Can you prove the existence of Allah through logical proofs?
The proof of something existent is always easier than the proof of something non-existent. We can prove that the species of apple exists by showing only one apple. However, a person who claims that the species of apple does not exist can prove it only by traveling all over the world and even the universe. This is very, very difficult, almost impossible. Then, we can say something nonexistent cannot be proved...
Two proving things are preferred to thousands of negating and denying things. If two people agree on the same fact, the denial of it by the view of thousands of people through their own narrow windows has no significance.
If 999 gates of a palace are open and one of them is closed, nobody can claim that it is impossible to enter that palace. The denier always wants to show that closed gate. In fact, even that gate is closed for the spiritual world of him and those who are like him due to the veil in front of their eyes. There is no closed gate for a believer unless he closes his eyes... Besides, 999 gates are wide open for everybody. Here is that gate and some of the proofs:
1. The Proof of Possibility
The realm is regarded to be possible. That is its existence and nonexistence is equal. It might exist or it might not exist. When it exists, it is possible for it to exist in the form of one of the unlimited possibilities of existence. That is, the non-existent has the possibility to exist as much as the existent. Every possible thing is dependent on a cause outside it. Thus, there is a being that chooses the things to exist, then prefers the form and state of existence to non-existence and to the other possible forms and states. And that being is Allah.
2. The Proof of Huduth (Being Created Later)
The realm is changeable. It is continuously changing. Everything that is changeable was created later. Therefore, matter cannot be pre-eternal. Yes, the incidents like the continuous movement of matter toward non-existence in accordance with the law of thermodynamics, the continuous expansion of the universe, and the continuous movement of the sun toward elimination show that existence has a beginning. Every being that is created later has a creator; there is no effect without a cause and no art without an artist. Causes cannot go on uninterruptedly forever. Then, this material realm, which is continuously changing, which is not pre-eternal, which is created later and which needs a first cause, needs a creator. And that Creator is Allah.
3. The Proof of Life
Life is a transparent enigma. Yes, it is too thought-provoking to be explained through visible causes; and it is transparent since it indicates the Creative Power. Yes, it directly shows and declares its Creator. It is a magical case that fascinates scientists with its enigma and ordinary people with its transparency. Life virtually states the following with its tongue of disposition: "It is only Allah that creates me and lets me exist."
4. The Proof of Order
Every being is harmonious with its own parts; similarly, the whole universe is harmonious with all of the beings that form the universe. This is an unerring proof that informs us about the existence of an order and system and indicates an arranger; and that arranger is Allah
5. The Proof of Art
A fine and stunning art attracts attention in the whole universe, from an atom to man and from a cell to a galaxy. Yes, every art all over the universe has the following properties:
It has a great value of art;
it is very valuable;
it is created in a very short time and very easily;
it is in abundance;
it has a lot of kinds;
it is continuous.
However, things that are seemingly produced in a very short time, in abundance, easily and in a lot of kinds should not be artistic and valuable. However, if the one that produces them is Allah, things change and opposites come together.
6. The Proof of Wisdom and Purpose
Every being has a purpose, aim, benefit and result peculiar to itself; nothing that can be regarded as nonsensical, purposeless, meaningless and extravagant is observed even in a particle. However, the material world, the realm of plants and animals, and things have no consciousness and cognition; they cannot pursue this chain of purposes. Then, we can be regarded as reasonable only if we attribute this conscious operation, this wisdom and these purposes to Allah.
7. The Proof of Compassion and Mercy
The needs of all creatures, especially human beings, are unlimited and their will is almost non-existent. The needs of all needy people are met from unexpected places and unexpectedly; the needs of all creatures are met to the extent that they need, in due quality and amounts. Sending of help and the help that is sent meeting the needs exactly clearly prove that these needs are met by a compassionate being who is closer to man than himself. This systematic compassion, mercy and sustenance, which operates all over the universe and which will operate forever, informs us about and proves the existence of a holy being, who is equipped with the attributes that can do all of these jobs and that is free from incomplete attributes.
8. The Proof of Helping One Another
All of the creatures, from the ones that are very close to one another to those who are very far away from one another help one another. Two different species that have no relation with each other come together as if they are the parts of a whole and complement each other. We should think that bacteria, worms and the soil come together for the same aim and help plants; and this help takes place repeatedly. These activities of these creatures which lack intelligence and consciousness and which astonish the intelligence and consciousness show the wise activities of the Necessary Existence behind the veil. That is, the whole universe says "Allah" with the tongue of helping one another.
9. The Proof of Cleanliness
The cleanliness in the whole universe from the earth to the depths of the sky informs us about the Being with His name al-Quddus, true to His name.
Yes, the bacteria that clean the soil, insects, ants, so many birds of prey, wind, rain, snow, icebergs in the sea and fish, atmosphere in space, black holes in the sky, oxygen cleaning the blood in our body, spiritual breezes that free our spirit from troubles inform us about the name al-Quddus and the Holy Being behind that name.
10. The Proof of Faces
Let us start the issue by dealing with man's face only, which is his most distinctive feature that discriminates an individual from other humans, to make the issue concrete though it is possible to generalize it for all creatures:
The face of a man does not resemble fully the face of any of the billions of people that lived before him by any means. This rule is also valid for the people to come in the future. Drawing billions of pictures which are similar in one aspect but different in another aspect on a very small area and discriminating each one of them from billions of pictures that are impossible to be like it and putting everything in a form within endless ways of possibility is a strong declaration of Allah Almighty, who knows in detail every being that He creates, whose power and knowledge is enough to shape that being in any way that He wishes, even to the people who are deaf. Yes, creating the organs on the face differently from the organs on the other faces, equipping each eye with a feature distinguishing it from the other eyes will show everybody who has conscience the Being who created them and equipped them with endless wisdom.
11. The Proof of Divine Incentive
When a duckling hatches, it can swim. The ants that come out of the cocoon start to dig tunnels immediately. A bee can produce honeycomb, which is a wonder of art, very quickly; a spider can spin a very fine web. We understand from the examples above that they and other animals do things thanks to what is taught to them in another realm and with their inborn abilities. However, man has to learn everything in this world though he is the most talented and perfect creature. That is, the Being that gives the other creatures these properties is not themselves but the Wise Being, who grants them these talents.
The young of the eel whose mother lays eggs so many kilometers away set off as soon as they hatch and find their mothers very easily. How can we explain it but through divine incentive? If this extraordinary state that we see in animals is explained as Allah's gift, only then can it be regarded as a reasonable and logical explanation. Otherwise, any other interpretation is regarded as nonsense.
12. The Proof of Spirit and Conscience
The way how our spirit, whose existence nobody doubts though its real nature is not known, and its functions control our body, is among the evidences that tell us about Allah Almighty. The essence that represents the realm of order in the world is the spirit and it came to this world for progress and improvement. The effect of wisdom on the result is not our topic; so, we find it sufficient to mention only the point that it indicates. The fact that the spirit, which has no connection with the material realm in terms of its nature, was sent to this world from a realm peculiar to it, that it is matured here and that it is carried out through a program is one of the most important evidences that declare the existence of Allah Almighty.
On the other hand, the extra sensory perception in man, turning toward the Lord when there is no apparent reason, and the repetition of similar events millions of times prove clearly that the conscience, which is inherent in man and which is one of the means of finding Allah, is adoringly in love with its Creator and is fully in contact with Him. Besides, is the conscience not one of the unerring witnesses of the Day of Alastu? The conscience says "Allah" due to the necessity of the right of this witnessing.
13. The Proof of Nature and History
The existence of love in every person toward the good and the nice and the existence of the feeling of hatred against the bad and the ugly is a fact that nobody can deny. With their tendency to act ethically and to do good deeds and their nature to avoid immorality and bad deeds, these feelings show that the being that orders man to do good and nice things and that orders him to avoid the bad and ugly deeds is the same being that gives him these feelings. This being is definitely Allah.
The history of religions witnesses that the humanity never had a period without religion. They always believed in a religion even though it was a ridiculous one and followed a spiritual system. Besides, belief is a necessity because it exists in the nature of man. The being that placed this need in the nature of man is the same being that orders us to believe. This being is Allah.
14. The Proof of Feelings
Man is equipped with thousands of feelings. Each feeling has a nature of carrying a message from a realm beyond matter. However, man has another feeling that informs him about Allah Almighty directly. This feeling is the feeling of eternity and infinity. Due to this feeling, man always works hard and struggles for eternity. Nothing that is finite can satisfy him fully. And this feeling cannot have been given to man through the influence of another mortal being. None of the mortal causes can present the drink of eternity. However, its existence is a fact; it is not possible to deny it. Then, this feeling was given to us by the being that created us with that feeling. The being that will give us the eternal life is also that being.
15. The Proof of Agreement
If ten liars came to us and said that our house was on fire, we would believe them saying "perhaps" though we had never heard them telling the truth. For, there is a case of agreement. However, the agreement that we mention is an agreement formed by thousands of prophets, hundreds of thousands of saints, and millions of believers. The first point that these people who lived at different times and in different places agree on is the reality, “Allah exists”. How can a person who believes the lie that ten liars agree on but does not believe the agreement of the prophets, who never told lies, and millions of saints be called a human? How can he be called sane?
16. The Proof of the Quran
All of the evidences proving that the Quran is the word of Allah also prove the existence of Allah Almighty. There are hundreds of evidences proving that the Quran is the word of Allah and they are explained in detail in the resources of the Quran regarding the issue. We refer the proof of the issue to those works. Yes, all of the evidences say with the tongues peculiar to them, “Allah exists”.
17. The Proof of Prophets
All of the evidences proving the prophethood of the prophets and especially the prophethood of Hz. Muhammad (pbuh) should also be included among the evidences indicating Allah Almighty. For, the purpose of the existence of prophets is oneness, that is, declaring the existence and oneness of Allah. Then, the evidences proving the prophethood of each prophet also prove the existence of Allah Almighty. However, listing the evidences proving their prophethood is out of question now; we will not mention them one by one. We find it sufficient to state for the time being that all of the evidences declaring that a prophet is a true prophet utter it more strongly that Allah exists and is one.
Logical Proofs Concerning the Existence of Allah
1. If a carriage is drawn by another carriage, who is drawing the first one? Then, there should be a creator for this universe.
2. Even a letter cannot exist without a writer; how can we imagine humans and universe to be without an owner? In addition, any master of anything is not the same kind of the thing that he makes. For example, the master of a watch does not resemble the watch, and the writer is not like the letter. Thus, the Creator who creates us and the universe should not resemble us and the universe.
3. Will negating the existence of Allah relieve us? On the contrary, this understanding will send us down to a deep abyss. Why, for what, how, and for whom do we live? What happens to us after our death? If there is not another life, where can we find the correspondence of the sense of infinity and desire for living forever? In that case, why have these senses been given to us?
How do sciences mention Allah?
Islam never contradicts science in any issue; on the contrary, it encourages science. The religious sources are replete with the examples of this. There are two books of Allah Almighty; one of them is the Quran, which comes from His Attribute of Speech, the other one is the universe, which comes from His Attribute of Power.
Scientists, whether they believe in Allah or not, read the book of universe and interpret the Creator’s artifacts like the laborers who work without recognizing the owner of the plant! Every branch of science, with a unique tongue of its own, always mentions Allah. For instance, botanical science describes us the traits of trees. It shows how the tree does receive the nutrients from the soil, how it carries them to the leaves, and how the fruits can be formed, and how growth takes place. In this way, we can observe an excellent machine which consists of cells, roots, stem, branches, leaves, flowers and fruit. Besides, it is a living thing.
Now, let us ponder conscientiously: how can the simple soil which is mindless, unconscious, and devoid of knowledge, will and power create this excellent machine? While botanists cannot make only one leaf of a tree even in the huge laboratories, how can a tree, in other words a wood, make these extraordinary flowers and fruits? Does each tree, with its miraculous creation, not demonstrate the One Who is infinite with His Holy Names and Attributes?
Likewise, zoology has opened to our reasons the gates of inner realms of an animal. We have understood that every animal is an extraordinary plant. A poisonous insect produces honey. An insect without hands weaves silk; a sheep without a tongue produces milk. Science has shown us that it is not a mindless sheep’s work to produce a delightful food; namely, milk from simple forage and water. Sheep, bees, silkworms, and all the animals like them are but tools like the brush of a painter, the pen of an author, the hammer of a carpenter. Undoubtedly, the doer of the deed of creating is our Lord, the master of this universe.
By looking through the window of astronomical science,we have observed the position of the earth in the outer space: a huge plane flying around the Sun with projectile speed. It is wingless, motorless, and enormous, and although it flies without a pilot, it turns around smoothly and without noise. Yet, on this planet, the passengers travel peacefully and without being disturbed. Most of the time, they are not aware that they are flying. On the other hand, the earth rotates on its axis. Nights and days, and seasons are the products of this rotation and revolution. It is dangerous if we approach to the sun or we move away from it. It is not only the earth that turns around the sun; the other planets also do the same revolution. It is a simple matter for the earth to collide with one of them. However, we do not observe any fault, and everything is fine. This system has never gone out of order for millions of years.
Is it not necessary for any astronomy student to ponder on this and seek the answers to the following questions?
Who has established this delicate balance? Who made the earth a livable place? While some planes can collide with each other even though they have pilots, which knowledge and power can make these enormous objects rotate and fly without colliding?
Above all, there is a creature among beings, it is a miracle per se; we call him man.
He thinks, imagines, searches, understands, loves, sympathizes and hates.... He has been equipped with thousands of abilities. More importantly, he is conscious of his own being. The universe gets illuminated by his cognizance. Apart from his soul, heart, intellect and imagination, this magnificent living’s material structure is also a masterpiece of art; the best eye, the most convenient hands, the most elegant hair, the most balanced figure, the most moderate height, let us make the long story short, he has been bestowed the best kind of everything..
It has been understood by the medical science that the inner parts of the human body as well as the outer parts of it are extraordinary. It is a genuine masterpiece with its heart pumping tons of blood, with its stomach digesting the food easily, with its lungs that are machines of blood cleaning, with its vessels that are measured by kilometers, and so forth... While a statue shows its sculptor, is it possible for the human body whose beauty has been understood by medical science not to demonstrate its master?
Thus, even though the scientists do not attribute the sources of these sciences to a Creator, each branch of science, with its unique tongue, always mentions Allah. In that case, it is necessary to listen to these branches of science.