FAQ in the category of Evolution

1 How can we understand that Hazrat Hawwa (Eve) was created from Hazrat Adam?

Although there are various narrations about when and how Hazrat Hawwa (Eve) was created, we do not have clear and certain information about it. However, we find out from the following verses in the Quran that she was created from Hazrat Adam (pbuh) (or from the same matter as Adam): "It is He who created you from a single person, and made his mate of like nature, in order that he might dwell with her (in love)" (al-A'raf, 7/189), "O mankind! reverence your Guardian-Lord Who created you from a single person, created, of like nature, his mate and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women" (an-Nisa, 4/1).

What is clearly understood from the verses is that Hazrat Hawwa and Hazrat Adam were created from the same matter (soul) and that Hazrat Adam (pbuh) was created before Hazrat Hawwa. Some scholars put forward the view that Hawwa was created from Adam, an organ of Adam based on the following expression in the verse "... and made his mate of like nature ".
If it is paid attention, it will be understood that with the expression; “It is He who created you from a single person”, the Quran states that all of the people were created from one soul and Hazrat Hawwa was created from “it”, that is from that soul. What is meant by the phrase “from it” in the verse maybe Hazrat Adam (pbuh) or the original matter that Adam (pbuh) was created from. Doubtlessly, Allah knows the best. 

Although it is definite that Hawwa was created from a single person (soul), we cannot find any extra information in the Quran about how that creation occurred. The narration that Ibn Kathir mentions in his tafsir (interpretation) is as follows:
When Iblis (the devil) was expelled from Paradise (because of his well-known crime), Adam (pbuh) was sent to Paradise. He wandered there for some time alone, without having someone that he might take rest in. He fell asleep; when he woke up, he saw a woman that Allah created from his rib. He asked her: "What are you? The woman answered: "a woman". Then he asked the woman why she was created. The woman answered, "so that you might take rest in me". Meanwhile the angels saw them and asked Adam who she was in order to test his knowledge. Adam (pbuh) said she was Hawwa. When the angels asked him why he gave her that name, she said, "because she was created from something living. (Ibn Kathir, "Tafsiru'l-Qur'ani'l-Azim", I, 112).

According to the narration of Bukhari, the Prophet (pbuh) said; “Treat women nicely, because woman was created from a rib. ", (in another narration, "is like a rib”, and the most curved portion of the rib is its upper portion, so, if you try to straighten it, it will break, but if you leave it as it is, it will remain crooked. So treat women nicely” (Bukhari, Anbiya, 1). In the narration of Muslim, the following phrase is present ".... if you try to straighten it, it will break, its break is divorce."

As it is understood from the following verses, “Allah did choose Adam above all people " (Aal-e Imran, 3/33) “Allah created Adam from dust, then said to him: "Be" and he was. " (Âli imran, 3/59) Adam was created from dust by being chosen. That meaning was reported as "Hawwa was created from a rib of Adam", which means a splitting. That meaning is the foundation of the husband-wife relationship. In a sound hadith, the following is stated, "A woman is like a rib. The woman was created from a rib, a curved rib, if you try to straighten it, it will break; its break is divorce."( Bukhari, Nikah 79; Muslim, Rada 65; Tirmidhi, Talaq 12; Darimi, Nikah 45; Ahmad b. Hanbal, II, 428, 449, 530, V, 164.) .

Here, the curved rib indicates splitting, but it is also a simile showing the mismatch of nature between man and woman and a warning that trying to make a woman like a man will break her. In addition, in other hadiths, it is stated that the separation into parts took place at the beginning of the creation in Paradise.

2 evolution
3 Are the transitional forms among living things which is claimed by evolutionists true? Can the decomposition of nylon parts by some bacteria through some enzymes be proof for evolution?

Nothing about transitional forms that have been put forward about evolution reflects the truth. If the frog came into existence from fish as it has been claimed by evolutionists, then transitional forms should show us this transition step by step. That is, the existent material should continue as at first a fish by hundred percent then a fish by ninety percent, a frog by ten percent and then a fish by eighty percent and a frog by twenty percent.

However, no animal has such a transitional form. Since no fossils show this transition, the statement “There exists transitional forms but they have not been found yet” is an ideological evaluation. If there is no transitional form, how can you claim that living things evolve from one another? It is clear that what atheistic evolutionists have put forward is not a scientific result but an ideological thought that aims to deny a creator based on positivist philosophy.

The decomposition of nylon parts by some bacteria through some enzymes is not proof of evolution but of science. In other words, the causes and effects of it must be exposed. This must have a reason. Attributing the unknown events to evolution by leaving the scientific works aside is laziness and referring it to ideology.

Since evolution is the cause everything and all questions are answered and become indisputable when the evolution is set forth, then let us end anything unknown by referring them to evolution just like evolutionists. Now is such an approach a healthy way of thought according to you? For God’s sake, what is the relation of this to the scientific thought and working? They try to confuse the minds of youths with such superstitions and canalize them wrongly.

We as believers in God know that God does not create anything without a reason. We believe that creatures of the universe must be investigated with scientific methods in detail. As we investigate the creatures in the world, which are an art of God, we will know God better and accept that we will perceive His infinite knowledge and power better.  

We are not interested in superstitions which say that creatures come into existence from one another like pulling a rabbit out of the hat.The inside of evolution hoax, which is believed to transform everything to another being with a magic band and nobody exactly know what it is, has been understood better gradually today, when mind and science are dominant.  

Prof. Dr. Adem Tatlı

4 What is the wisdom behind the existence of nipples in men? Can you answer the thesis of the evolutionists that men’s nipples are “vestigial organs” because they have no function?

Nipples are present in the fetus before the gender forms. The state of the nipples is the same after birth in both boys and girls; the change starts with the secretion of different hormones in the stage of puberty. Nipples are places where there are a lot of neurons. The effect of nipples in sexual arousal in men is known.

Allah did not create anything purposelessly. That we do not know much about the issue does not mean that it is useless.

That the nipples are defined as vestigial organs remaining from the previous ancestors of man is a philosophical view; it is not scientific because the weakening of an organ because of lack of usage or the development of an organ because of usage is only a change in the cells of the body. It is not a change in the genes. Therefore, this change is not transferred to the offspring. For instance, the children of a man whose hand was cut off in a traffic accident or war are born with proper hands.

5 Why do big fish eat small fish?

Author: Sinan Bengisu

The balance of life in the sea, which is extremely well-arranged and rich, has been continuing for hundreds of ages without any deterioration. It is such a miraculous balance that each unit functions to complete one another. The balance existing among billions of creatures in the sea has the power of rebalancing itself against any sort of corruption.

If nutritious salt faces being harmed because of the abundance of plants in a region, this plant is attacked by the animals which feed on them. Thus, the plant density decreases down to its normal level. However, this time a rise in the organic waste of dead animals will occur. Thereby, if the plant balance is disturbed by the animals eating a lot of plants, then predatory animals which feed on those animals will attack them. Consequently, the balance will be restored again. There is no room for chance, randomness and disorder in the miraculous plan of our Creator. Cooperation examples in the sea world where an endless number of mysterious beauties are exhibited induced the scientists to research the matter. One of the truths researchers discovered is that those animals acquired very little of their knowledge by learning.

Then, all of their attributes and life programs are encoded in their cells while they are in the uterus or in the egg. That is to say, the most suitable life order is programmed before they come into the world.

The power that encoded the life program of a giant whale into such a small cell that cannot be seen by naked eye, does not leave any place as small as a cell for chance in the seas. The cooperation, balance, moderation and art in the sea realm that rolls in the death and life and that is shaken in destruction and repairs prove that birth, death, feeding and lifespan of these innumerable living beings occur in accordance with the program written by the One who sees and checks all the universe at the same time.

If the causes that continuously try to disrupt the balance of the universe were let free or were the works of aimless, wandering chance, unmeasured blind force and unconscious dark nature, the order in the sea even in the world would be so disrupted that in one year, perhaps in a day the sea would be full of messy things, the earth would become a rubbish damp, a slaughter house or a marsh. Nonetheless, there seems no true pollution or ugliness in anything. As there is no imbalance in anything, there is no true excessiveness in anything.

When we examine the food pyramid, we see that eating and being eaten are not unattended and that they are managed in accordance with a program. As for the life program of swallowtail sea perch, they feed on small parasites and dead skin flakes on the skin of big fish, and clean those fish.

Fish that are in need of cleaning come to these cleansing fish, which have special places, just as a person who needs a haircut goes to a barber. Other fish recognize them from their appearance and do not hunt them.

Amphiprions have a mutual life with deadly sea peonies. Acidic cells in the arms of the sea peonies which are used to kill and eat the fish do not harm amphiprions. The body of sea peony which has a diameter about 40-60 cm is connected to sea ground with succulent ties. The mouth of the creature is in the middle of the body. Anything would die instantly by the bites of the acidic cells and would be dragged towards the mouth of sea peony to be eaten. However, amphiprions are not harmed in the places surrounded by these acidic cells. Moreover, when these fish get scared on account of a reason, they take refuge in the arms of sea peonies as if going home, and spend the night there. Sea peonies benefit from this cooperation too. When an amphiprion finds a hunt which cannot be gobbled up straightaway, it carries the food to the sea peony and shares with it. Except from this pay, which is a sort of rent, amphiprions clean sea peonies and move the water around them.

Perhaps amphiprions and sea peonies do not know their Creator, who bestowed the mutual living program on them. However, any person with the ability of thinking knows our Creator, who sends light to the assistance of botanical planktons in the depth of the sea for photosynthesis, and who determined the cooperation as a rule of life for all things from cells to mankind, from seas to mountains. This is the greatest difference between fish and human beings.

Dolphins generally give birth to only one baby at a time. The gestation period of females changes between 11 months and a year and bringing the baby into the world takes about normally 30 minutes. When the time of birth comes, two more female dolphins succor the female dolphin. The first duty of these dolphins, which are called aunts, is to defend the mother and baby from the sharks that could attack by virtue of blood smell and from any other dangers. Afterwards, one of the aunt dolphins accompanies the mother dolphin so as to help for the baby care. The baby has to emerge to the surface in order to breathe. The mother dives immediately underneath the baby and shoves it upward to the surface. Dolphins, which always live in groups, immediately proceed to help if a dolphin is injured take it to the sea surface to make it breathe.

In an article entitled cruel-looking animal world published in Bild der Zeit magazine, there is this comment concerning the issue:

Hunting and being hunted is an event encountered every day in the animal kingdom. This world is full of incidences which make men say cruel nature. In reality, what we thoughtlessly define as cruelty is a chain of attitudes of all animals. Plants and animals are encoded to react against a certain event in a certain manner. Surely, the attributes acquired by learning are different.

Every animal that come to the world with a certain program reacts to the signals that are sent to it. Sometimes these reactions affect us astonishingly. What seems as cruel to us is nothing but the incidence of hunting and being hunted.

Every living being, from starfish to cuttlefish, from European anchovy to whale and from amoeba to terrapin, constitutes a proof for their Creator and manifests Allah as brilliant as the sun one by one with their artful creations, various weapons, unique defending fashions and different instructions. After seeing by eyes of intellect and heart that the brilliant magnificence and the order of the sea realm declare the Owner of an endless power, a vast knowledge and an eternal wisdom, it is not possible to accept the sentence big fish eat small fish as a philosophy of life without being aware of its wisdom.

The existence of small fish as much as the big ones and their continuation of their lives in the sea show that swallowing and being swallowed is not unchecked, and the fact that fish produce millions of eggs at a time cannot be regarded as a struggle of existence only. Those innumerable eggs are planned not only to provide the continuance of descendants, but also to present food to other creatures. The fish producing millions eggs cannot be the designer of those eggs; they can only produce the eggs in accordance with the instruction of creation; so the program of food pyramid in the sea cannot have occurred on its own or by chance.

If we reflect that each fish produces millions of eggs and that all of those fish survive without being swallowed by other fish and that the seas will invade the earth after a short time by overflowing and as the land will be filled with fish and it will putrefy, then we will see that being hunted or swallowed is not a struggle but acting in accordance with a program.

How could we explain the fact that a hen lays eggs throughout the year although it incubates once or twice a year and needs only about thirty eggs for that activity?

Would it be possible to say that life consists of struggle only by focusing on a struggle which is in the rate of one out of a thousand or on a hunting incident, in spite of the truths surrounding us and manifesting us that life is cooperation?

6 Is the statement “A human being is the product of seventy per cent genetics + thirty per cent environment” true? Are genetic codes effective in unbelief?

The statement “A human being is the product of seventy per cent genetics + thirty per cent environment” is not true because the scientific data we have today are not enough to make a definite judgment.   

According to what experts state, there is a DNA molecule resembling a rope ladder in each chromosome. The DNA molecule consists of thousands of units that are connected to each other like the links of a chain. The hereditary information is hidden in the special arrangement of those units. That arrangement is called “genetic code”. There really exists a code in each arrangement of the units in the DNA molecule showing what protein the cell will produce. The part of the cell that produces chemicals can decode the password and produce the protein necessary for the living thing.

As it can be understood from the explanations above, the genetic code is a mechanism that is designed by the divine power and wisdom and that is related to arranging the biological needs of the living body. Testing is related to the spirit, mind, consciousness and free will, which are spiritual mechanisms.  

“The genetic coding” that the exact sciences have discovered today is a wise reflection of the divine instinct and the instinct of destiny. The testing that Allah has prepared for human beings is related to consciousness and it addresses the mind. Therefore, when man directs those natural motives toward a wrong way through a wrong intervention, his conscious free will can interfere and turn it to the true path.

Therefore, “genetic codes” do not direct man toward good deeds or bad deeds by force, as it is wrongly assumed, because man’s free will can stop that motive. Besides, the duty of the free and conscious will is to function as a brake like that. The realization of an equitable testing depends on that free will. For instance, a man who is hungry cannot say, “I feel hungry; so, I can steal something.”

For an equitable testing, there needs to be two opposite poles – one demanding good deeds, the other demanding bad deeds – in the inner world of man. The mechanism consists of the heart, mind and the lofty feelings that like good deeds and the soul, blind and mean feelings that like good deeds. The realization of those opposite desires depends on the free will of man. Man prefers one choice and does it; then, he is punished or rewarded depending on it.

The views that there exists a genetic coding that suspends man’s free will and directs it toward bad deeds are nothing but speculations; they are the products of an approach that overlooks the divine justice that is necessary for testing. There may be some factors that symbolize goodness and badness but it is not right to think that they are so effective as to eliminate man’s free will completely.    

It is said that an important part of the genetic codes is inherited. However, the fact that the son of the Prophet Noah preferred unbelief and that Ikrima, the son of Abu Jahl, who was one of the leading figures of unbelievers, chose belief is enough to show that it is a controversial view. The proverb, “A bad child is born out of a good person and a good child is born out of a bad person” shows that the issue of inheritance in testing is exaggerated.

The presence of Moses in the palace of the Pharaoh, who claimed to be a god, and the existence of the Pharaoh’s wife, Asiya, who preferred belief and the fact that many members of the religious families prefer unbelief or debauchery and members of bad families prefer belief and Islam show clearly that the environment alone is not a forcing element in testing. The fact that many non-Muslims chose Islam through their free will by using their minds throughout history indicates clearly that there exists an equitable testing.

“Every child is born with a natural belief in Allah and an inborn inclination toward Islam; then his parents and his environment make him a Jew, a Christian or a fireworshipper.”

The hadith above points out that one single traffic sign that shows a compulsory direction is not in question. The fact that some children of sinners become righteous people and the some children of righteous people become sinners is an irrefutable fact proving it. 

“Say "The Truth is from your Lord": let him who will, believe, and let him who will, reject (it).”(al-Kahf, 18/29)

In the verse above and in similar verses, the clear decree of Allah that man always has the right to make a preference based on his free will is stated; so, the scientific theories that are always disputable and the words of materialistic scientists and philosophers who always use those theories against the truths of religion have no significance at all.

7 Are Living Beings Changing Under Natural Selection?

Every species can adapt to the environmental conditions in its own habitat. Every species has a certain “variability coefficient” peculiar to it. If we assume the highest value of this variability coefficient as 1, it may be as low as 0,01 for some species and as high as 0,9 for others.  

No species has a change or variety that can pass the limit of this variability because every species encounters different stimuli in their environment almost every day and they respond to those stimuli based on their level of development and adapt to them. However, what we call variable and flexible equipment does not have a limitless property of variability; it is valid only for that species. As it is stated above, no species has the same property of flexibility and variability as another species.   

We will explain adaptation to the environment a bit. Every being has three values that it shows toward every environmental factor in the habitat that it lives as maximum, minimum and optimum. Factors like heat, temperature and light are the main environmental factors. For instance, let us think of the orange tree. Let us think that the temperature that it develops the most and gives the most fruit is 25 degrees; the minimum temperature that it can tolerate is minus 20 degrees and the highest temperature that it can tolerate is 70 degrees. If living beings are grown facing the environmental factors with the maximum and minimum values, they develop some differences in their structure compared to the ones grown in optimum values. When we grow the orange tree in an environment near the maximum value, that is, near 70 degrees, the leaves will get smaller and fuzzy in order to bear the heat. It will get smaller and fuzzy if it has those properties in its genetic structure. Then, there will be differences between the leaves of the orange tree growing in optimum conditions in terms of temperature and the leaves of the orange tree growing in maximum conditions in terms of size and fuzziness.  

Is this orange growing in the maximum environmental conditions a new species? If you regard small leaves and fuzziness as characteristics of species, you can call it a new species. However, basically, this plant is still an orange. That is, a pear or a peach tree does not come out of an orange tree through adaptation because its genetic structure is not suitable.

8 Will you give information about the book, ‘Science and Creationism’ published by National Academy of Sciences (US)? It is said that this book proves evolution definitely.

The book published by that academy is no difference than an ordinary book. This academy and similar institutions are under the control of scientists that support evolution and deny the existence of a creator. They present their philosophical views that are based on atheism under the disguise of scientific information. Thus, they want to form a public opinion and obtain power in the name of atheism. Their main aim is to bring up young people as atheists.  

Unfortunately, they abuse science for their ideology. The most appropriate field for abuse is evolution. Therefore, they always keep evolution on the agenda and they associate everything with it. They will not be able to conceal the reality of creation even if they publish one hundred books let alone one book. They cannot prove the existence of an evolution in the sense that they mean because the past of man cannot be experimented in the laboratory and it is not possible to reduce the past of the living beings to a single cell and to show that the others originated from them in chains through coincidence.

Therefore, all of the ideas they put forward can be no more than philosophical thoughts. That is, their claims can never be labeled as scientific information.

However, those who support creationism can open many windows in the past by showing the creation of a living being at any moment. Now, Allah creates a human being from a single cell, plants and animals from single cells at any moment. The one who creates today definitely created in the past, too. The one who creates a melon out of a melon seed can definitely create and created the whole universe and everything in it.

Atheistic evolutionists who claim that living beings came into existence coincidentally and spontaneously cannot even prove that lentil soup forms coincidentally and spontaneously let alone proving that all living beings came into existence coincidentally and spontaneously; if they could prove it, what they say might be somewhat true.

However, the evidence of those who support creationism has filled the universe. Every being shows and proves that they are the work of Allah’s infinite knowledge, will and power.

Prof. Dr. Adem Tatlı

9 Are the explanations made as “the Evolution Theory has been proved” true to a certain extent? It is said that the receptor gene of the Aldosterone hormone has been detected and all scientists of the West supported the evolution?

If the evolution theory has been proved, then it cannot be a theory but a law. Then, there is no need to dispute it. If you wish, let us ask the question as follows:

What kind of works are needed to be done and achieved in order to prove the theory of evolution?

In order to answer this question, we need to know what the evolution theory prescribes; that is, the things that it claims. We can briefly explain the thought claimed by evolution theory as follows:

The foundation of all creatures in the universe is a single cell. This single cell came into existence coincidently and all other creatures reproduced from each other in succession. According to this theory, the universe is not an art of a creator but coincidence.

Such a claim can neither be proved by finding of a teeth or a skull nor exposing the formation of a gene. More precisely, it is a philosophical view which is related to the emergence of this realm and creatures. And the proving of it is not possible.

Leave the creatures aside. Can you prove that a lifeless thing came into existence coincidentally? For example, is the shirt made coincidentally and dressed on you by itself? Or your shoe, has it been made coincidentally without a doer and again put on your feet without your noticing; is that right?

If you listen to your conscience, then you will never be able to answer these questions as “Yes”. You cannot even make small children believe it, if you claim that a readymade shoe has been put on your feet coincidentally let alone the production of a shoe.

Since non-living things cannot come into existence without a doer, then how can living things come into existence in the same way?

In the second part of the question, the hormone of Aldosterone is mentioned. This hormone has the role of balancing the electrolyte and water in human body. It is secreted from the crust part of the suprarenal gland. It is impossible for such a hormone to function as a hormone singly without a living creature. As every organism has some elements in its basis, the main elements of this hormone are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.

Some derivations and compounds of them may have been brought into existence or compounded before living things. After understanding the form of a hormone or a molecule, putting forward that the theory of evolution has been proved as explained above is not the product of a healthy mind.

As for the story of intervening the genetic formation of a chimpanzee and forming of human; it has two aspects.

Firstly, creating living things and giving them life is peculiar to God. What a human should do is to direct the work of a genetic form. God has given this will to man. Giving life and sustenance to every creature, meeting all the demands of those cells, multiplying and differentiating those cells, changing the dead ones with the new ones are made by the will and power of God.

That a living thing is produced from another living thing through outside intervention, or that God creates for example a human being out of a chimpanzee cannot force us to make a generalization and to accept that all human beings are like that. Such a generalization does not comply with scientific thought and the rule of science. It is necessary to receive correct answers for each question that we ask in terms of genetics, biochemistry and biology for such generalization. An accidental occurrence of a living being from another living being cannot be evidence for generalization for the species of that living being unless you obtain the same result after each trial.   

That all of the scientists in the West support the theory of evolution is not true. Many scientists accept evolution as a form of philosophical thought. Some scholars accept creation directly.

However, those who oppose the theory of evolution are under academic pressure; therefore, some of them avoid opposing evolution openly. The views of some scientists that are opposite to evolution are not published in scientific periodicals and books because the administrators of even the religious periodicals are evolutionists who believe that man has evolved from the ape. They will never let any views that oppose evolution. It does not matter whether the thought about it is scientific or not for them. What matters is the article not including any views against evolution.

Thus, those who do not know the inside of the story think that all scientists support evolution.  

Besides, evolutionists spread the lie that everybody supports evolution.

Prof. Dr. Adem Tatlı

10 Evolutionists claim that some organs of animate beings are not functional. Is that claim true?

One of the claims which lasted long in the literature of evolution but was left aside silently after being understood to be invalid is the conception of “Non-Functional Organs (Vestigial Organs)”.

However, some local evolutionists still think “non-functional organs” to be a great evidence of evolution and try to show them to be so.The claim of “non-functional organs” was brought forth about a century ago.

According to the claim, there were non-functional organs which were inherited by the bodies of animate beings from their ancestors, but became futile in the course of time as they were not used.  

This was absolutely not a scientific claim since it depended on insufficient information. In fact, “non-functional organs” were “those whose functions were not discovered”.

The best sign showing this was the contraction of the long list recounted by the evolutionists.

An evolutionist, S.R. Scadding, accepts this truth as follows in his article entitled “Are The Non-Functional Organs Evidences For Evolution?” in the magazine of Evolutionary Theory:

“The more we learnt about biology, the narrower the list of non-functional organs became... Due to the fact that proving an organ to be non-functional is not possible and the claim of non-functional organs does not have scientific qualities, I conclude that non-functional organs do not serve as any proof in favor of evolutionary theory.”

The list of non-functional human organs put forward in 1895 by R. Wiedersheim, a German Anatomist, included some 100 organs like appendicitis, coccyx bone. 

Nevertheless, it was understood that all of the organs in Wiedersheim’s list had functions of great importance in the body as science advanced.

To illustrate, the appendix assumed to be a non-functional organ was explored to be the part of lymphatic system fighting against germs entering the body.This fact is mentioned as follows in a medical source dated 1997:

The other organs like thymus, liver, spleen, appendix, bone marrow in the body are parts of lymphatic system.These too help the body tackle infections.”

The tonsils in the same “non-functional organs” list were discovered to play an important role in protecting the throat against infections, especially up to the ages of adolescence.

It was understood that the coccyx, which forms the bottom of spinal cord, provides support for the bones around pelvis and is the point of holding for some small muscles.

Afterwards, it became evident that the thymus gland activates body’s defensive system by activating T-cells; the pineal gland is responsible for producing important hormones; the thyroid gland provides a balanced growth for babies and children; the pituitary gland controls many hormone glands’ operating properly.

The half-moon-shaped piece in the eye defined as non-functional organ by Darwin was understood to work for cleaning and moisturizing the eye.

There was, also, a very important mistake the evolutionists made on the claim of  non-functional organs.As we know, the claim brought on the agenda by the evolutionists was that non-functional organs of animate beings were passed down on by their ancestors of the past.

However, some organs said to be non-functional are missing in animate beings claimed to be the ancestors of human beings.

For example, some monkeys said to be the ancestors of human by the evolutionists do not have appendices.

Biologist H. Enoch, who rejects the thesis of non-functional organs, expresses this logical mistake as follows:

“Humans have appendices. However, sub-monkeys, his earlier ancestors, do not have appendices. Surprisingly, appendix emerges again in more sub-structured mammals, for instance, in opossums. So, how can the evolutionary theory explain this?

In short, the scenario of non-functional organs claimed by the evolutionists both contains logical mistakes in it and is scientifically false.

In humans, there exsist no non-functional organs left as heritage by his so-called ancestors. For, humans have not derived from other animate beings by chance; they have been created flawlessly and perfectly in their present form.

References:

1. S. R. Scadding, "Do 'Vestigial Organs' Provide Evidence for Evolution?", Evolutionary Theory, Cilt Volume 5, Mayıs May 1981, s. p. 173.
2. The Merck Manual of Medical Information, Home edition, New Jersey: Merck & Co., Inc. The Merck Publishing Group, Rahway, 1997.
3. H. Enoch, Creation and Evolution, New York: 1966, s. p. 18-19.

11 Why does Allah create disabled and mutated living beings?

We will deal with the issue from a few viewpoints and leave it to you to synthesize the analysis.

1. The universe is the property of Allah. He has the right to do whatever He wishes in His property. It depends on His decision what living beings to create and how to do it. Allah imposed some laws like growing, development, differentiation and reproduction regarding creation and He attributed these laws to certain causes. These laws are valid for not only human beings but also all of the other living beings. 

Allah gave every living being an ultimate point, which is the most developed and most suitable for that living being. It is called the perfection point, that is, the perfect state of that living being. There is a perfection point for a tulip, rose, nightingale, cow, fly, horse, etc. There are certain causes and laws for that species of living being to reach that perfection point.  If these laws are not obeyed, that living being dies before reaching the perfection point. It does not matter whether it is a human being, plant or animal.  

For instance, some faults occur in the structure of a living being that cannot get enough water or food. The degree of this fault and illness is directly proportional to obtaining the substance that this living being needs. 

Similarly, some changes called mutation can take place in a living being that becomes exposed to radiation in the embryonic phase. Disabilities and abnormalities can occur in that living being depending on the length and magnitude of the radiation. A living being can be exposed to radiation or similar chemical reactions in natural environment or in a laboratory.  

For example, some chemical experiments applied on rats or rabbits in laboratories can cause them to be disabled in some way or other. All of the changes and differentiation that can occur this way are issues of research and investigation.    

After this preliminary knowledge, we can go back to the question, “Why does Allah create disabled and mutated living beings?” There can be two answers given to that question:

Firstly,no matter how much you change the causes and laws, every living being is created in the perfect way. Secondly, when you intervene in the causes and laws, you will get results based on what you do. 

What is happening in the universe now is the second answer. That is, God Almighty answers our question. Is it not more appropriate for His wisdom and justice?

For instance, we wander what will happen if we apply a certain amount of x-rays on the mouse embryo in the uterus. We will find out when we do it. The result will probably be a disabled or ill mouse.

God Almighty attributed everything to a law and cause. Some deformities or illnesses occur in the individuals in the realm of living beings based on whether these causes and laws are obeyed or not. You can also call it an answer to a question. In the realm of the living beings, the answers to the questions are obtained through experiments and applications. Allah's wisdom, justice and sovereignty in creation necessitate this.  

2. Allah is the only owner of the property. He governs the world and the hereafter. The owner of the property does whatever he wishes in his property. He constructs a building on his land or plants something if he wishes. He cannot be regarded as wrong or responsible because of what he does.

Allah has one thousand and one names; each of them wants to be manifest through a different art, manifestation and reflection. 

For instance, the name ar-Razzaq (the Sustainer) wants the existence of the living beings that need sustenance; similarly, the name ash-Shafi (the Healer) wants the existence of ill people and illnesses. The differences in the universe originate from different manifestations of these names. 

Works of art need to have different esthetics, and contrasts so that Allah's endless knowledge, power and wisdom will be understood fully by conscious beings. As the scientific rule, “Everything is understood by their opposites” necessitates, contrasts are necessary in beings. Thus, the facts that are called relative truths will appear and the difference between different arts will be understood. From this point of view, it can be said that beautiful things need ugly things so that their beauties will be understood; similarly, perfect things need incomplete things so that their perfection will be understood.

Allah dressed the bodies of humans and animals as clothes of their spirits. He made the spirit a model to show the manifestations of His various names. He wanted to tailor the shirts of bodies in different forms by shortening, lengthening, reducing and cutting on the flexible model of the spirit that could fit all kinds of molds. This difference aims to show the manifestation of many of His names like divine knowledge, power and wisdom. Accordingly, every being including a lame and blind person is a wonderful work of art; they reflect Allah's knowledge, power and wisdom. The things that seem to be deficient for us are indeed wonderful works of art.

All of the beings except human beings, who are gentle, coy and a bit spoiled, are satisfied with their state. For instance, no ant complaints that it is not an elephant and no fly complains that it is not a camel. Every being knows that they are grateful to their Lord and thank Him based on the degree of their value.

From this point of view, it is necessary for lame people to understand that they need to be grateful for their state with the consciousness of belief, to think that they will get great rewards in the hereafter in return for their deficiency in this ephemeral world life, to know that a person who gives away one but receives one thousand is not a loser but a winner and to thank their Lord. 

Animals, whose spirits are immortal, thank their Lord due to their existence even if they are lame. It is possible to understand this fact from the following verse: “…All beings declare His glory...” (al-Isra, 17/44)

12 It has been discovered that the genetic structure of human brain cells does not remain fixed during man's life and that it changes. Is this genetic change not evolution? Is this change in genes not transferred to the next generation?

The genetic structure of cells does not generally change. However, the food that is taken, the inner or external environment might cause some reactions that pressure or delays the effect mechanisms of genes or that change the direction of the effect. In that case, the effect of the gene becomes apparent in different ways.  

However, the important point that should not be overlooked here is that no deed or reaction is aimless or takes place randomly.

In the past, science said that brain cells did not change at all; today, it says that they change, at least the effect mechanisms in its genetic structure change. No matter if the brain cell or the effect of the genetic structure changes, all of these changes are the works of the endless knowledge, will and power. 

Let me tell you something more than it: There are about one hundred trillion cells in human body.

All cells except brain cells always change. Five million white blood cells die every second and new ones are created. Cells are renewed and increase in number up to a certain age. If this change did not take place, man would remain as he was born. 

The cells of not only human beings but also all living beings, that is to say, animals and plants, always change and are renewed. The being that places these cells into their proper places, that sends the calcium that needs to go to the bone to the bone, not to the eye, is Allah, who is the owner of everything and who administrates the whole universe with His endless knowledge, will and power. They do not take place as a result of coincidental and random incidents as atheists claim.  

The issue on which those who defend creation and evolutionists cannot agree is the claim of the evolutionists that one living thing comes into being out of another living thing coincidentally. Otherwise, the changes that take place as a result of Allah’s knowledge and will take place all over the universe. Nothing is fixed. Living things change; similarly non-living realm always changes. When the world was first created, it was not like that. It changed in various eras with Allah’s knowledge, will and power; it is still changing; rocks turn into soil and soil nurtures plants.

Every living thing is born, grows up, from one shape to another based on the laws of development and change; after the period of youth, they get old and die.   

They are all formed by Allah’s endless knowledge, will and power. Changing of brain cells or remaining the same are also subject to the same laws. Even when the brain cells do not change, they are active and functioning. How can the feeding and respiration of the cells, decomposition and combination of food be overlooked?   

No matter if the cell changes or remains the same during the whole life of that living thing, three thousand different reactions happen in a cell every second. All of these activities have to be attributed to Allah, who has endless knowledge, will and power. They cannot be attributed to deaf nature, blind force or to some words and phrases like evolution, which is defined differently by everybody based on their own understanding, by any means. 

Each incident that takes place in the cell happens in accordance with thousands of probabilities; the state of an enzyme or reaction after several phases is taken into account; no trace of confusion is seen in any cell; every act is fulfilled by considering the finest details. They cannot be done by a being that does not have endless knowledge, will and power.

The genetic structure of living things does not always show its effect fully due to the pressure of the environment. For instance, the incident of cancer seen in cells appears due to the different orientation of the genetic structure. Very few of them can also be transferred to the young. However, the basic structure of that living thing does not change. A man remains a man and a chicken remains a chicken.  

Even if a human being comes out of a monkey or a monkey comes out of a human being, it cannot be accepted as scientific evidence that living things come out of one another. If the same result is obtained at each trial of an incident, it can be accepted as a beginning of a chain only then.

Otherwise, to reach a conclusion acting upon some assumptions is not a scientific act but an ideological approach.

Prof. Dr. Âdem Tatlı

13 Are changes in viruses evidence for evolution? Is the theory of evolution true?

What is meant by evolution here is very important. A lot of things in the universe are not constant. Everything undergoes change. If what is meant by evolution is the transformation of a species into another, it has no scientific basis.

If change is meant by it, it is not evolution but development. The changes that take place in a species through useful mutations are not evolution but planned, flexible creation. A living being can change to the extent that its genetic structure allows. It cannot transform into another species. A virus is still a virus and a bacterium is still a bacterium.

14 Was Hz. Adam created as a community? How is the creation of Hz. Adam narrated in the Quran?

Homo sapiens is the Latin name of today’s human beings. It has been proven that the evidences claimed to be human fossils do not belong to human beings. That is, the first man did not evolve from beings of lower structures; he was created directly from dust (soil).

The Creation of the First Man

1. The Creation of Hz. Adam from Dust

We see that man’s stages of creation are stated in detail in the Quran. We can list those verses as follows:

“Among His Signs in this, that He created you from dust; and then,- behold, ye are men scattered (far and wide).”(1)

“He created you from clay,...”(2)

“Man We did create from a quintessence (of clay).”(3)

“Them have We created out of a sticky clay.”(4)

“We created man from sounding clay, from mud molded into shape.”(5)

“He created man from sounding clay like unto pottery.”(6)

As it is seen, the stages of man’s creation are stated in those verses. Accordingly, the creation of man started with dust continued with clay and quintessence of clay and finally had a hard structure like pottery.   

It is clear that what is narrated through those stages is the creation of the first man. This view is supported when it is mentioned after some of those verses that the angels were asked to prostrate before Adam after this creation.(7)

The higher level of creation expressed by the word “ja’ala”mentionedin verse 32 of the chapter of al-Baqara is clear in the verses listed above. The creation that started at the level of dust did not remain in the level of plants and animals. It was elevated directly to the level of human beings.

Is there no elevation like that in today’s creation? The formation of man starts with one cell in the womb. A baby who is created from one cell is equipped with organs and feelings; is it a small elevation? From one cell, it is elevated to a sane person who is conscious, who thinks, knows and dreams. Can there be a post higher than that?

That it is stated in the first verse after it is expressed that man was created from dust that men were scattered on earth indicates that various races that spread to different regions of the world came from the descent of Hz. Adam. As a matter of fact, the following is stated in a hadith: “Hz. Adam was created from a lump of dust taken from various regions of the world; therefore, sons of Adam have different colors.” (8)

2. The Creation of Hz. Adam’s Wife

“It is He Who created you from a single person, and made his mate of like nature.”(9)

In the verse above, Allah addresses human beings and tells them that He created them from a single person. Tafsir scholars state that this person is Hz. Adam and that his mate created from this person is Hz. Hawwa (Eve).

The verses and hadiths related to the creation of Hz. Adam expresses this meaning; the statements in the Torah support the interpretations of tafsir scholars.

The phrase “wa khalaqa minha zawjaha” (He created his mate from him) is generally interpreted as follows: “He created Hz. Hawwa from Hz. Adam’s left rib."

However, some tafsir scholars interpreted it as He created his wife “min jinsiha” (from Adam’s species).  That is, He created you from Hz. Adam and created Hz Hawwa from Hz. Adam (according to the general acceptance) or from Hz. Adam’s species (according to some tafsir scholars).

Thus, according to both interpretations, it is stated that human beings were created from one person (Hz. Adam).

“And your creation or your resurrection is in no wise but as an individual soul.”(10)

It is clear that “individual soul (nafs wahida)” mentioned in the verse above means a single person; similarly, it is also clear that “a single person” mentioned in verse 189 of the chapter of al-Araf means the same thing. 

“The similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him: "Be". And he was.”(11)

As the verse above indicates, this person is Hz. Adam.

In a similar verse in the chapter of an-Nisa, the verse continues as follows: "and from them (the two people) twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women.” (12) The phrase from them (the two people) mentioned in the verse proves that they are these two people (Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa).

3. The Creation of Human Generation from Hz. Adam and Hz. Hawwa

“He began the creation of man with (nothing more than) clay, And made his progeny from a quintessence of the nature of a fluid despised.”(13)

In those verses, Allah Almighty attracts attention to the creation of today’s men. He attracts attention to the difference between the creation of the first man and that of the others. It is clear that what is meant “man” in this verse is “Adam” and by “naslahu”(his generation) is the other “people”.

That Iblis, who was created from fire, avoided prostrating before Adam despite Allah’s order “Prostrate before Adam!” by saying “Shall I bow down to one whom Thou didst create from clay?”(14) is a clear evidence that the person created from clay is Hz. Adam.

Allah Almighty states different creations as follows:

“He is Well-versed in every kind of creation.”(15)

As he created before the father of Jinn from the fire of a scorching wind (16), He created the first man with clay, and made his progeny from a quintessence of the nature of a fluid despised.(17)

The verses clearly explain the creation of the first man, his wife and today’s human beings, who came from them. Listen to and obey the Quran, which is the word of Allah.

Footnotes:

(1) ar-Rum, 20.
(2) al-An’am, 2.
(3) al-Mu’minun, 12.
(4) as-Saffat, 11.
(5) al-Hijr, 26.
(6) ar-Rahman , 14.
(7) al-Hijr, 28-29 and similar verses
(8) see Muslim, II, 261; Tirmidhi, IV, 67-68; Abu Dawud, 4693; Ahmad, IV, 400.
(9) al-A’raf , 189.
(10) Luqman , 28.
(11) Aal-i Imran, 59.
(12) an-Nisa, 1.
(13) as-Sajda, 7-8.
(14) al-Isra, 61.
(15) Yasin, 79.
(16) al-Hijr, 27.
(17) as-Sajda, 7-8.

15 Does denying Allah lie at the bottom of the theory of evolution?

Yes. The basis of this theory claims that living beings formed on their own, not by the creation of Allah.

It is possible to categorize the principles that the philosophy of evolution are based on under four headings:

1. Gradualism (gradual development): The incidents of evolution took place in a very long period of time and step by step.

2. A species came out of another species, or a being from another being.

3. All of the beings living today occurred as a result of the differentiation of a single cell. That is, multicellular invertebrates came out of one single cell; then fish came out of multicellular invertebrates; after that, frogs came out of fish, reptiles out of frogs, birds and mammals out of reptiles; finally, human beings came out of monkeys.

4. All of those incidents happened by chance (coincidentally) and on their own.