky of Andalusia. After centuries, Islam is announcing itself once again in Spain, which was the cradle of the Andalusian civilization.

29 Who is Kabul-Ahbar (Ka'b al-Ahbar)?

Ka'bul- Ahbar is one of the famous scholars of Sons of Israel. He is a Yemeni Jew; he became famous for his vast knowledge on the Torah. He learned the attributes of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) from holy books and became a Muslim. He tried to persuade the Jewish scholars around him. He was accepted as the most reliable among the narrators of the People of the Book. He had a copy of the Torah that had not been distorted during the emergence of Islam; he encouraged the scholars to accept Islam by giving examples from the verses of the Torah that indicated the Prophet (pbuh). Some of those verses are mentioned in Risale-i Nur Collection and the phrase "one of the great scholars of Sons of Israel" (Mektubat: Letters, p. 167) is used for him.

His full name is Abu Ishaq Ka'b bin Mati bin Heynu (Haysu) al-Yemeni. Ka'b's exact date of birth is not known. When the narration that he died at the age of 104 is considered, his year of birth can be accepted as 551. He is from Yemen and is a member of the Zuruayn tribe living there.

It is narrated that he has vast knowledge; he was given the nickname "ahbar" because he wrote his writings in ink. Ahbar is the plural form of the word hibr (ink). It is also stated that he is known as al-Ahbar because of his vast knowledge about the Bible.

There are different narrations about Ka'b's becoming a Muslim. According to a narration, it is stated that he became a Muslim during the time of the Prophet when Hz. Ali went to Yemen and talked to him. According to another narration, he went to Madinah during the caliphate of Hz. Abu Bakr or Hz. Umar but he could not find the Caliph there; then, he went to Jerusalem and became a Muslim in the presence of the Caliph there. It is clearly stated in all three narrations that he became a Muslim.

Ka'b, who is the son of a Jewish scholar, learned some of his religious knowledge from his father. However, his father wrote some of the Torah, gave it to him and wanted Ka’b to content himself with it; he put his books in a closet and locked it. Besides, his father made him promise that he will not read except the copies that he gave him. After that, when the Prophet emerged and the religion of Islam started to spread everywhere, he read the books that his father had hid and had a lot of knowledge about the properties of the last Prophet.

Ka'b, who had a version of the Torah that had not been distorted yet, knew about the sound and fabricated information included in their books.He could discern what was true and what was wrong in them. He had knowledge about the last Prophet based on the information in the Torah; therefore, he believed in him and tried to persuade other scholars to believe in him.

Ka'b narrated the hadiths that he learned from the Companions including Hz. Umar. The hadiths he narrated are included in the books of Abu Dawud, Darimi, Tirmidhi and Malik. He benefited from the Companions; and the Companions and Tabiun benefited from his knowledge. Hz. Umar, Abdullah bin Zubayr, Abdullah bin Abbas, Abu Hurayra and Muawiya are among the Companions that benefited from his knowledge. In addition, some Tabiun reported the hadiths they learned from him. Ka'b also told some stories in his meetings but when he heard that telling stories was prohibited except by the people whom the Caliph appointed, he gave up telling stories.

It is stated that the only undistorted copy of the Torah was left to him by his father and that he made interpretations based on this copy. Some of the interpretations made by him about Quranic verses were found to be compatible with hadiths by the Companions and they were approved. The information reported by him about the last Prophet is mentioned in various Islamic resources; some of his reports from the Torah are included in Risale-i Nur Collection. It is reminded that Abdullah ibn Salam and Ka'bul-Ahbar showed and announced the following verse from the Torah:

"O Prophet ! We have sent you as a witness (for Allah's True religion) And a giver of glad tidings (to the faithful believers), And a warner (to the unbelievers) And guardian of the illiterates. You are My slave and My messenger (i.e. Apostle). I have named you "al-Mutawakkil" (who depends upon Allah). You are neither discourteous, harsh nor a noisemaker in the markets And you do not do evil to those Who do evil to you, but you deal With them with forgiveness and kindness. Allah will not let him (the Prophet) die till he makes straight the crooked people by making them say: "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah." (Mektubat: Letters, p. 167)

In the verse above, the Prophet (pbuh) is mentioned by the name "Mutawakkil", he is mentioned as Muhammad in another verse:

"Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Makkah is his place of birth, Madinah is the place of his migration and Damascus belongs to him. His ummah are people who praise Allah." The following is stated in another verse of the Torah: "You are my slave and messenger. I gave you the name Mutawakkil." (Mektubat: Letters, p. 167-168).

The discussions about the reliability and personality of Ka'b reached today. Along with the narrations stating that some great Companions including Hz. Umar benefited from him and his advice, there are also narrations that he was threatened to be dismissed from Madinah if he did not give up reporting things. Ibn Masud criticized Ka'b due to some issues he included in his narrations. On the other hand, Ibn Hibban who reports the view of Abu Darda states that Ka’b was a knowledgeable scholar and that it is agreed that he had a great amount of knowledge. Besides, Dhahabi, who studied his biography, emphasizes his vast knowledge and religious personality; he did not include any information criticizing Ka’b. Some other writers included Ka’b in their works in detail, showing that they gave great value and importance to him. (M. Yaşar Kandemir; "Kâ'b el-Abhâr", TDVİA. Vol. 24. p. 2)

Ka'b's personality necessitated sensitive studies and separate evaluations about the issues like his sincerity in Islam and the evaluation of the information he included in his narrations. It seems that there are no negative evaluations and attitudes toward him that will overshadow his sincerity in accepting Islam since some Companions reported from him. However, it is not fair to accuse him of including Israiliyyat with the intention of destroying the religion. It is known that certain customs and habits remaining from Sons of Israel continued after the adoption of Islam. However, it is not appropriate to think that all of them are malevolent. What matters is to filter them and to remove those that are incompatible with the spirit of Islam.

It is important to keep in mind that Ka'b is regarded among the most reliable narrators of the People of the Book. However, it should be taken into consideration that some reports changed in the course of time, in some cases the texts were mixed with interpretations, sometimes interpretations were combined with the original statement, and that they were not done entirely with malicious intentions.

Ka'bul-Ahbar spent his last years in Homs, where he settled. He participated in the war against the Byzantines. He passed away in 652. His year of death is also stated to be 653. It is also reported that he died in Damascus and that he was buried in the Cemetery of Babussaghir.

30 Did Hz. Aisha prevent Hz. Hasan from being buried next to the Prophet?

Hz. Hasan, who lived in Madinah for ten years, (Dhahabi, Siyar A'lamin-Nubala, Beirut 1406/1986, III/246, 264) sent somebody to Hz. Aisha when his death approached to tell her that he wanted to be buried next to the Prophet. Hz. Aisha accepted it. Thereupon, Hz. Hasan said to his brother,

"When I die, ask permission from Hz. Aisha to bury me next to the Prophet. I received permission from her beforehand. She did not reject me. Maybe she felt shy and did not reject. If she allows, bury me in her house. However, I think Sons of Umayy will not allow it. If they oppose, do not struggle against them. Bury me in the cemetery of Baqi."

When he died, Hz. Husayn went to Hz. Aisha and talked to her. Hz. Aisha said about Hz. Hasan's will, "I will gladly accept it." (According to Ya'qubi, Hz. Aisha opposed to it severely. (Ya’qubi, II. 225) However, nobody except Ya’qubi puts forward this claim.

When Marwan and Sons of Umayyad were informed about it, they said, "By Allah! He can never be buried next to the Prophet (pbuh)." Hz. Husayn was informed about it. He and the people near him took their weapons.

Hz. Abu Hurayra saw the graveness of the situation and first said it would be cruelty to prevent Hz. Hasan from being buried there. Then, he went to Hz. Husayn and talked to him in order to dissuade him. He reminded Hz. Husayn about his brother’s will and that he said, "If you fear that mischief will occur, bury me in the cemetery of Baqi." Hz. Husayn feared that mischief would occur and buried his brother in the cemetery of Baqi, where many Companions were buried.

31 Who is Badiuzzaman Said Nursi? Will you give information about his life?

BADIUZZAMAN SAID NURSI

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi, the author of Risale-i Nur, divided his life into three periods: He called the period of his life from his birth to 1926, which was the year when he started to write Risale-i Nur, as Previous Said, the period of his life between 1926 and 1950 as New Said and his life after 1950 as Third Said. However, this division is a change method rather than thought. He applied different methods in each of the three periods based on time and space in terms of service to the religion and belief.

Badiuzzaman Said Nursi was born in 1878 in Nurs village, İsparit, Hizan in the province of Bitlis.

He started his education in the madrasah in the village of Tağ when he was nine years old. His education life was very active. He looked for a madrasah that was suitable for him in the region and studied in various madrasahs for very short periods. This search lasted for about three years. During this period, he read the whole Quran and read the introductory books of madrasah method. However, the most important part of his education life was the three months he spent in Doğubeyazıt; he was educated by Sheikh Mehmet Celâlî, in this period and he studied more than eighty books that were among the basic books of madrasah education. Then, he got his diploma and left Doğubeyazıt.

After that, Said Nursi went to Bitlis and joined the academic debates, which was a tradition among madrasah scholars at that time. He was appreciated by everybody due to his accomplishments, intelligence and memory. At the end of these debates, he made everybody accept his diploma, which he got when he was thirteen years old and proved his academic maturity; they started to call him ‘Badiuzzaman’, which means “the wonder of the time”.

When Hasan Pasha, the governor of Van, heard the fame of this young scholar, he invited him to Van. Said Nursi remained in Van for a long time and continued his studies. He had the opportunity to study the books related to exact sciences in the big library of Tahir Pasha, who was appointed as the governor after Hasan Pasha, and he became interested in physics, chemistry, geography, astronomy and philosophy.

The years Said Nursi spent in Van was a period when important formations took place in his world of thought. The statement of Gladstone, British Minister of Colonies, that it was necessary to eliminate the Quran or to alienate Muslims from the Quran affected Badiuzzaman a lot and he devoted his remaining life to the understanding of the Quran.

Thinking that it was necessary to establish a university, where madrasah sciences and exact sciences will be studied together, in order to meet the need for education in the East, Said Nursi went to Istanbul in 1907 in order to convey this idea of his to the government and to attempt to realize this project. When he stayed in Şekerci Han in Malta (Fatih/Istanbul), he had academic meetings with the notable scholars of Istanbul. He wrote the following sentence on the door of his room: “All questions are answered here but no questions are asked.” This attracted the attention of the palace, academic circles and people.

He informed the palace about his ideas related to the establishment of the university he wanted in the East with a petition. However, the government of that period could not understand the importance of this need and they did not make any attempts to realize this project. On the contrary, the palace, which suspected the slightest movement, began to suspect him due to his attitudes that did not accept any force in his earlier life and people gathering around him in Istanbul due to his attitudes. They sent him to a mental hospital, but the doctors who examined him reported: "If there is a grain of insanity in this man, then there must be no sane person in the whole world."

In those years, discussions on freedom and constitutional monarchy were on the agenda of Istanbul. Said Nursi also participated in these discussions and argued that that freedom and constitutional monarchy were not contrary to Islam but that authoritarian and autocratic governments were contrary to Islam with his articles published in the newspapers. In addition, on the third day of the proclamation of the constitutional monarchy, he made a speech supporting constitutional monarchy in Istanbul. He repeated the same speech in front of a large group of people at Hürriyet Square in Thessaloniki. He took part in a lot of political movements that emerged in the atmosphere of liberation brought by the constitutional monarchy; and he took part in many political events.

Despite the speeches he made to prevent chaos and his soothing role during the incident of March 31, 1909, he was arrested and was put on trial with the demand of execution in ‘the court martial’ and he was acquitted. Afterwards, he published his defense in this court under the name İki Mektebi Musibetin Şehadetnamesi.

He left Istanbul in 1910 and returned to Van; he visited the tribes in the region and gave explanatory information to the local people related to the issues like constitutional monarchy, liberty, constitution and parliament. In the same year, he wrote his book, Münazarat, which summarized these talks.

When he was in Damascus in the winter of the same year, upon the invitation of the scholars in the region, he addressed the scholars in Damascus Umayyad Mosque about the problems of the Islamic world. This sermon was published in 1911 under the name Hutbe-i Şamiye. He left Damascus and went to Istanbul; in the same year, he joined Sultan Reşad on his journey in Rumelia including the groundbreaking ceremony of a university in Skopje, as a representative of the eastern provinces of Turkey. Said Nursi, who persuaded the Sultan to apply this project, which was not completed due to the Balkan wars, in the East, left Istanbul in 1912 and returned to Van. In 1913 he laid the foundation of the university named 'Medresetü'z-Zehra' with the Governor of Van. However, when the First World War broke out, he went to the front with his students and the university project, which he made a lot of efforts for, was left unfinished due to the war.

During the war, he began to write his tafsir book called İşârâtü’l-İ’câz. Many of his students were martyred in this war, and he was enslaved by the Russians in 1916. His slavery, which lasted about two and a half years, ended when he escaped during the chaos caused by the Russian revolution. He reached Istanbul through Siberia, Berlin, Warsaw and Sofia in 1918.

Both academic circles and the people of the palace showed him great interest in Istanbul; he was appointed as a member of Darü’l-Hikmeti’l-İslâmiye. In the years when he was in Istanbul, he wrote his booklets called Nokta, Sünuhât, Lemeât, Katre, Habbe, Zerre andŞemme; he published twenty-two more books along with them. Among these published books are the book called Kızıl İcaz, which is related to logic and İşârâtü’l-İ’câz, which is a book of tafsir.

Istanbul was occupied by the British in 1920. Said Nursi tried to awaken the people against the occupation with the booklet Hutuvat-i Sitte, which he published as a reaction to the occupation; and he supported the Kuva-yı Milliye movement by publishing a fatwa against Sheikhulislam’s fatwa, which described the Anatolian movement as a "rebellion". Because of his activities in Istanbul, the British issued a decree to execute Said Nursi. He was insistently invited to Ankara by the Grand National Assembly in Anatolia. As a result of these invitations, he went to Ankara on November 19, 1922 and was welcomed with an official ceremony by the Assembly.

However, he issued a declaration to warn the members of parliament for their indifferent attitudes toward the religion. His activities caused him to argue with Mustafa Kemal. When the members of parliament consoled themselves with the victory against the Greeks, he published his Arabic booklet called Zeylü’z-Zeyl, which criticized naturalism and determinism. In addition, he wrote his works called Hubab and Zeylü’l-Hubab. The Ankara Government offered him to be a member of parliament, the general preacher of the East, a member of religious affairs, etc. However, he refused to accept any of them, left Ankara in May 1923 and went to Van.

In Van, he retreated to Mount Erek and was engaged in worshipping. That he rejected the official posts proposed to him by political authorities, that he kept away from politics and was engaged in worshipping on a mountain were the signs of a new era for Said Nursi. As a result of the questioning that started from the time of his captivity, a new era which he called "New Said Period" started; in this era, he wrote Risale-i Nur, in which he described the Quran in a manner congruent with the understanding of the people of 20th century.

The authorities pestered him all the time in this New Said period. Using the Sheikh Said rebellion, which started in 1924, as an excuse, they deported him from Erek Mountain by the order of the Ankara Government and sent him to Burdur for an obligatory stay. He was kept in isolation during the period that started with Burdur.

In Burdur, he wrote his book called Nur’un İlk Kapısı. Said Nursi, who was sent to Isparta from here in 1926, stayed in Isparta for a little while; then, he was sent to Barla Village of Eğirdir District for an obligatory stay. During his nearly eight-year obligatory stay in Barla, he wrote most parts of his works called Sözler, Lem'alar and Mektubat.

They brought him back to the center of Isparta by the order of the government of Ankara in order to observe closely and control Said Nursi, whom they disturbed by various oppressions and persecutions such as poisoning, violation of private life and arbitrary prevention of meeting his friends during Barla period. When those who feared the name Said Nursi realized that it would not be possible to prevent him by surveillance, they started looking for ways to send him to prison; and in 1935 they used his work Tesettür Risalesi as an excuse and accused him of establishing a secret organization, opposing the regime and shaking the foundations of the regime; thus, they sent Said Nursi and his students to Eskişehir prison.

He was sentenced to one-year imprisonment by the verdict on August 19, 1935 and one-year obligatory stay in Kastamonu under surveillance. He was sent to Kastamonu after a year of imprisonment in Eskişehir.

He wrote his works entitled Ayet-ül Kübrâ, Birinci Şua, İkinci Şua, Yedinci Şua and Sekizinci Şua during his seven-year stay in Kastamonu. This time, he was tried at Denizli court due to a file sued against the booklet called Ayetü’l-Kübrâ. He was acquitted but he was sent to Emirdağ district of Afyonkarahisar for an obligatory stay upon the instruction of the Ankara government. A new file was sued against him by Afyon Heavy Penal Court in 1948; he was acquitted in 1949. However, his books were confiscated. Upon the appeal against the confiscation verdict, Afyon Heavy Penal Court decided in 1956 that Risale-i Nur could be printed and distributed. After the verdict of the acquittal by Afyon court, he returned to Emirdağ.

The third term, which he called Third Said, is the period of propagation and spread of Risale-i Nur. This period is a period when Badiuzzaman focused on services for spreading and making Risale-i Nur understood and was engaged in social life for the future of his religious service. These years were years of a bit of relief and liberty. Different layers of people were informed about the truths of Risale-i Nur; university circles started to read Risale-i Nur.

In 1952, he went to Istanbul to participate in the trial for the file sued against his book called Gençlik Rehberi; he was acquitted there too.

He went to Emirdağ from Istanbul. However, due to a new file sued against him in Samsun, he came to Istanbul again in order to go to Samsun. Since he was very tired and sick, he got a hospital report and testified in Istanbul courts upon his request. As a result of his testimony sent by the rogatory court to Samsun, he was acquitted.

Said Nursi, who returned to Emirdağ from Istanbul, then went to Isparta from Emirdağ and spent the last periods of his life by paying short visits to Emirdağ and Istanbul.

In his travel that started in January 1960, he went to Istanbul, Ankara, Konya and Emirdağ; then, he returned to Isparta.

Although Said Nursi got sick on March 20, 1960, he was taken to Urfa by his students due to his insistent request. His illness deteriorated there; he passed away in the plain room of the hotel in which he stayed on March 23, 1960.

32 Will you give information about Hz. Husayn (r.a.)?

Husayn is the grandson of the Prophet (pbuh) born of his daughter Hz. Fatima. He is the second son of Hz. Ali and Hz. Fatima. He was born on the fifth of the month of Shaban in the fourth year of the Migration.

The Prophet himself named him. When Hz. Husayn was born, Jibril came and said, "O Muhammad! Your Lord sends his greetings. He wants you to give your grandson the name of Harun's son."

The Prophet asked, "O Jibril! What is the name of Harun's son?"

Jibril said, "Shabir".

The Prophet said, "My language is Arabic."

Jibril said, "Then, name him its equivalent in Arabic, Husayn." (Diyar Bakri, al-Khamis, 1,471).

Hz. Husayn resembled the Prophet (pbuh) a lot. Hz. Ali said, "The body of Hasan resembled the Messenger of Allah from his chest to his head. The body of Husayn resembled the Messenger of Allah from that part below." (Ahmad b. Hanbal Musnad, 1, 108)

Hz. Prophet (pbuh) loved Hz. Hasan and Hz. Husayn very much. He said,

"O Allah! I love them. You love them too." (Tirmidhi Sunan V, 661);

"Hasan and Husayn are my basils that I smell in this world." (Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, II, 288);

"He who loves Hasan and Husayn loves me; he who nurtures grudge against them nurtures grudge against me." (Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, II, 288)

The Prophet (pbuh) accompanied Hz. Hasan and Hz. Husayn so that they would play as they wished and played with them as if he was a child. When Hz. Husayn wanted the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) to be a camel, he would bow down and allow them to ascend to his back. Then, he would say, "Can there be a better camel than this?"

Once, the Prophet was sitting in the place where dead bodies were placed. Hz. Hasan and Hz. Husayn started to wrestle. The Prophet smiled and said, “Come on, Hasan! Catch Husayn!” He supported Hz. Hasan. Hz. Ali said, “O Messenger of Allah! I think you should support Husayn because Hasan is older.” The Prophet (pbuh) said, “Look! Jibril is supporting Husayn by saying, ’Come on, Husayn! Go for it!" (Dhahabi, Siyar Alamun-Nubala, 111, p. 190-191)

Hz. Husayn, who was one of the grandchildren of the Prophet (pbuh), spent his childhood with the Prophet. Hz. Husayn, who was educated by the Messenger of Allah and who grew up with belief, became a martyr. Hz. Husayn, who realized that no decree other than the decree of Allah and His Messenger could be valid in man’s life, did not tend to the people who overshadowed this truth; on the contrary, he resisted them heroically.

Muawiya died in Damascus in the middle of the month of Rajab in 60 H. After the death of Muawiya, the people of Damascus paid allegiance to Muawiya b. Abu Sufyan’s son Yazid.

Yazid's coming into power was in the form of sultanate. Yazid knew it very well that many Companions, primarily Hz. Husayn, would not accept his coming into power like that and that he would get strong reactions. He acted very quickly so as not to lose the caliphate. He sent a letter to Walid b. Utba b. Abi Sufyan, the governor of Madinah.

He wrote the following in his letter: "When you receive my letter, find Husayn b. Ali and Abdullah b. Zubayr; make them pay allegiance to me. If they reject to pay allegiance, kill them and send their heads to me. Do the same thing to those who reject to pay allegiance as you will do to Husayn b. Ali and Abdullah b. Zubayr."

It is also written in resources that Yazid wanted the governor of Madinah to make Hz. Husayn and the notables of the Companions pay allegiance and not to act slowly and tolerantly regarding the issue in the letter he wrote.

After Yazid's coming into power, the people of Kufa sent letters after letters to Hz. Husayn, invited him to Kufa and stated that they would declare him the Caliph if he came to Kufa. They said they could not perform Friday prayers because they did not have an amir/imam.

Hz. Husayn went to Makkah from Madinah and started to correspond with the people of Kufa. He sent Muslim b. Aqil, his cousin, to Kufa to find out about the state of the people of Kufa. Muslim wrote a letter to Hz. Husayn stating that the situation in Kufa was good and that the people were ready to pay allegiance to him. After this news, Hz. Husayn decided to go to Kufa and started preparations.

While Hz. Husayn was preparing for the journey to Kufa, Abdullah Ibn Abbas asked him insistently to give up this journey. Similarly, Abdullah Ibn Umar and Imam Sha’bi, one of the notables of Tabiun scholars, asked Hz. Husayn not to go to Kufa emphasizing that the people of Iraq could not be trusted. However, Hz. Husayn was determined to go to Kufa.

When Yazid heard that Hz. Husayn headed toward Kufa, he changed the governor of Kufa and gave the duty of the governorship of Kufa to Ubaydullah Ibn Ziyad, who was also the governor of Basra.

When Ubaydullah b. Ziyad became the governor of Kufa, the first thing he did was to kill Muslim b. Aqil brutally.

Yazid gave the following order to Ubaydullah b. Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, about Hz. Husayn:

"You continue acting as I want. You fulfilled my order in a skilled and wise way. You attacked like a persistent and determined hero. You completed this task without needing anybody else to help you. According to the news I received, Husayn b. Ali left Makkah and is coming toward you. Send your spies immediately. Place guards on the ways. Do your best about this issue. Do not fight anybody unless they fight you. Write to me about what happens every day."

The news that Hz. Husayn received on the way to Kufa was not very good. When he received the news that Muslim b. Aqil was martyred, it was not possible to return. Many people on the way told him not to go to Kufa and to return immediately.

Despite those adverse conditions, Hz. Husayn continued proceeding to Kufa in a determined way. Meanwhile, traps were set against him. Due to the adverse conditions, Hz. Husayn said to the people who were with him, "Those who wish can return. I do not want to force you to come with me." However, nobody left him. (Dhahabi, A'lamun-Nubala, 111, 201-202)

Hz. Husayn confronted a cavalry unit of one thousand soldiers under the command of Hurr b. Yazid at-Tamimi. Hurr b. Yazid acted in accordance with the order of Ubaydullah b. Ziyad. He drove Hz. Husayn toward Karbala as Ubaydullah ordered him.

Ubaydullah b. Ziyad realized that the situation was very serious. Umar b. Sa'd, who was appointed as the governor of Marw, was preparing in Kufa.  However, Ubaydullah wanted to use Umar b. Sa'd against Hz. Husayn. He sent him an order and told him to go to Karbala with his army. Umar b. Sa'd did not want to confront Hz. Husayn. When Ibn Ziyad found out about it, he said, "If you do not go to confront him, I will dismiss you from the duty of the governorship of Marw, demolish your house and kill you." (Dhahabi, ibid)

The situation was getting worse. Hz. Husayn made the following offers to Umar b. Sa’d in order to ease the situation and prevent blood from being shed: "O Umar! Accept one of my three offers:

Let me go to the boundaries to make jihad. Or, let me go to Yazid to talk to him. Or, allow me to return to Madinah." (Dhahabi, A'lamun-Nubala, 111, 208-209) However, Ibn Ziyad did not accept any of these offers and did not want to allow Hz. Husayn to leave.

Umar b. Sa'd did not make any attacks against Hz. Husayn. Days passed like that. Ubaydullah b. Ziyad gave his last order. He wrote the following to Umar b. Sa'd:

"I did not send you there so that you would spend days with Husayn, wish his safety and survival and be his intercessor. Tell them to accept my decree at once. If they surrender to you, send him and the people around him to me. If they do not accept, walk against them because he is a rebel."

After this order, attacks on Hz. Husayn started. A few mujahids around Hz. Husayn, women and children from Ahl al-Bayt resisted against the army consisting of thousands of soldiers. They were martyred one by one. Hz. Husayn fought heroically as the last man and was martyred as a result of thirty-three spear wounds and thirty-four sword wounds.

Seventy-two people from the relatives of Hz. Husayn were martyred in Karbala. They virtually wanted to eliminate the whole Ahl al-Bayt. Eighty-eight people from Kufa also died.

Hz. Husayn was martyred on Muharram 10, in 61 H. When he was martyred, he was fifty-seven years old.

The martyrdom of Hz. Husayn affected Umar b. Sa'd and Yazid deeply and saddened them. However, this sadness was of no use. It was Yazid who caused the martyrdom of Hz. Husayn.

Şâmil İA

33 What did the custom of burying girls alive in the Era of Jahiliyyah originate from? Was there a certain limit for it? Were all daughters buried?

Not all girls were buried. The people whose conscience did not accept it did not bury their daughters. However, those people walked unhappily in the community and felt ashamed.

It is not mentioned in history books when they started to bury girls first. They named this bad deed committed inthe Era of Jahiliyyah as "Burying Girls Alive".

They did it in order to protect their honor or they regarded it as a shame to have daughters and sometimes because they were born disabled or ugly.Inthe Era of Jahiliyyah, most of the girls were buried alive in certain places and in certain parts of the community.

This savage custom was applied by some people with a strange effort of Jahiliyyah, by others due to financial difficulty, by others with fear that their wealth will be transferred to other people through their daughters and by others with the loyalty to their tribe.

No matter why it was applied, it was savagery and it had to be abolished and it was abolished. Several orders in the Quran and Sunnah played an important role in the abolishment of this custom.

34 How can the transformation of St. Sophia (a church) into a mosque be explained by freedom of religion and conscience?

According to the decrees of Islamic law of states, the temples belonging to the People of the Book in the countries that are conquered through peace are not touched; however, new ones are not allowed to be built. The ones that existed for a long time can be repaired.

Just the opposite is valid in the countries that are conquered through war. That is, if the Islamic sultan wants, he can eliminate all of the temples and deport all non-Muslims. Istanbul was conquered through war. This decree is the reason why St Sophia and some other churches were transformed into mosques. If that decree had been applied throughout Istanbul, all of the churches and synagogues in Istanbul would have been demolished.

Sultan Mehmed II (the Conqueror), who conquered Istanbul with the help of Allah and the strength of his sword, accepted a committee consisting of priests and rabbis into his presence after transforming St Sophia into a mosque.

The committee of priests and rabbis told Mehmed the Conqueror that he conquered Istanbul through war and that it was his right originating from the law of states not to leave any churches and synagogues in Istanbul if he wished. However, they asked him to treat them and their temples as if Istanbul had been conquered by peace and wanted their late entrance into his presence to be accepted as a means of this request.

Consulting the religious scholars around him, Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror accepted their requests and he did not intervene in the churches and synagogues that had not been transformed into mosques. A fatwa issued by the famous sheikhulislam Ebussuud Efendi of the Ottoman state shows that the real secret of the existence of the churches and synagogues that have survived up to now is Mehmed the Conqueror’s understanding of the freedom of religion and conscience. The fatwa is as follows:

“Did Sultan Muhammed II conquer Istanbul and the towns around it by force? The answer: It is known that he conquered Istanbul by force. However, old churches indicate conquest through peace. This issue was searched in 945. A person aged 130 years old and another person aged 110 years old were found; they witnessed that the group of Jews and Christians formed an alliance with Sultan Mehmed II secretly that they would not help the Byzantine rulers and that Sultan Mehmed II would not enslave them, and that Istanbul was conquered like that. Due to this witnessing, the old churches remained as they were. Written by Ebussuud.”

This fact is also confirmed by the information given by historians. Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror sent İsfendiyar oğlu Damad Kasım Beyas as an envoy to Byzantine on May 23 and sent with him the following message: The city will fall in the first general attack. The Empire, who is a real soldier, must accept this fact. If they surrender through peace, their lives and wealth will not be harmed; if it is conquered by war, blood will be shed and no responsibility will be accepted by Mehmed the Conqueror. Unfortunately, the Empire did not accept peace despite this message and Istanbul was conquered by force. However, Mehmed treated them as it is mentioned above. That Mehmed the Conqueror did not destroy all mosaics in St Sophia and that he did not burn the walls around Istanbul show his attitude regarding the issue.

As it is seen, the promise of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror “to permit the construction of a church near each mosque”practiced in Serbia was also applied in Istanbul. Does the existence of the ByzantinePatriarchate and the church next to the mosque in Abdi Subaşı District, Fener not show the freedom of religion and conscience in the real sense? Is it not one of the material evidences of this freedom to permit the construction of a Byzantine church opposite Mihrimah Sultan Mosque in Edirnekapı?

The claim that Istanbul was destroyed is not true. Instead of answering it in detail, we will quote a sentence from the determination made by CNN, Time and similar media companies mentioning the conquest of Istanbul among the most important hundred incidents of the last millennium:

"Before Istanbul was conquered by Mehmed the Conqueror, it was a dead city of ruins. After the conquest, it became the trade center of both Europe and Muslim countries and a prosperous world city. As a matter of fact, even the Russian historian Ouspensky said, 'In 1453, Turks treated people much more humanely and tolerantly than the Crusaders in 1204.'" (1)

References:

1) Molla Hüsrev, Dürer ve Gürer, I/282 ff.; Mevkufati, Multaqa Translation, I/343; Damad, Majma’ul-Anhu Explanation Multaqal-Abhur, I/643 ff; Ebussuud, Ma'ruzat, Ist. Uni. Library nd. no. 1798, paper. 130/a-b; Ibni Kemal, Tevârih-i Âl-i Osman, VII. Defter, p. 62 ff.; Baştav, Şerif, “XIV. Asırda yazılmış Grekçe Anonim Osmanlı tarihine göre İstanbul’un muhasarası ve zabtı”, p. 51-82; Cin-Akgündüz, Türk Hukuk Tarihi, Vol.1, p. 448 ff.; Âli, Künh’ül-Ahbâr, Vol. V, 251-260; Solakzâde, 191-201; Âşıkpaşa-zâde, p. 141-143; Clot, Fâtih, 60 ff.; for the opposite view, see Aydın, Erdoğan, Fâtih ve Fetih, Mitler ve Gerçekler, 66-67, 94-95, 127-128.; Akgündüz-Öztürk, Bilinmeyen Osmanlı, OSAV, İstanbul, 1999, p. 106-108.

Ahmet Akgündüz (Prof. Dr.)

35 How were the incidents that took place in the history of Islam determined correctly and how did they reach us?

BOOKS OF SIYAR AND MAGHAZI

Muslims started to write books about the life and wars of the Prophet (pbuh), which were terminologically called "Siyar and Maghazi", beginning from the first century of the Migration, that is, the era of the Companions.

1. While mentioning Maghazi books, Katib Chalabi notes that there are some scholars who state that the first person to write a book on Maghazi was Urwa b. Zubayr (22-94) – apart from Ibn Ishaq. (1)

That Abdulmalik (D. 86), the Caliph, applied toUrwa b. Zubayr about some incidents in the history of Islam indicates that he was an authority in Siyar and Maghazi; the letters he wrote (2) supports the view that he was the firstSiyar and Maghazi writer.

Many narrations by Ibn Ishaq (85-151) related to very important incidents are based on Urwa.

2. After Urwa comes Aban b. Uthman b. Affan (death: 105) according to the date of death. Aban, who was one of the fiqh scholars of Madinah and who worked as the governor of Madinah for seven years, compiled the hadiths about the life of the Prophet (pbuh) in the form of pages.

Imam Zuhri (50-124), who is Ibn Ishaq’s teacher, learned hadiths from Aban. Ibn Sa'd states that Mughira b. Abdurrahman learned and narrated Maghazi from Aban.

3. Shabi (death: 109), who is one of the notables of Tabiun scholars, is one of the contemporaries of Urwa. He is known as a master in Hadith and Maghazi.

Once, he was narrating hadiths related to Maghazi; Abdullah b. Umar, one of the Companions, was among the listeners; he appreciated the knowledge and authority of Shabi in Maghazi speaking as follows:

"I was together with the people he mentions in those wars. However, this person (Shabi) memorized them in detail and knows them better than me."

Zuhri and the reliable scholars that came after him narrated many things based on Shabi.

4. Wahb b. Munabbihul-Yamani (death: 114) compiled the hadiths on Maghazi. One copy of his compilation is in Heidelberg, Germany today.

5. Asim b. Umar b. Qatada (death: 121),who wass one of the notables of Tabiun scholars, was a master in Siyar and Maghazi. It is recorded in Tahdhib at-Tahdhib that Halife Umar b. Abdul'aziz, the Caliph, appointed him to teach people Maghazi in Damascus Mosque.Asim b. Umar b. Qatada’s narrations are based on his father, grandmother and Anas b. Malik. It is seen that Ibn Ishaq bases many of his narrations on him.

6. Musa b. Uqba (death: 141), one of the famous maghazi scholars, states that Shurahbil b. Sa'd (death: 123) recorded the names of the Muslims who migrated to Madinah and who took part in the battles of Badr and Uhud.

Ibn Sa'd (168-230) records the narrations about the journey of the Prophet from Quba to Madinah based on Shurahbil. (Tabaqat, l / 237) Sufyan b. Uyayna (107-198) states that nobody knows Maghazi and the incident of Badr more than Shurahbil does.

It is stated that Shurahbil met and talked to the Companions Zayd b. Thabit, Abu Hurayra and Abu Said al-Khudri.

7. Suhayli states in his book that Muhammad b. Muslim b. Shihabuz-Zuhri (50-124) wrote a separate book on Siyar and that the first book written on Siyar in Islam was the book written by Zuhri. (3)

Halabi also states that the person to write the first book in Siyar was Zuhri; he adds that Zuhri states that the best ilm in the world and the hereafter was Siyar and Maghazi. (4) Masters of Siyar and Maghazi like Musa b. Uqba and Ibn Ishaq were students of Zuhri.

Yaqub b. Utba (death: 128), who is among the fiqh scholars of Madinah, is a master in Siyar and Maghazi and a reliable person in terms of knowledge. Governors benefitted from his views and knowledge.

Footnotes:

(1) Katib Chalabi-Kashfuz-Zunun, II/1746-1747.
(2) Tabari-Tarikh, II/267-269
(3) Suhayli, Rawdul-Unuf, l/122.
(4) Halabi, Insanul-Uyun, l/2,3,

(For detailed information, see M. Asım Köksal, İslam Tarihi)

36 What is Hijri New Year's Day? How should we regard the celebrations of the New Year's Day?

Hijri Calendar (Islamic lunar calendar) started with the migration of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) from Mecca to Medina. This date corresponds to 16th July, 622. As the calendar is regulated based on the movement of the moon, it is called “Hijri or Lunar Year”. Hijri calendar was prepared as a result of the confusion on calculating the days, after the death of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

Hijri Calendar accepts the first night when it is crescent moon as the beginning of the New Year. The period of time until the crescent moon appears again is considered one month, and 12 months equal to one year. According to this calendar, rotation of the moon around the Earth is accepted to be 29 and a half days. Thus, while one month is considered as 29 days, the other month is considered as 30 days. Therefore, the lunar calendar has 354 days, while the solar calendar has 365 days. For this reason, Hijri months arrive eleven days earlier than Gregorian months every year. As a result of this, Hijri months correspond to different seasons. Therefore, Ramadan, which is a month of Hijri calendar, sometimes arrive in summer, sometimes in winter and sometimes in other seasons; thus, it corresponds to all months, weeks and days of the year. A person, who fasts for 36 years fasts in every month and day of the year.

In Hijri Calendar, the New Year’s Day is the first of Muharram. The month of Muharram is followed by Safar, Rabi’ul- Awwal, Rabi’ul-Akhir, Jumadal-Awwal, Jumadal-Akhir, Rajab, Sha’aban, Ramadan, Shawwal, Dhul-Qadah and Dhul-Hijjah.

We are all Muslims, alhamdulillah (thank Allah), yet we all do not live as Islam requires us to live, unfortunately. We call living as a true Muslim “piety”. Whoever lives according to the requirements of the belief, we attribute the adjective “pious” to him, and call him “a pious man”. He already deserves to be called so.

You can also consider piety as an armor worn to be protected from the perversity and mischief of time. In fact, piety is a lifestyle which does not only put the one who lives it in Heaven but also brings peace and happiness in earthly life for him.

As a matter of fact, you can see how the pious ones and the non-pious ones spend their lives on new year’s days corresponding to the birth of prophet Jesus and the migration of the prophet Muhammad.

The pious ones, while thinking on New Year’s eves, say, even though sub-consciously:

- The New Year’s Day means that another year of the life has come to an end, we are closer to the inevitable end called death, and days of elderliness are closer, while the days of youth are coming to the end. As a matter of fact, more grey hair is growing amongst dark hair every New Year, signaling that we are getting older.

Therefore, instead of being taken with more debauchery and profligacy on new year’s eves, it is necessary to lean more to the Hereafter and the Eternal Life. For, this swift travel is towards the grave and the Hereafter, whether you admit it or deny it.

As piety makes one think more and behave carefully, pious people regret about their past years less. However, strayed people who do not consider themselves bound by the religious limits do not make a slight judgment or do not think even slightly about themselves. They are totally deprived of consciousness and perception. On the night which is an evidence to getting closer to death, they suffer the loss of their morality, spirituality and money, and continue to commit acts that they will regret later. What follow this entertainment and profligacy of a few hours are despair and regret that last for a lifetime.

What causes them to regret forever results from their lives which are not led according to the requirements of Islam, that is to say, it is because of non-piety. If they gained a strong belief to stay faithful to the requirements of the religion, an indication of piety, it would enable them to think vice versa on every new year’s eve, would pull themselves together and eventually advance in belief and morality, and they would neither regret their past nor be taken with debauchery and profligacy.

It can be concluded that what causes some people to degenerate and some to sublime on new year’s eves is nothing but being pious or not.

It is clear that what makes one think, and leads him to happiness is piety, and it is a fact that what deprives one of self-judgement and leads to profligacy is levity in religion.

That is to say, this is a world of testing. It is open to both ways. Anyone can go this way or that way. Some cancel their consciousness on New Year’s eve and some elevate it.

We praise Allah for our piety, give thanks to Him, who makes us think and behave so.